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Society for Psychical Research 



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Society for Psychical Research. 



Change in the Staff of the Society, 2 
New Members and Associates, - - 2 
Mooting of tho Council, ... 3 

Private Meeting for Members and 

Associates, 3 

Obituary : Professor Jules Llgeois, 31 
Research in Current Periodicals, 32 


A General Meeting of the Society 



On THURSDAY, JANUARY 28t/i, 1909, at 5 /.;;/. 


" A Preliminary Report on Mrs. Piper's 
Hodgson Control ' 




N.B. Members and Associates will be admitted on signing their names 
at the door. Visitors will be admitted on the production of 
an invitation card signed by a Member or Associate. Each 
Member or Associate is allowed to invite ONE friend. 

2 Journal of Society for Psychical Research. JAN., 1909. 


MR. K. A. H. BICKFORD-SMITH having resigned the post of 
Secretary and Editor at the end of the year 1908, the Council 
have appointed Miss Isabel Newton, formerly Assistant Secretary, 
as Secretary and Sub-Editor, and Miss Johnson Editor, as 
well as Research Officer. 

Correspondence should therefore be addressed in future to 
Miss Newton. 


Names of Members are printed in Black Type. 
Names of Associates are printed in SMALL CAPITALS. 

Bullough, Mrs. Edward, 7 Magdalene Street, Cambridge. 

Dalton, J. H. 0., M.D., The Plot, Adams Road, Cambridge. 

Haggard, Miss S. E., 5 Selwyn Avenue, Richmond, Surrey. 

Pickering, J. F., Camden Ridge, Chislehurst, Kent. 

Platt, Mrs. Hartford, Ingmanthorpe Hall, Wetherby, Yorks. 

Trotter, Mrs., The Hill, Batheaston, Bath. 

AUSTIN, JOSEPH D., 1511 N. Gratz Street, Philadelphia, Pa., U.S.A. 

CAUTLEY, MRS. R. K., Heaton Moor House, Heaton Moor Road, 

near Stockport. 
COLLISON, HARRY, 1 Temple Gardens, London, E.G., and Windham 

Club, S.W. 

DIBBLIE, G. BINNEY, M.A., 17 Elm Park Road, Chelsea, London, S.W. 
INNES, Miss HELEN KATHLEEN, Raemoir, Banchory, N.B. 
KALETA, GEORGES, Griesgasse 27/11, Salzburg, Austria. 
KILROE, ERNEST GILBERT, Ind. Educational Service, c/o Messrs. 

Cox & Co., Parliament Street, London, S.W. 
MANN, THE REV. FREDERIC, Temple Ewell Vicarage, Dover. 
PARKER, COLONEL SIR GILBERT, D.C.L., M.P., 20 Carlton House 

Terrace, London, S.W. 
RAJ, DES, Headmaster of the Montgomery High School, Pasrur, 

Dist. Sialkot, Punjab, India. 

SCRIPPS, THOMAS CECIL, Stock Exchange, London, E.C. 
SMITH, THE REV. CANON J. READER, Bishop's Croft, Birmingham. 
SWAINSON, Miss M,, 7E Oxford and Cambridge Mans., London, W. 
TEICHMANN, MAX, M.A., 33 Grosvenor Road, London, S.W. 
WALKER, PROFESSOR R. B., Ocho Rios, Jamaica, B.W.I. 
WEBSTER, CHARLES KINGSLEY, King's College, Cambridge. 
WILSON, Miss E. M., Holland Lodge, Addison Road, Kensington, 

London, W. 

JAN., 1909. New Members and Associates. 3 


THE 94th Meeting of the Council was held at 20 Hanover 
Square, London, W., on Monday, December 14th, 1908; the 
President, Mrs. Henry Sidgwick, in the chair. There were 
also present Professor W. F. Barrett, Rev. A. T. Fryer, Sir 
Lawrence J. Jones, Sir Oliver Lodge, Mr. J. G. Piddington, 
Mr. St. G. L. Fox Pitt, Mr. S. C. Scott, Mr. H. Arthur Smith, 
Lieut-Colonel G. Le M. Taylor, Dr. C. Lloyd Tuckey, Mrs. 
Verrall, Mr. V. J. Woolley, Miss Alice Johnson, Research 
Officer, and Mr. R. A. H. Bickford- Smith, Secretary. 

The minutes of the last Meeting of the Council were 
and signed as correct. 

Six new Members and seventeen new Associates were 
elected. Their names and addresses are given above. 

The monthly accounts for October and November, 1908, 
were presented and read. 


THE 25th Private Meeting for Members and Associates only was 
held in the large Hall, at 20 Hanover Square, London, W., on 
Monday, December 14th, 1908, at 4 p.m.; the PRESIDENT, MRS. 
HENRY SIDGWICK, in the Chair. 

The meeting was devoted to the discussion of " Cross-Corre- 
spondences." The President, having explained that the papers 
on the subject about to be read by Mr. Podmore, Mr. Dickinson, 
and Mr. Constable were written independently of one another, 
and that therefore for any completion of the discussion it would 
be necessary to look to other speakers, called on Mr. Podmore to 
read the first paper, which was as follows : 



FOR the benefit of those who are not thoroughly familiar with 
the previous reports upon the subject, it will probably be 
convenient if I briefly recapitulate the steps already taken in the 
investigation of cross-correspondences. 

The attempts so far made to decipher the contents of sealed 
envelopes have failed. It is doubtful whether, even if successful, 
they would have afforded convincing proof of the survival of 

4 Journal of Society for Psychical Research. JAN., 1909. 

human personality. Nor can proof of the kind required be 
found in references to past events in the lives of the supposed 
communicators. We can never exclude the possibility that 
knowledge of such past events may have been derived from 
living minds. A similar objection applies to the simpler form 
of cross-correspondences, the attempt to get a test word or phrase 
reproduced by two or more different mediums. Broadly speaking, 
the proof of human survival can be found only in intelligent 
action on the part of discarnate spirits in the present. 

A study of the earlier scripts of Mrs. Verrall, Mrs. Holland 
and Mrs. Forbes suggested to Miss Johnson that traces of 
such intelligent action, the action of an intelligence not that 
of any of the automatists, could be found in certain cross- 
correspondences occurring in these scripts. In Miss Johnson's 
words : " The characteristic of these cases is that we do not 
get in the writing of one automatist anything like a verbal 
reproduction of phrases in the others : we do not even get 
the same idea expressed in different ways, as might well 
result from direct telepathy between them. What we get is 
a fragmentary utterance in one script, which seems to have 
no particular point or meaning, and another fragmentary 
utterance in the other, of an equally pointless character ; 
but when we put the two together, we see that they supple- 
ment one another and that there is apparently one coherent 
idea underlying both, but only partially expressed in each." 

Two examples of this kind of cross-correspondence may be 
briefly recalled to memory. On August 28th, 1901, Mrs. 
Forbes wrote a message purporting to come from her son 
Talbot, to the effect that he was going to control a 
sensitive who wrote automatically, in order that he might 
obtain corroboration of Mrs. Forbes's writing. On the same 
day Mrs. Verrall wrote in Latin : " Sign with a seal. The 
fir tree already planted in the garden gives its own portent." 
The script was signed with a rough drawing of a sword, a 
suspended bugle and two other figures. This script remained 
without meaning for Mrs. .Verrall until months later she 
learnt that there were fir trees in Mrs. Forbes's garden specially 
connected with her son, arid that the badge of his regiment 
was a suspended bugle surmounted by a crown (Proc. 
Vol. XX. p. 223). In another case, Mrs. Verrall, on 

JAN., mo 1 .). Private Meeting for Members and Associates. 5 

March 2nd, 4th, and 5th, 190G, wrote several messages, 
rhirlly in Latin, which showed no intelligible connection to 
her mind, but which MI Bested to Dr. Verrull Raphael's picture 
of Attila before the gates of Koine. On March 7th, two days 
later, Mrs. Holland wrote, " Ave Roma immortalis. How could 
I make it any clearer without giving her the clue?" (Proc. 
Tart LV. p. 297). 

That these enigmatic cross-correspondences were not elaborated 
by the conscious intelligence of either automatist seems clear. 
But Miss Johnson points out another significant circumstance. 
Scattered through the script of the autoinatists, and generally 
in close connection with cases of cross-correspondence, are many 
phrases which, like that quoted from Mrs. Holland, " How could 
1 make it any clearer without giving her the clue ? " seem to 
imply a deliberate design of composing enigmas, the answers 
to which should be found only by " piecing together," or " weav- 
ing together" the corresponding parts of scripts produced by 
different hands. These frequent references, coupled with the 
illustrations of the process actually found in the script, seemed 
to justify Miss Johnson in suggesting " that one and the same 
intelligence, or group of co-operating intelligences, was responsible 
both for the cross-correspondences and for the contemporary 
comments on them" (Proc. Part LV. p. 391). 

Miss Johnson's theory, it will be remembered, was based on 
the study of scripts by Mrs. Verrall and 'others, written before 
the important series of experiments with Mrs. Piper which began 
in November 1906. If we now endeavour to test the theory 
by means of the scripts written during Mrs. Piper's stay in this 
country, we find, in the first place, that with few exceptions the 
successful cross- correspondences recounted in Mr. Piddington's 
paper are clearly not of the complex type described by Miss 
Johnson ; and in the second place that the intelligences of Mrs. 
Piper's trance show nowhere any explicit knowledge of the 
theory of cross-correspondences. 

At the first sitting with Mrs. Piper, Sir Oliver Lodge 
suggested to the Piper- Hodgson that a cross-correspondence 
experiment should be made. The control agreed, and chose 
the words St. Paul. The experiment was successful. The next 
successful cross-correspondence consisted of the words Francis 
and Ignatius: the third, of a geometrical figure a triangle 

6 Journal of Society for Psychical Research. JAN., 1909. 

inscribed in a circle which was suggested by Mr. Piddington, 
and successfully transferred to Mrs. Verrall. The fourth, the 
word Steeple, was apparently inspired by a recent dream of Mr. 
Piddington's. These all are correspondences of the simplest 
possible kind. From this point onwards, however, it will no 
doubt have been observed that the correspondences are for the 
most part of one uniform type. An idea occurs first in Mrs. 
Verrall's script, and is repeated with several variations, as if for the 
purpose of emphasis. A few hours, days, or weeks later, the same 
idea, generally in the form of a single word, is given in Mrs. Piper's 
script, or is spoken by her on coming out of the trance. 

Thus, to quote an instance, at 11 a.m. on the llth March, 
1907, Mrs. Verrall wrote a passage harping on the word 
violet, in . which the following phrases occur : " with violet 
buds," " violaceae," " violet and olive leaf, purple and hoary," 
" the city of the violet and olive crown." On the same day, 
two hours later, Mrs. Piper in the waking stage ejaculated 
Violets. Mrs. Piper's part of the cross-correspondence is 
nearly always later than Mrs. Verrall's, and is always quite 
simple and straightforward, consisting usually of a single word. 
In Mrs. Verrall's script not only, as readers will have seen, is 
the idea emphasised by repetition and variation, but in some cases 
the actual word suggested by the script, which emerges subse- 
quently in Mrs. Piper's trance, is not given is indeed, it would 
almost seem, deliberately suppressed. Thus, on 3rd April, 1907, 
Mrs. Verrall wrote several phrases about wings, " and with 
twain he covered his . face," " the hosts of heaven/' " his flame- 
clad messengers," and finally draws a winged human figure. 
Five days later, one of Mrs. Piper's controls announced : " I 
gave angel," meaning apparently "I gave angel to Mrs. Verrall, 
as the subject of a cross-correspondence." In another case Mrs. 
Verrall's script is full of imagery and allusions conveying the 
idea of death ; but the word death seems to be deliberately 
avoided. Thus, the quotation : " Come away, come away," breaks 
off short before the significant word is reached. 

Now these, and one or two other cases of the kind, unques- 
tionably suggest design. It looks like an attempt at the kind 
of cross-correspondence described by Miss Johnson. But if 
there is design, it must be recognised that the design has 
failed ; the allusions are not sufficiently enigmatic. In the 

JAN-., 1909. Private Meeting for Afenibers and Associates. 7 

last case, it will be remembered, Mrs. Verrall at once inter- 
preted her script as alluding to Death. 

Furthermore, it would appear from the last quoted instance 
that some, at any rate, of the allusive references are not 
due to an external intelligence : for two of the allusions to 
Death are personal to Mrs. Verrall, and would be meaningless 
to an outsider. There is one case, moreover, which is still 
more significant in this connection. On Feb. 19th, 1907, 
Mr. Piddington suggested Giant and Dwarf as the subject 
of a cross-correspondence experiment with Mrs. Verrall. Y 
Piper's control accepted the suggestion, and said he would 
go off at once to execute it. Later, the controls repeatedly 
claimed to have been successful in transferring Dwarf. Mrs. 
Verrall, who was not told of the date of the experiment, 
twice searched the whole of her script written during that period. 
On the first occasion, she failed to find any allusion to 
Divarf. On the second occasion, still in ignorance of the date, 
she found in the script of the 19th Feb., written a few hours 
only after the suggestion had been given to Mrs. Piper, an 
allusion to Dwarf which had escaped her original scrutiny. 
The allusion is contained in the words : 
" A long feather, 

Ask about the feather, 

Up the mountain no, that is 

Owl's feather ; not what I want." 

" Up the mountain " and " owl's feather " suggested to Mrs. 
Verrall, it will be remembered, a very familiar poem, dealing 
with little men, wee folk, or, in other words, fairies. The 
coincidence in time is here so close that it seems probable 
that Mrs. Verrall's script is actually connected with the Dwarf 
of the experiment; and it would seem at first sight that we 
have found here a cross-correspondence of the kind desired : an 
allusion artfully concealed even from the automatist herself. 
But if there were indeed design in this instance, it was not 
the design of external intelligence. For what the Piper controls 
repeatedly claimed to have impressed on Mrs. Verrall was not 
the idea of Dwarf, but the actual letters of the word D.W.R.F. 
So that the imagery in the case was unquestionably supplied 
by the mind of the automatist. 

Few, then, of these later experiments have even a prima 

8 Journal of Society for Psychical Research. JAN., 1909. 

facie claim to be cross-correspondences of the complex kind 
described by Miss Johnson. But the theory, it will be remem- 
bered, was based not merely on a study of individual cases, 
but on numerous allusions made by the controls. 

If the theory is correct, we should expect to find that 
the Piper controls some of -whom purport to be identical with 
the intelligences controlling the other automatists referred to 
would be well acquainted with the scheme of complex cross- 
correspondences. It is, of course, on the theory, a scheme of 
their own invention. 

In connection with this subject let me call your attention 
to the test message and its reception by the Piper controls : 

" We are aware of the scheme of cross-correspondences which 
you are transmitting through various mediums, and we hope 
that you will go on with them. Try also to give to A and 
B two different messages, between which no connexion is dis- 
cernible. Then as soon as possible give to C a third message 
which will reveal the hidden connexion." 

This message was translated into classical Latin, and repeatedly 
dictated word by word at several successive stances to the 
controls. The dictation began on the 17th December, 1906, 
and was not completed until the 2nd January, 1907. The 
Latin is so worded that a person ignorant of the language, 
or even a lower-form schoolboy armed with a dictionary, 
would be unlikely to arrive at the meaning of the whole passage. 
On Jan. 16th, a fortnight after the completion of the Latin 
message, and before a translation was attempted, Mr. Piddington 
tells us that he impressed on the Piper-Myers the import- 
ance of cross-correspondent messages, and expressed the opinion 
that it was " more important to get them than for you 
spirits to give facts about your past lives." To that the 
Piper-Myers replied by asking why so much importance was 
attached to cross-correspondences : for, said he, " if you estab- 
lish telepathic messages, you will doubtless attribute all such 
to thoughts from those living in the mortal body" (p. 318). 
This answer, as Mr. Piddington points out, shows intelligence. 
But it is not, I submit, the intelligence that we should 
expect on the hypothesis that this Piper-Myers is identical 
with the Verrall-Myers. For the answer shows conclusively, 
first, that the Piper-Myers had not grasped the plan of complex 

JAN., 1909. Private Meeting for Members and Associates. 9 

cross-correspondences, which the Verrall-Myers, according to the 
hypothesis, had been actively elaborating for some years previ- 
ously; and secondly, that the Piper-Myers, at that date, 16th Jan., 
1907, had not yet succeeded in translating the Latin message. 

The Piper-Myers makes his first attempt to translate the Latin 
message on the 20th Feb., more than a month later. " It is 
with reference," he says, " to my being a messenger and my 
handing through to you coherent . . . messages" (p. 330). 

A few days later, on Feb. 27th, the Piper-Myers writes: 
" I feel a little perturbed over your message to me when you 
said I [failed] in replying sufficiently to convince you, etc., 
although I, as intermediary, had long since united my ideas." 
Later in the same sitting he makes it clear that this passage 
was intended for a translation of the Latin message: for he 
now gives the translation as follows : 

" Although you as intermediary have long since united mutually 
ideas. You have or do not reply or respond sufficiently to our 
questions as to convince us of your existence" (pp. 332-3). 

These replies show unmistakable knowledge of the meaning 
of some of the individual Latin words, and equally unmistak- 
able ignorance of the meaning of the passage as a whole. 
There is, it will be seen, no reference to cross-correspondences. 

Later the trance intelligence seems to have connected the Latin 
message with cross-correspondences, as indeed under the cir- 
cumstances it or they could hardly fail to do. But it would 
not appear that the true meaning, or an approximation to 
the true meaning, was ever grasped. Thus, so late as the 
27th May, 1907, the Piper-Myers gives as the translation 
of the Latin message the following : " You have long since 
been trying to assimilate ideas, but I wish you to give through 
Mrs. Verrall proof of the survival of bodily death in such a 
way as to make it conclusive " ; and then adds, " He mentioned 
my own words in it, viz. the Survival of Bodily death," i.e. 
words forming part of the title of Myers' last work (p. 394). 

To sum up. It would appear from the reception of the 
Latin message that the Piper controls, though they had somehow 
acquired a knowledge of the meaning of individual words, are 
unable to construe a Latin sentence, and are reduced to 
guesswork. It appears, further, that they have not grasped 
the scheme of complex cross-correspondences. Finally, the 


10 Journal of Society for Psychical Research. JAN., 1909. 

great majority of the individual cross-correspondences fail to 
conform to the complex type. On the other hand, there 
are clear traces of attempts to^ bring about such conformity 
by involving the idea in enigmatic allusions ; and the source 
of these enigmatic allusions can in some cases be clearly 
traced to the mind of the automatist. 

I do not claim that this summary criticism covers the 
whole ground. There are some four or five cross-correspondences 
which do not obviously fall into the category described. But 
the details in these cases are extremely complicated, and the 
interpretation is not merely difficult but ambiguous. Because 
they are ambiguous the clue to the interpretation of these more 
elaborate cases must, it seems clear, be sought in the first instance 
in the analysis of the simpler instances of cross-correspondence. 
We must proceed from the simple to the complex. 



IN discussing this subject the whole of the evidence contained 
in Parts LIIL, LV., LVII. of the Proceedings ought to be 
brought under review. In the present paper limitations of 
time have compelled me to confine myself to the evidence 
presented in Mr. Piddington's paper (Part LVII.) and to 
deal with that in a very summary manner. Four hypotheses 
naturally present themselves as accounting severally or jointly 
for the phenomena to be discussed : (1) Fraud, (2) Coincidence, 
(3) Telepathy, (4) a controlling intelligence or intelligences. 

(1) Fraud I do not consider; partly because it is ruled 
out by all who know Mrs. Piper and the other automatists 
concerned ; but mainly because it could not explain the 
cross-correspondences, unless it were joint-fraud, or conspiracy ; 
a hypothesis which I believe in the present case, no one 
would seriously put forward. 

(2) Coincidence. The difficulty here is to determine the 
probability of coincidence. Perhaps no more can be said than 
that the probability increases (1) with the length of time 
intervening between the dates of the corresponding scripts, 

(2) with the commonness of the word or idea reproduced, 

(3) with the lack of precision in the correspondence. For 
example, taken by itself, such a correspondence as the word 

JAN., i '.>. i. I'l'i'-.ite Meeting for Members and Associates. 11 

mountain given by Mrs. Piper on various occasions in March, 
April, and May, with the phrase " the storied mount " in Mrs. 
Yen-all's script of April 6th (see pp. 230-7), would naturally 
be explained by coincidence. 

On the other hand, in the evidence before us, the corre- 
spondences are sometimes precise, almost coincident in time, 
and dealing with topics not very obvious. Thus on April 
8th at 7 a.m. Mrs. Holland in India writes "do you 
iv member that exquisite sky when the afterglow made the 
east as beautiful and as richly coloured as the west" (p. 265). 
On the same day between 11.30 a.m. and 1.10 p.m. Mrs. 
Piper emerging from her trance gave the phrase " light in west " 
(p. 269). On the same day at 3.10 p.m. Mrs. Verrall wrote 
11 the words were from Maud but you did not understand. 
.Rosy is the east and so on" (p. 271); a reference (with 
substitution of the word east for west) to the well-known 
lyric in Maud. Here, even if these data be taken in 
isolation, the explanation by coincidence seems improbable. 
But to isolate the data is to distort the evidence. For Mr. 
Piddington has been able to work out a connection between 
a number of inter-related topics, of which the above is only 
one, distributed among four different automatists. The chain 
of connection is too complicated to be reproduced here. But 
I presume it has been studied by most of those present; and 
I hardly think that any one who has studied it will hold 
that coincidence is a plausible explanation of the phenomena. 

(3) Telepathy, on the other hand, can put in a very serious 
claim ; and if that hypothesis be indefinitely extended it might 
be held to be a sufficient explanation of all the facts. Some 
of the facts are explicable by direct telepathy from an agent 
to a percipient present in the same room. In these cases 
(1) the agent may consciously have in his mind a word or 
idea, and desire to elicit it from the percipient. When, for 
example, Mrs. Piper gave Plotinus, the author of the Greek 
quotation aurov oupavo? awjuLcov (p. 170) Mrs. Sidgwick, the 
sitter, it must be presumed, had the name in her mind and 
desired to get it. The same remark applies to the appearance 
of the name Alt Vogler at another sitting where also Mrs. 
Sidgwick was the sitter (p. 373). (2) The agent may not 
consciously have in his mind the words or ideas elicited ; but 

12 Journal of Society for Psychical Research. JAN., 1909. 

the telepathy may proceed from his sub-conscious self. Thus 
telepathy is a possible explanation in the cases where Mrs. 
Piper gives correspondences with passages in Mrs. Yen-all's 
script which the sitter has read, even though he may have 
forgotten them. I may quote as an example the correspondence 
of the words uttered by Mrs. Piper on emerging from her 
trance on March 6th "moaning at the bar when I put out to 
sea" (p. 150) with the words written by Mrs. Verrall on 
Feb. 26th "and may there be no moaning at the bar" (p. 114). 
Mr. Piddington having read that script before his sitting 
with Mrs. Piper on March 6th. 

(2) The agent and percipient may be separated by a 
considerable distance ; and there may be no conscious attempt 
to transmit nor any presence in the normal consciousness of 
the ideas actually transmitted. This is clearly a great extension 
of the hypothesis of telepathy ; but it is necessary if some of 
the facts are to be explained by that hypothesis. 

E.g. On Jan. 23rd Mrs. Verrall wrote "Eats star tars and 
so on," and also " ETATS rearrange these five letters or 
again tears 

stare " (p. 61). 

On Jan. 28th she wrote "Aster" (p. 62). 

And on Feb. 17th Miss Verrall wrote 
" a star above it all 

rats everywhere in Hamelin town." And also the word arts 
(p. 68). ' 

If this is to be explained by telepathy, it is unintentional 
telepathy from a distance and it is delayed. There is however 
another correspondence in connection with this anagram which 
is still more remarkable on the hypothesis of telepathy. 
Among the late Mr. Hodgson's papers, at that time in 
America, was one containing the same anagrams, viz., EATES, 
AETS (p. 65). Mr. Piddington had seen, but forgotten a paper 
of Mr. Hodgson's containing the latter of these anagrams ; he 
does not believe that he had seen the former. If he had 
not, the telepathy must be supposed to proceed from some 
other person unknown who had seen Mr. Hodgson's papers. 
If he had, the telepathy may be supposed to proceed from 
him, but without any knowledge or intention on his part. 

JAN., 1909. Private Meeting for Members and Associates. l:; 

In this case, on the hypothesis of telepathy, certain words 
are transmitted unchanged, but in others, and the majority of 
cases contained in this volume, and in the preceding ones 
edited by Mrs. Verrall and Miss Johnson, instead of a direct 
reproduction of simple words or ideas we have an interchange 
of often remote and recondite allusions. Thus, to refer to 
Mr. Piddington's most complicated case, there appear, in Mrs. 
Holland's script of April 8th, the words " east and west, 
Martha and Mary, Leah and Rachel," and " Paradiso " (p. 
265). Leah and Eachel as types of the contemplative and 
the active life, also commonly typified by east and west, are 
the subject of a vision dreamt by Dante previous to his 
passing through the fire and entering the Earthly Paradise. 
In the cantos of the Purgatorio dealing with this episode occur 
the words " GERYON, CYTHEREA, HELLESPONT" which 
have occurred in the scripts of the other automatists and are 
related by a complex series of associations which Mr. Piddington 
has traced. If telepathy be the explanation here, we must 
suppose a number of ideas to be unconsciously and uninten- 
tionally transmitted by an automatist in England to an 
automatist in India and to emerge there in the form of a 
remote and recondite literary allusion. This, I should say, 
is about the furthest possible extension of the hypothesis of 
Telepathy. In my own opinion it is an extension beyond 
what is probable, and the cases to which I have referred, 
taken in connection with others, compel me to have recourse to 
the fourth hypothesis of a directing intelligence or intelligences. 

(4) This hypothesis does not exclude telepathy; but it supposes 
that the telepathy is deliberately controlled by some intelligence 
which is not the normal intelligence of any of the automatists. 
The question remains what intelligence ? Broadly there are 
two possibilities. The intelligence may be what it purports 
to be that of a person or group of persons deceased ; or it 
may be the sub-conscious intelligence of some living person or 
persons for example, of one of the automatists dramatically 
impersonating persons deceased. This latter hypothesis it would 
be, so far as I can judge, impossible definitely to set aside. Not 
only does demonstration in matters so new and strange appear to 
be impossible, but common sense can hardly apply the ordinary 
criteria of probability. Still there are certain considerations 

14 Journal of Society for Psychical Research. JAN., 1909. 

that naturally suggest themselves. In favour of the hypothesis 
that the controlling intelligence is what it purports to be, we 
have: (1) The fact that this is suggested throughout by the 
form of the script. This, of course, is not conclusive evidence. 
The possibilities of dramatisation by the sub-conscious self 
appear to be very extensive, and I don't know that we can 
set a limit to them. At the same time I am myself, as I 
read the evidence, very much impressed by the vraisemblance 
of the spiritistic hypothesis ; and especially by the utterances 
of Mrs. Piper when she emerges from trance. And I think 
that this is a kind of evidence which must be taken into account. 
(2) We know that the group of persons who purport to com- 
municate were intensely interested in the question of the 
survival of bodily death and were in a sense pledged, if they 
survived, to endeavour to give us evidence of the fact (see 
Proceedings, Part LV. p. 375). The kind of phenomena we 
are now getting are, I think it may be claimed, such as 
would be produced by intelligent people anxious to demonstrate 
their existence and their agency but working in a very diffi- 
cult element. Miss Johnson has worked out this point in her 
paper on Mrs. Holland's script, and I need not elaborate it here. 
On the other hand, the hypothesis that the persons professing 
to communicate really do communicate is one which most 
people find it difficult even provisionally to accept. This is 
due partly to the confusion of the script. That, however, 
is not really a strong objection, for it is easy to suggest 
reasons for the confusion, such for example as those put 
forward by Dr. Hodgson in his paper on the Piper phenomena 
(Proceedings, Vol. XIII. pp. 35*7-406). Partly the difficulty 
is due to the failure of the supposed Controls to give inform- 
ation for which they are asked. Why, for example, should 
Myers, if Myers it were, be unable to give a simple reference 
to Horace, Odes, i. 28, when elsewhere he has given quite 
clearly references to the New Testament ? Why cannot he 
translate accurately the simple phrase CLVTOS oupavos OLKV^WV 
instead of paraphrasing its meaning in the words Cloudless 
Sky Horizon ? Why cannot he translate the Latin Message 
instead of giving a very loose suggestion of some part of its 
meaning ? I do not, however, myself lay much stress on 
these points, because we know so little about the conditions 

JAN., 1909. Private Meeting for Members and Associates. 15 

of communication with spirits, supposing such communication 
to be possible. What really makes people hesitate to adopt, 
even provisionally, the spiritistic hypothesis is a great 
weig'ht of prejudice against it. The grounds and justification 
of this prejudice cannot be here discussed. I will only say 
in conclusion that I regard it as unscientific and unphilosophical ; 
and that I think the question ought to be approached with a 
quite open mind, without any bias against the spiritistic view. 



A CYNIC has said that human beings cannot reason : that 
all they can do is to produce arguments in support of their 
personal prejudices or, perhaps, what we may more courteously 
term, their preconceived ideas. Out of respect, then, for the 
preconceived ideas of those who may listen, I must state, 
at the outset, two personal prejudices which govern the argu- 
ments I shall adduce to-night. 

The first is that I am foolish enough to think I do not 
believe but know we have continued personal existence after 
the dissolution of the body in a higher form than that of 
human personality. 

The second is involved in the first : the survival of human 
personality after death is, to me, impossible. There are very 
many, of whom I am one, who believe that human personality 
is no more than a passing manifestation in our time and 
space of some real personality, and that it is this person- 
ality which survives the dissolution of the body, the brain 
and human ideas. Myers himself said, " If an immortal 
soul there be within us, she must be able to dispense with 
part of the brain's help while the brain is living, as with the 
whole of its help when it is dead." (Proceedings S.P.R, Vol. 
IV. p. 260.) 

What do we mean by human personality ? 

If we consider any number of children at the moment 
of birth, we do not speak of their human personalities : their 
human personalities are potential only. What they may be 
at manhood depends largely on environments of wealth or 
poverty, social status and personal opportunity. No one, for 
instance, would deny that the human personality of a Myers 

16 Journal of Society for Psychical Research. JAN., 1909. 

or Gurney was in great part the result of personal environ- 
ments of comparative wealth, social status and opportunity. 
No one, on the other hand, would deny that many a child 
who has grown up into a man, absorbed through life in' the 
mindless labour of the plough, might, if born under a luckier 
star, have evolved into a human personality marked by full 
intellectual development. 

Human personalities, then, appear to many of us to be 
in great measure subjects of the environments of our universe 
in time and space : each human personality appears to be 
distinct from all others only because of the particular evolved 
formation of the material brain of the particular individual. 
So we cannot believe in the survival of human personality 
after the dissolution of the material brain. 

Many of us, also, find in the fact that only the very few 
have opportunity of evolving into the higher forms of human 
personality, that which, on its face, marks an inherent injustice 
in the scheme of nature. If, however, we make the intellectual 
in humanity subjective to what for want of better words in 
definition we may term " will and idea," then, possibly, we 
destroy the reality of this inherent injustice. I submit that 
Schopenhauer's expansion of Kant's reasoning in the Critique 
does not involve us in pessimism. It points rather to Death 
as the Supreme arbitrator between good and evil, those principles 
of contradiction which are always at strife in our phenomenal 

Death is the one touch of nature which makes the whole 
world kin. Death, by dissolving our bodies and our brains, 
frees us from bondage to earth and earthly ideas and sets 
us on a wider, spiritual path, where brotherly love and universal 
sympathy are free and unfettered, Eansomed by Death, we 
at last find our own full self-consciousness. And we find it 
not in ourselves but in others. 

"To see the world in a grain of sand 

And a heaven in a wild flower; 
Hold infinity in the palm of your hand 
And eternity in an hour." 

Weighted by these prejudices I turn to the question of cross- 

We have reports before us, all admirable, from Mrs. Verrall, 

JAN., 1909. Private Meeting /or Members and Associates. 17 

Miss Johnson, and Mr. Piddington. But as that of Mr. 
Piddington makes most strongly for the theory that human 
personality survives, and as I am limited in time, I confine 
myself to a consideration of Mr. Piddington's paper. It must 
be remembered, however, that we have not Mrs. Piper's full 
script before us : it is given to us only in isolated passages. 
And these passages are isolated solely for the purpose of 
illustration and support to Mr. Piddington's strenuous and 
valuable labour in arriving at explicit cross-correspondences. 

The full script would be required before it could be used 
as evidence in support of the fact of our communion with the 
disembodied as personalities higher in form than human per- 
sonalities. But, even as offered to us, I doubt that it supports 
any theory of the survival of human personality, though it 
may possibly favour some theory of the survival of higher forms 
of personality. 

If human personalities survive, then they are phenomenal 
things of cognition like to ourselves. They think in succession 
just as we think, they have ideas in succession as we have ideas. 
And they have memory in succession like to ourselves. 

If, then, these human personalities survive we are justified 
in assuming there can be, what is ordinarily termed, direct 
transference of ideas between them and us. 

But, if this be so, why is it we never find from them 
a direct answer ear-marked to a direct question ? Never 
a simple and direct correspondence ear-marked between the 
script of two automatic writers ? Between the living we 
do get this (apparent) direct transference of ideas note, for 
example, Miss Ramsden's experiment of the white pig with a 
long snout but I cannot find it between the living and the 

Let us assume that Myers, for instance, survives as a human 
personality and judge the recorded facts by the light of that 

Now Myers in these experiments is treated at the outset 
(with Mrs. Piper) as a human personality who can deal with 
words as distinct from feeling or emotion. And he assumes 
to deal with words. For instance (p. 236) he gives to Mrs. 
Piper twelve words, lakes, rivers, etc., which he says he has 
made or will make Mrs. Verrall write. That is, he can think 

18 Journal of Society for Psychical Research. JAN., 1909. 

these 12 words, he can tell Mrs. Piper the 12 words he has 
thought of, he can tell her he intends to give or has given 
them in writing to Mrs. Verrall. 

Then, when he gives some of these words to Mrs. Verrall 
why can he not ear-mark the words he has given as those 
he wanted to give ? He does not do so in any case : at 
times, he even leaves Mrs. Verrall in sheer ignorance of what 
he has done and depends on the extraordinary ingenuity of 
Mr. Piddington to pick out, from a number of others, the 
words intended to be transferred, or to arrive at the fact that 
cross-correspondence exists by recondite analogy. 

Why can he not do with Mrs. Verrall what he has done 
with Mrs. Piper ? And, surely, if he gave the same word 
explicitly to Mrs. Verrall that he gave to Mrs. Piper, the 
evidence of his personal interference would be in form far 
stronger than it, in fact, is (p. 319). 

It is no reply to say " the difficulty lies in the transfer." 
If Myers can give a word so definitely to one, there is no 
reason why he should not if a human personality give it 
as definitely to another. There is not, I think, one case of a 
clear answer ear-marked to a clear question : not one case, for 
instance, where Myers makes Mrs. Piper write, " I shall transfer 
the word crystal to Mrs. Verrall ; " and makes Mrs. Verrall 
write, " Crystal. This word I have transferred to you from 
Mrs. Piper." 

Again, 'in the auro? ovpavos GLKV/JLWV case, Myers at first 
very definitely and persistingly gives Homer's Illiard (sic) 
(p. 166) as the reply to the request for the author's name. 
Who made the mistake ? Myers ? Ultimately Myers gives the 
correct reply " Plotinus." And he expresses great pleasure at 
his success. But how did he know of the success ? Because 
he was told he had succeeded. If he had been told Homer's 
Illiard was the correct answer, I think we must assume he 
would have expressed the same pleasure in assumed success. 
I cannot find evidence that he knew Plotinus was the right 
and Homer's " Illiard " the wrong reply : as a human personality 
he appears not to be objective but fully subjective his very 
personal belief appears to depend on what human beings tell him. 

But this question of Myers's human personality being sub- 
jective to Mrs. Piper or others, as the case may be, has been 

JAN., i 1 .)')!). Private Meeting for Members and Associates. 1IJ 

considered by other speakers. So I shall now only refer to 
Mrs. Yen-all's script. 

What is it that has obliged Mr. Piddington to enter on 
heavy labour which has involved long time and strenuous 
intellectual expenditure in the unearthing of these correspond- 
ences ? It is not that he finds any difficulty with Mrs. Piper ; 
for, with her, the words, the subjects of experiment, are given 
explicitly. His difficulty is with Mrs. Verrall. And that 
arises from the fact that the words are given to her, not 
explicitly, but implicitly. 

Now consider Mrs. Yerrall's script. It consists of (1) passages 
from authors known to her, more or less correctly recorded, 
(2) apparently original imaginative productions for which she 
must have used memory, (3) broken, scrappy sentences which, 
however, generally relate to what is in her memory or result 
from the play of her imagination with what is in her memory. 

In this script Mr. Piddington sometimes finds the word 
wanted. But, I think, whether or not he finds the word wanted, 
the script itself in most of the cases turns on some general 
underlying idea in which the word wanted is involved. 

For instance, consider the script on the bottom of page 196. 
The word Mr. Piddington wants is " Diana." The word Diana 
is itself given, but the script turns on a general idea relating 
to Diana. 

(In the "thanatos" case (p. 302) Mr. Piddington says that if 
the subject of Death was inspired in Mrs. Yerrall from the outside, 
we must conclude that the form was, in part at least, deter- 
mined by the automatist's own mind. I agree, but say the form 
was altogether determined by Mrs. Yerrall's understanding.) 

Now all that appears in Mrs. Yerrall's script was in her 
potential memory before she wrote it, except where the script 
shows also the play of her imagination with her memory. There- 
fore Myers did not originate the script. All he can have done 
is to have so affected Mrs. Yerrall that she recalled in present 
memory the particular passages, or that she exercised her own 
imagination in a particular way. Mrs. Yerrall exercised 
throughout her own understanding (Cousin's reminiscence) : 
Myers's influence (if any) was in affect on her understanding. 
Bear in mind there is no magic in the writing itself: that 
resulted merely from Mrs. Yerrall's exercise of an acquired 

20 Journal of Society for Psychical Research. JAN., 1909. 

art ; even Mrs. Piper could not have written or spoken as she 
has if she had not acquired the art of writing or speaking. 

I have argued against the view that the evidence before 
us suggests communication from the disembodied as human 
personalities. But the evidence of implicit, not explicit corre- 
spondence, remains to be accounted for. 

If the disembodied exist in a state and universe free from our 
limitations of time and space we can still well imagine that 
they may have power to project themselves for communication 
with us on to our limited universe, and speak and appear to 
us as human personalities. And, too, I think, we can well 
imagine their finer and fuller minds can use our minds for 
communication with us. The disembodied cannot use their 
own great organs of mind, with infinite continuum of sound, to 
give us music. They must play on the lilliputian human 
organs, with their finite limits of discrete tones, to make music 
comprehensible to us : they can communicate with us implicitly, 
not explicitly. 

I find, though but dimly, evidence in the cases we consider 
of directive influence from the disembodied. 

A discussion followed these papers. 

MR. J. G. PIDDINGTON said : I shall try to make my 
observations on the three papers to which we have just 
listened as concise as possible. I shall deal with the papers 
in the order in which they were read. 

Mr. Podmore says that with the exception of " St. Paul," 
" Francis and Ignatius," " Triangle within a circle " and 
" Steeple,'' the cross-correspondences " are of one uniform 
type. An idea occurs first in Mrs. Yen-all's script. . . . 
Later the same idea is given in Mrs. Piper's script." It is 
true that Mr. Podmore subsequently qualifies this statement 
and admits that the order of emergence does occasionally 
vary. He does not, however, emphasise the exceptions ; 
whereas I wish to, as I consider them to be too important 
to be slurred over. Thus the cross-correspondences entitled 
in rny paper " Cup " and " Thanatos " occurred first in Mrs. 
Piper's trance- script or speech, next in Mrs. Holland's script, 
and last in Mrs. Verrall's. The " Wordsworth Country " 
topic emerged first in Mrs. Piper's script, and afterwards in 
Mrs. VerralPs. What I take to be the allusions to the 

JAN., 1909. Private Meeting for Members and Associates. 21 

identification of East and West emerged first in Mrs. Holland's 
script, next in Mrs. Piper's waking-stage, and last in Mrs. 
Verrall's script. Moreover, none of the three names Leopold, 
Harold, Silvia which served to reveal a hidden connexion 
between a variety of apparently disconnected topics contained 
in all three scripts appeared in Mrs. Verrall's script at all. 
If, then, Mrs. Verrall's subconsciousness was the originator 
and telepathic transmitter of the concordant ideas distributed 
among the various automatists, and of the clues to their 
interconnexion, one must infer that in some cases it did not 
allow some of the ideas to emerge in her own script until 
they had first emerged elsewhere, and that in other cases 
it did not allow ideas which it had communicated to the 
other automatists to be expressed in her own script at all. 

In Mr. Podmore's opinion the form of the allusions to 
the same subject in the different scripts is not sufficiently 
enigmatic to indicate the intervention of a mind external 
to the automatists. As regards a good many of the cases 
I am disposed to agree with this view ; but I find the 
requisite ' enigmaticalness ' (if I may coin the word) in the 
connexion of thought which links together many of the 
subjects of the cross-correspondences. Of this connexion of 
thought not one of the automatists had the vaguest inkling. 

I agree with Mr. Podmore that there was nothing written 
or spoken by the Piper controls (unless it were, perhaps, 
the words " United we stand, divided we fall ") to show that 
they understood the second sentence of the Latin message. 
But the fact that cross-correspondences of a complex type 
began to make their appearance only after the second sentence of 
the message had been dictated to the controls, suggests though 
it certainly cannot be said to do more than suggest that they 
may have comprehended the second sentence, although they made 
no attempt to translate it. The trance-personalities, be it noted, 
were never requested to translate the Latin Message. What they 
were asked to do was to send an intelligent reply to it. 

The only other remark that I have to offer on Mr. 
Podmore's paper is that I regret that his analysis of the 
cross-correspondences stopped short just at the point where 
their complexity becomes difficult to account for by mere 
telepathic interchange between the automatists. 

22 Journal of Society for Psychical Research. JAN., 1909. 

To turn now to the second paper. " Some of the facts," 
says Mr. Lowes Dickinson, " are explicable by direct telepathy 
from an agent to a percipient present in the same room." 
This is so ; but I would have you observe that in no single 
case of cross-correspondence need the sitter have been the 
agent ; in several cases he could not have been ; and in 
every case one of the automatists may have been. And 
that last statement holds good even in the " Steeple " cross- 
correspondence, where I seem to have a primd facie claim to 
be regarded as the source of Mrs. Piper's knowledge ; for it 
was not until Mrs. Verrall had learnt from me about the 
cross-correspondence which I wrongly imagined had occurred 
between her and Mrs. Holland that the word " Steeple " 
appeared in Mrs. Piper's script. And in this connexion 
part of the context in which " Steeple " was there given is 
of interest : " I thought," wrote Myers P , " you [i.e. J.G.P.] 
gave it at Mrs. Yen-all's." 

Mr. Dickinson cites the quotations from Crossing the Bar 
given by Mrs. Verrall and Mrs. Piper as a possible example 
of thought-transference from the subconsciousness of the sitter. 
But I do not think it a well-chosen instance for these reasons : 
When the quotation from Crossing the Bar was given in 
Mrs. Piper's trance it was closely followed by the utterance 
of the name " Arthur Hallam." Now I, the sitter, had read 
the script of Mrs. Verrall's which contained the concordant 
quotation from Crossing the Bar ; but I had not read a 
script of hers of later date which contained a quotation 
from In Memoriam. This script had in fact been written 
only two hours before Mrs. Piper uttered " Arthur Hallam," 
and had then not been read by any one except Mrs. VerralL 
Hence arises a strong presumption that, if any living person 
was the agent, it was, not I, the sitter, who had seen only 
Mrs. Yen-all's Crossing the Bar script, but Mrs. Yerrall who 
knew the contents both of the Crossing the Bar and of the 
In Memoriam scripts. The cross-correspondences " Laurel 
Wreath " and " Library, my own name and Mrs. Sidgwick's " 
would be better examples of possible thought-transference 
from the sitter's subconsciousness than the quotation from 
Crossing the Bar. 

Incidentally in the course of his paper, Mr. Dickinson 

JAN., 1909. Private Meeting for Members and Associates. 23 

asks : " Why . . . should Myers, if Myers it were, be unable 
to give a simple reference to Horace, Odes, I. 28, when 
elsewhere he has given quite clearly references to the New 
Testament ? " Even if we make the very big assumption 
that because Myers can cast a message delivered to one 
automatist in a certain form he can therefore cast a message 
delivered to another automatist in the same form, and that 
accordingly Myers, had he chosen, could have communicated 
the reference "Horace, Odes, I. 28" through Mrs. Piper, 
there may have been a very good reason why Myers did 
not answer Mrs. Verrall's question about an Ode of Horace 
in so simple a manner. Mrs. Verrall knew that the answer 
to her question ought to be "Horace, Odes, I. 28;" and if 
the answer had been given in that form, Mrs. Verrall would 
at once have been pounced upon as being the guilty telepathic 
agent : and no one would have realized this better than Myers, 
" if Myers it were." The roundabout and involved manner 
in which, as I think, Myers P did answer the question, cannot 
certainly be ascribed to any obvious and easy form of telepathic 
interchange between Mrs. Piper and Mrs. Verrall. 

I will now discuss some points in the third and last 
paper. Mr. Constable asks : " Why is it we never find . . . 
a simple and direct correspondence ear-marked between the 
script of two automatic writers?" I should answer that question 
by denying the assumption on which it is based. We do 
find simple and direct correspondence between two automatists, 
and, as I shall show presently, " ear-marked " too. " Triangle 
within a circle," " Laurel Wreath," " Shadow," and the quotations 
from Crossing the Bar are instances of simple and direct 

Then Mr. Constable goes on to say : " When he [i.e. Myers] 
gives some of these words [i.e. words chosen as the subjects 
of cross-correspondence experiments] to Mrs. Verrall, why can 
he not ear-mark the words he has given as those he wanted 
to give ? He does not do so in any case : at times he even 
leaves Mrs. Verrall in sheer ignorance of what he has done, 
and depends on the ingenuity of Mr. Piddington to pick out 
from a number of others the words intended to be transferred." 

Although in some cases a phrase, word or idea in Mrs. 
Verrall's script, which is reproduced by Mrs. Piper, was not 

24 Journal of Society for Psychical Research. JAN., 1909 

accompanied by any indication of its being the subject of 
a cross-correspondence experiment, in eleven cases at least a 
sufficiently clear indication was given, as will be seen from 
the following list, in which I give, first, the title of the 
cross-correspondence, and, second, the phrase in Mrs. Yen-all's 
script which indicates that a counterpart is to be looked for 
in another script. 

(1) "Library, my own name and Mrs. Sidgwick's." 

" I will give the message elsewhere too today . . . 
wait for their answer." 

(2) "Laurel Wreath." 

"No more today await the better news that brings 
assurance with a laurel crown." 

(3) "Arrow." 

Drawing of three arrows followed by the words " tria 
convergentia in unum." 

(4) Crossing the Bar. 

" I think I have got some words from the poem written 
down if not stars and satellites, another phrase will 
do as well. And may there be no moaning at the 
bar my Pilot face to face." 

(5) Hercules Fur ens of Euripides. 

"Ask elsewhere for the BOUND HERCULES." 

(6) "Angel." 

Drawing of an angel followed by the words " F.W.H.M. 
has sent the message through at last ! " 

(7) "Azure" and "Horizon." 

"We will try to give the message to them. It has 
come first to you." 

(8) "Shadow." 

" Let Piddington know when you get a message about 

(9) "Laus Deo." 

" Laus in aeternum Aeterno Deo " followed by allusions 
in Greek to the combination of like parts. 

(10) "Fairy." 

" Faery lands forlorn " followed by the words " I will 
try to get the idea elsewhere conveyed but it is hard 
and I know I have failed before." 

JAN., I:H)!. Private Meeting for Members and Associates. 25 

(11) "Light in West." 

" You will find that you have written a message for 
Mr. Piddin^Lon which you did not understand but he 
did. Tell him Unit." 

Moreover, emphasis was in several instances thrown on the 
important word by means of repetition or by the use of capital 
or large letters. 

Mr. Constable, then, is not justified in saying that the 
words to be transferred were not ear- marked in any case. 
And although he is justified in saying that " at times Myers 
leaves Mrs. Verrall in ignorance of what he has done," still 
the equally important fact must not be lost sight of, that in 
many instances Mrs. Verrall's script contained quite sufficiently 
explicit indications of what ;< the words to be transferred" were. 

Mr. Constable is of opinion that " if he [Myers] gave the 
same word explicitly to Mrs. Verrall that he gave to Mrs. 
Piper, the evidence of his personal interference would be in 
form far stronger than it, in fact, is." I disagree in toto ; 
and I would on the contrary maintain that if the cross-corre- 
spondences had throughout consisted of exact verbal coincidences, 
the evidence for direct telepathy between the two automatists 
would be far stronger. It is the obliquity of the coincidences 
that suggests the intervention of some third mind. 

SIR OLIVER LODGE said that he welcomed the frank discussion 
of the subject of cross-correspondences from various points of 
view, since he regarded the subject as one eminently worthy 
of discussion and likely to be treated as of considerable 
importance in the future. The discussion could only be fully 
followed by those who had made some study of the recent 
Proceedings ; and he could assure the members of the Society 
that they were well worth study. 

He thought that Mr. Constable's paper rather led away 
from the immediate subject by introducing a question as to 
location of personality, whether it lodged in the human beings 
or automatists concerned, or whether it belonged in any degree 
to the ostensible communicators. This question at the present 
stage did not seem to him important; the real 
discussion was whether the phenomenon as 
be explained by telepathy from living people or by 
tion and dramatic simulation by the unconscious or 


26 Journal of Society for Psychical Research. JAN., 1909. 

self of the automatist. It was to fulfil the function of deciding 
between these three hypotheses that cross-correspondences were 
designed, and for this purpose the more complex and ingenious 
they were the better. 

He therefore opposed Mr. Constable's plea for greater 
simplicity and directness, and favoured Mr. Podmore's plea 
for greater subtlety and obscurity. A direct and simple 
cross-correspondence, say for instance such a sentence as : 
" A pig with a white-nosed snout," appearing in two places 
at once, would support the argument for ordinary telepathy, 
such as operated in the case of Miss Miles and Miss Eamsden 
for instance. In order to make an effective cross-correspondence 
such as would justify as a working hypothesis the postulation 
of the activity of the intelligence, say of F. W. H. Myers, what 
was required was something so ingeniously wrapped up that it 
would convey no impression to either automatist alone ; but 
when put together by a third person, or, still better, by the help 
of another communication through a third automatist, and then 
criticised by a fourth person, would result in full arid lucid 
meaning, and if possible a meaning which should involve wide 
literary knowledge and recondite classical allusions. 

Such cross-correspondences he thought we had now got ; and 
the ingenuity and subtlety and literary allusiveness made the 
record difficult to read, even when disentangled and presented 
by the skill of Mr. Piddington. 

; He was quite sure that the correspondences were not invented 
by Mr. Piddington, but were detected by him as already existing 
in the script. 

The only fault he found with Mr. Podmore's paper was that 
he concentrated attention on the simpler and less important 
correspondences, and seemed to ignore those which more clearly 
satisfied the conditions desired, saying that these must be 
interpreted in terms of the simpler. From that conclusion 
Sir Oliver Lodge dissented, holding that the phenomenon 
presented to our observation must be studied in its complexity 
and entirety ; since, as was now clear, complexity was of the 
essence of the matter. 

MR. ST. G. LANE Fox PITT held that the result of these 
experiments had been so far the clear demonstration of the 
fact that there were vehicles through which conscious intellectual 

JAN,, IWM. Private Meeting for Members and Associates. 27 

life could function other than the physical brain. That in 
itself was an achievement of undoubted scientific importance. 

The next step was to discover the laws by which the 
observ.ed phenomena were governed. He deprecated the use 
of such expressions as " external intelligences," " Spirit identity," 
;mtl "Spirit hypothesis" as being devoid of any real meaning. 
He suggested that much light could be thrown on the subject 
of the manifested intelligences by the consideration of psychical 
phenomena within the experience of all, namely dream per- 
sonalities. These often seemed quite real to our sleeping 
consciousness. They seemed to be endowed with reasoning 
powers, with knowledge, which was sometimes beyond that of 
our waking capacity, and very often with an appearance of 
independence and egoistic self assertion which was quite 
surprising. Mr. Fox Pitt said he believed that our subliminal 
minds, not being limited and conditioned in the same way as 
the normal supraliminal mind, were capable of assimilating 
ideas and thoughts from other subliminals, and possibly also 
from what might be called the surviving psychic reliquiae of 
deceased personalities. Subliminals seemed at times to be 
able to coalesce with one another so as to generate in a psychic 
vehicle what had all the appearance of distinct and separate 
personalities, capable of manifesting themselves through and 
even of " controlling " a living organism. Such " entities " might 
possibly account for the alleged materialisation phenomena. 

THE HON. JOHN HARRIS suggested that the hieroglyphic signs 
in the script printed on p. 68 of Proceedings, Vol. XXII., 
could be interpreted as a combination of illiterate Arabic and 
Hindostani, and that the meaning would then be : " Shut up ; 
it is not in our agreement ; that is the end of it." 

MRS. VERRALL replied: With regard to Mr. Harris's point, 
I have heard it suggested that the script in question is 
Persian, and that it is shorthand, and I have received two 
interpretations neither complete of its meaning in shorthand. 
But, for the present, it seems safer to suppose that it is 
mere scribble. 

Mr. Podmore drew attention to the number of cases of 
cross-correspondences between Mrs. Piper and myself, in which 
the first emergence was in my script, and both he and Mr. 
Constable commented on the comparative simplicity of the 

28 Journal of Society for Psychical Research. JAN., 1909. 

expressions used in Mrs. Piper's trance compared with the 
elaborate allusiveness found in my automatic writing. 

The statistics as to priority of emergence are as follows : 
The 24 l cases in which Mrs. Piper was concerned consist of 
16 double cases (i.e. involving one other automatist) and 8 triple 
cases (that is, involving two other automatists). In the 16 
double cases, Mrs. Piper was first 4 times, Mrs. Holland 
once, viz. in the only case in which she took part, and I 11 
times out of the 14 in which I took part. In the 8 triple 
cases Mrs. Piper was first in 2 (thus keeping the same ratio 
to her total), Mrs. Holland was first in 2 out of 5, and I 
in 4 out of 8. It is thus noticeably true not so much that 
I was first, for Mrs. Holland's priority in the triple cases is 
almost as marked but that Mrs. Piper was second. 

The reason for this is probably due to the same cause that 
accounts for the brevity and directness of her sayings. There is 
a great difference in the circumstances of Mrs. Piper's script on 
the one hand and Mrs. Holland's and mine on the other. Mrs. 
Piper is in trance, and therefore (1) unconscious of what she 
produces, (2) kept to the point by questions from the sitter 
in charge. The complete consciousness on my part of each 
word as it emerges though never of the general sense 
probably checks distinctive phrases and tends to produce 
vagueness, and in the absence of questions from a bystander, 
repetition is an obvious means of bringing out the points by 
emphasis. Under these circumstances it is clearly easier to 
produce a plain statement through Mrs. Piper ; and since it is 
safer not to prophesy until you know, the plain statement 
tends to take the form " Such a one has written," rather than 
" will write," so and so. 

It is true, as Mr. Podmore has said, that the majority of 
the cross-correspondences are not of the complex type desired, 
and demanded in the " Latin Message." But several of them 
are more than mere repetitions, in varying form, of the same 
idea. Of two in particular I should like to speak, "Thanatos" 
(No. XXI.) and " Abt Vogler " (Nos. III. and VI.). 

On April 16th Mrs. Holland's script contained, after two 
words of similar sound, " Maurice," " Morris," the Latin word 

1 Omitting Nos. IV., XV., and counting two cross-correspondences each in 
Nos. XL, XII., and XVII. of Mr. Piddington's Report. 

JAN., r.toi). Private Meeting for Members and Associates. 

for Death, " Mors," followed by a phrase referring to the idea 
of Death. On April 17th, in the waking-stage, Mrs. Piper 
uttered the sounds, " Sanatos, Tanatos," and on April 23rd, 
"Thanatos," the Greek word for Death. On April 29th my 
script consisted of four literary quotations, all involving the 
notion of Death, the last of them being the famous passage 
in Horace (Od. I., 4), whose rhythm and alliteration imitate 
the sudden interruption of the dance of the Graces, " imminente 
lima," by the sound of the approaching footsteps in the Dance 
of Death : " Pallida mors aequo pulsat pede pauperum tabernas 
llrii'iinique turres." 

It cannot be accident which combines in each case a sug- 
gestion of sound with the idea of Death, and makes use of 
the three different languages through the three automatists. 

In the case of " Abt Vogler " we have a cross-correspondence 
of the complex type desired. The dates here are important. 
On January 2nd the delivery of the u Latin Message " was 
complete. On January 16th Mr. Piddington spoke to the 
Piper controls of the importance of cross-correspondences, and 
suggested the drawing of a triangle within a circle to show 
that a script formed part of a cross-correspondence. On 
January 23rd and 28th my script contained allusions to Hope, 
Star and Browning's Abt Vogler, and on February 3rd and 17th 
Miss Verrall's script alluded to star and Browning. On Feb- 
ruary llth, before the completion of Miss Verrall's allusion, 
but after its beginning, the Piper controls announced as a 
cross- correspondence "Browning, Hope, and Star," and on 
March 6th and thenceforward persistently they claimed that 
this particular cross-correspondence was " an answer to the 
Latin Message ; " in other words, a cross-correspondence of the 
complex type. 

Is this claim justified ? Is something discoverable by putting 
the statements together that is not discoverable from any single 
one of them ? I think this is so. Mrs. Piper describes the 
cross-correspondence as " Browning Hope and Star." Hope 
appears in my script as a mis-quotation in a line of Abt Vogler, 
but does not appear in the poem at all. Browning and Star 
appear in both my script and my daughter's. The emphasis 
in my script among Browning's poems is plainly on Abt Vogler, 
but there is no indication in my script as to which, if either, 

30 Journal of Society for Psychical Research. JAN., 1909. 

of the lines in that poem which refer to a star underlies the 
general thought. 1 The lines are : 

Stanza IV. 

"Not a point nor peak but found and fixed its wandering star." 

Stanza VII. 

"That out of three sounds he frame not a fourth sound but a star," 

But given that one of these two lines is to be indicated, Miss 
Verrall's script settles the point beyond dispute. The star is 
"the sign;" there is "heavenly harmony," "the diapason," "the 
mystic three," " above it all is the star." Thus while my script 
determines the poem, my daughter's script determines the line. 
But her script alone does not determine the poem. It is only 
by combining her script with mine, and by interpreting them 
on the lines suggested by the three words of the Piper controls, 
that we see the point of this complex cross-correspondence, and 
find that the whole is something more than the sum of the 

Moreover, to this, the first cross-correspondence since January 
16th, is appended the distinguishing sign suggested by Mr. 
Piddington, a triangle within a circle, ingeniously connected 
with Browning's poem of Alt Vogler. Thus, though the first 
emergence of the allusion is in my script, the whole experiment 
must be dated from the suggestion of the geometrical figure to 
the Piper controls on January 16th, and therefore the cross- 
correspondence does not originate with me. 

It is true that the Piper controls did not succeed in trans- 
lating the " Latin Message," but they did better ; they acted 
upon it. In immediate response, and by the method desired, 
carne an unmistakable allusion to the line in Alt Vogler : 
" That out of three sounds he frame, not a fourth sound, but a star." 

It is manifest that the verse thus indicated is singularly 
appropriate as the subject of a cross-correspondence of the 
particular type desired, so that the choice of topic no less than 
the method of conveyance points to an intelligent response to 
the request of the experimenters, and justifies the claim of the 
Piper controls that this particular cross-correspondence was 
intended as an " answer to your Latin message." 

x The quotations from the poem in my script are from Stanzas IX., X., XII. 

JAN., im Obituary. 31 



Members of the S.P.K. will have heard with profound regret 
of the tragic death of Professor Lie'geois of Nancy. While 
spending his holiday last autumn in the Vosges he was run 
over and killed by a motor car before the eyes of his wife, 
with whom he was walking on a quiet country road. 

Dr. Lie'geois was Professor of Jurisprudence in the University 
of Nancy, and a distinguished lawyer. He was one of the trio 
of eminent men occupying chairs in that university Lie'geois, 
Bernheim, and Beaunis who followed the teaching of Lidbeault 
and did so much to place the study and practice of hypnotism 
on a sound and scientific basis. In his first monograph on the 
subject, La Suggestion et le Somnambulisme dans leurs rapports avec 
la Jurisprudence et la Me'decine Ugale, a work which had a great 
sale and aroused much interest when it appeared in 1889, he 
tells how, in 1878, his attention was first drawn to the question 
of hypnotism, and he was shortly afterwards introduced to Lid- 
beault. at that time ignored by the Faculties. He soon realised 
the importance of suggestion from a legal as well as a medical 
point of view, and his experiments on Liebeault's somnambules are 
among the best reported. Professor Beaunis said of him that of 
all the authors who have investigated hypnotic phenomena none 
has drawn a picture of such extraordinary clearness and exactitude. 
Liegeois took a prominent part in the famous trial of Gabrielle 
Bompard in 1889. This young woman was charged with 
murder under sensational circumstances, and Liegeois contended 
that she had acted under hypnotic suggestion. He urged that 
she should be hypnotised and made in the hypnotic state to 
react the crime and divulge the name of the hypnotiser. 
He argued the case with much eloquence, and at great length, 
before the Paris tribunal, but he was not allowed to put his 
theories to the test, and the prisoner was found guilty and 
sentenced to a long term of imprisonment. This case illustrates 
the views Lie'geois took up and strenuously held to the end, 1 
that under hypnosis a certain proportion of somnambules are 
so dominated by suggestion that they become mere automata 

1 These views are set forth at length in his book U Hypnotisms, et les Suggestions 
Criminelles, 1898. 

32 Journal of Society for Psychical Research. JAN., 1909. 

to execute the commands of the hypnotiser ; and that the 
existence of this power for evil should be recognised and 
guarded against. As a safeguard he advised that very hypno- 
tisable subjects should be protected from abuse of suggestion 
by being told that they must never be hypnotised except with 
their written consent and in the presence of a member of 
their family, advice which is found to be efficacious and 
which is largely acted upon. Dr. Liegeois was a corresponding 
member of the S.P.R., and was personally known to many of 
our members, who can speak of his genial personality and 
kindly hospitality. He was always ready to help inquirers by 
his experience and advice ; and he will be missed by a large 
circle of friends in all parts of the world. 

In addition to the books already referred to, Liegeois con- 
tributed papers on the same subject to various scientific 
societies and international congresses, and at the time of his 
death was preparing for publication a large and important 
work elaborating his theories of the condition prime et seconde. 



WE should like to draw the special attention of our readers 
to an article by our late President, the Right Hon. G. W. 
Balfour, in the Hibbert Journal for January 1909, entitled 
" Some recent investigations by the Society for Psychical 
Research." This deals with the question of cross-correspondences, 
giving a summary, which will be very useful to students of the 
subject, of some of the most complicated cases in Mr. Piddington's 
report, with a lucid presentment of the problems involved. The 
same number of the Hibbert Journal contains an interesting 


article by Mr. John W. Graham, Principal of Dalton Hall, 
University of Manchester, discussing especially the characteristics 
of the " Myers control " as represented in the scripts. The 
subject of cross-correspondences is also dealt with by Mrs. 
Verrall in the New Quarterly for January. 

In the Contemporary Review for the same month appears an 
article on " The Pedigree of Christian Science," by Mr. Podmore. 




Society for Psychical Research. 



New Members and Associates, - - 83 

Annual General Meeting of Members, 34 

Meeting of the Council,- - 35 

General Meeting, 30 

Report of the Council for the year 1908, 36 
Account of Receipts and Expenditure 

for 1908, 


Endowment Fund for Psychical Re- 
search, Account for 1908, - 89 

Edmund Gurney Library Fund, Ac- 
count for 1908, 39 

Case, 41 

Supplementary Library Catalogue, - 47 


Names of Members are printed in Black Type. 
Names of Associates are printed in SMALL CAPITALS. 

Fabbri, Alessandro, 11 East 62nd Street, New York City, U.S.A. 
Fabbri, Ernesto G., 11 East 62nd Street, New York City, U.S.A. 
Kittel, Theodor Bruno, Vane House, Hampstead, London, N.W. 
Millard, Mrs. Almira B., 2505 Farnam Str., Omaha, Neb., U.S.A. 
Piercy, Major B. H., March wiel Hall, Wrexham. 
Stuart, A. I., I.C.E., C.I., 24 Marlborough Eoad, Southport, Lanes. 
Turner, A. Hilgrove, H.M. Attorney-General for Jersey, Gouray 

Lodge, Jersey. 

Weinberg, Harry J., North Road, The Park, Nottingham. 
ARNOLD, MAJOR ERNEST C., Junior United Service Club, Charles 

Street, London, S.W. 

BACON, MRS. SEWELL, 59 Shrewsbury Road, Oxton, Cheshire. 
BERG, Miss HELENE, 38 Gower Street, London, W.C. 
BUTTERWORTH, Miss ADELINE M., The Bungalow, West Kirby, 

CARPENTER, Miss ALICE CAROLINE, 1 Perrin Road, Brookline, 

Mass., U.S.A. 
COXETER, HAROLD, 34 Holland Park Road, Kensington, London, W. 

34 Journal of Society for Psychical Research. FEB., 1909. 


Methley, Leeds. 

DAWES, Miss ELIZABETH A. S., Heathlands, Wey bridge, Surrey. 
ELLIOTT, CAPTAIN W. RUPERT, Sherbrooke, Quebec, Canada. 
EMMERSON, ROBERT, M.D., Calle Victoria 714, Chihuahua, Chih., 

GEARN, DR. GEORGE C., 2545 Front Street, San Diego, California, 

GRAVESON, Miss CAROLINE, Goldsmiths' College, New Cross, 

London, S.E. 

GRIEVESON, Miss ETHEL, 15 Upper Cheyne Row, Chelsea, S.W. 
HARRISON, Miss JANE E., LL.D., D.Litt., Newnham College, Cam- 
HASTINGS, REV. JOHN HAROLD, The Manor House, Halton, 


KRESS, Miss ANNE, Lock Haven, Pa., U.S.A. 
LANE-POOLE, STANLEY, M.A., Litt.D., Dunganstown Castle, Wicklow, 


LIBRARIAN, The Mercantile Library, Philadelphia, Pa., U.S.A. 
NEWTON, REV. R. HEBER, East Hampton, Long Island, U.S.A. 
PITZIPIOS, G. D., H.B.M. Consulate, Chinkiang, China. 
SAUNDERS, Miss E. R., Newnham College, Cambridge. 
SAUNDERS, W. E., Riovista, Torresdale, Philadelphia, Pa., U.S.A. 
ScoTT-MoNCRiEFF, WILLIAM GEORGE, Edgemoor, Lanark. 
STRAIN, Miss E. H., Cassillis House, Maybole, Ayrshire. 
THOMAS, Miss EDITH J., Mynydd Ednyfed, Criccieth, N. Wales. 
WASTELL, MRS., The Rowans, Crowborough, Sussex. 
WILLIAMS, MRS. S. R., 12 Lome Road, Oxton, Cheshire. 


THE Annual General Meeting of Members of the Society was 
held at 20 Hanover Square, London, W., on Thursday, January 
28th, 1909, at 4 p.m.; the President, Mrs. Henry Sidgwick, 
in the chair. There were also present : Mr. W. W. Baggally, 
Professor W. F. Barrett, Sir William Crookes, the Rev. A. T. 
Fryer, Sir Lawrence Jones, Mr. St. G. L. Fox Pitt, Miss 
Scatcherd, Mr. S. C. Scott, Mr. A. F. Shand, Mr. H. Arthur 
Smith, Lieut.-Colonel G. L. Le M. Taylor, Dr. A. Wallace, 
Miss Alice Johnson, Research Officer, and Miss Isabel Newton, 

n0!. Annual General Meeting of Members. 35 

The Report of the Council for the year 1908 was read, 
and is printed below. The audited account of income and 
expenditure for the year 1908 was presented and taken as 
read, and is also printed below. 

The Chairman announced that the six retiring Members 
of the Council offered themselves for re-election. No other 
nominations having been received, the following were declared 
to be duly elected Members of Council : the Right Hon. G. W. 
1 '.Mil our, Mr. E. N. Bennett, M.P., the Earl of Crawford and 
Balcarres, K.T., F.R.S., Sir Oliver Lodge, F.R.S., Mr. H. Arthur 
Smith, and Sir J. J. Thomson, F.R.S. 


THE 95th Meeting of the Council was held at 20 Hanover 
Square, London, W., on Thursday, January 28th, 1909, at 
3.30 p.m., the President, Mrs. Henry Sidgwick, in the chair. 
There were also present : Mr. W. W. Baggally, Professor W. F. 
Barrett, Sir William Crookes, the Rev. A. T. Fryer, Sir Lawrence 
Jones, Mr. W. M'Dougall, Mr. St. G. L. Fox Pitt, Mr. Sydney 
C. Scott, Mr. A. F. Shand, Mr. H. Arthur Smith, Lieut.-Colonel 
G. L. Le M. Taylor, Miss Alice Johnson, Research Officer, 
and Miss Isabel Newton, Secretary. 

After considering their Report for the year 1908, the Council 
adjourned for the Annual General Meeting of Members of 
the Society, and re-assembled at the conclusion of that meeting. 

The minutes of the last meeting of the Council were then 
read and signed as correct. 

The proceedings of the Annual General Meeting were reported. 

On the proposal of Professor W. F. Barrett, seconded by 
Mr. H. Arthur Smith, Mrs. Henry Sidgwick was re-elected 
President of the Society for the year 1909. 

Mr. H. Arthur Smith was re-elected Hon. Treasurer ; the 
Hon. Everard Feilding, Hon. Secretary ; and Mr. Arthur Miall, 
Auditor for the current year. 

The following were co-opted as Members of the Council 
for the year 1909 : JVJessrs. W. W. Baggally and G. Lowes 
Dickinson, the Rev. A. T. Fryer, Sir Lawrence Jones, Mr. 
W. M'Dougall, Professor Gilbert Murray, Dr. F. C. S. Schiller, 
Mr. A. F. Shand, and Mr. V. J. Woolley. 

36 Journal of Society for Psychical Research. FEB., 1909. 

Committees were elected as follows, with power in each case 
to add to their number: 

Committee of Reference : Professor W. F. Barrett, Sir William 
Crookes, the Hon. Everard Feilding, Dr. W. Leaf, Sir Oliver 
Lodge, Mr. J. G. Piddington, Mr. F. Podmore, Lord Rayleigh, 
Mrs. H. Sidgwick, Mrs. A. W. Verrall, and Miss Jane Barlow. 

Library Committee : The Hon. Everard Feilding, Mr. J. 
G. Piddington, Mr. F. Podmore, and Dr. C. Lloyd Tuckey. 

House and Finance Committee : Mr. W. W. Baggally, the 
Hon. Everard Feilding, Mr. J. G. Piddington, Mr. Sydney 
C. Scott, Mr. H. Arthur Smith, and Lieut.-Colonel Le M. 

Corresponding Members and Honorary Associates were 
elected for the year 1909, Professor H. Bergson being added 
to the list of Corresponding Members. 

Eight new Members and twenty-seven new Associates were 
elected. The names and addresses are given above. 

The monthly account for December, 1908, was presented and 
taken as read. 


THE 133rd General Meeting of the Society was held in the 
large Hall at 20 Hanover Square, London, W., on Thursday, 
January 28th, 1909, at 5 p.m.; the President, Mrs. Henry 
Sidgwick, in the chair. 

PROFESSOK WILLIAM JAMES'S " Preliminary Eeport on Mrs. 
Piper's Hodgson Control " was read by MR. J. G. PIDDINGTON ; 
in it Professor James described the earliest communications 
purporting to come from Dr. Hodgson, and gave in detail a 
few of the most salient incidents of that period, with a dis- 
cussion of the evidence for and against their supernormal 
character. It is hoped that the whole Report will appear 
later in the Proceedings. 


THE membership of the Society has again increased consider- 
ably during the year. 37 new Members were elected and 
one Associate became a Member ; 117 new Associates were 

FEB., 1909. Report of the Council. 37 

elected and 9 Members became Associates. On the other 
hand, the total loss in numbers from various causes was 30 
Members and 82 Associates, leaving a net increase of 52. 
The total membership has now reached 1190, the numbers being 
distributed as follows: Members 290 (including 25 Honorary 
and Corresponding Members); Associates 900 (including 15 
Honorary Associates). 

During this year two long reports have been issued on the 
automatic scripts of Mrs. Holland, Mrs. Piper, Mrs. Verrall, 
and Miss Verrall. These scripts, as is well known, have in 
late years greatly developed in interest and complexity, and 
the second report in particular shows what laborious and pene- 
trating . study and comparison of the different scripts with one 
another are required to bring out their significance. A con- 
siderable amount of public interest has been aroused by the 
reports, as shown by articles in the Spectator, Nation, Hibbert 
Journal, New Quarterly, etc., as well as by unusually large 
sales to outsiders of the Proceedings containing them. Experi- 
ments are being actively continued with all the automatists 
concerned and much fresh material has accumulated which it 
is hoped may be presented to the Society before long. 

Among other work undertaken by members of the Society 
during the year, we may mention a fresh series of experiments 
in thought-transference at a distance carried out by Miss Miles 
and Miss Kamsden, an account of which was given at one of 
the Private Meetings and printed in the Journal for June ; 
and an enquiry into the alleged miraculous nature of certain 
hailstones that fell at Kemiremont (Vosges) in May, 1907, and 
were said to have an image of the Virgin imprinted on them. 
The expenses of this enquiry were generously defrayed by a 
Member of the Society who took a special interest in the case; 
and the investigation was carried out by Monsieur M. Sage, 
whose report will appear in Part LVI. of the Proceedings. 

In November the Council commissioned Mr. Feilding to 
undertake a series of sittings with Eusapia Paladino at Naples. 
He was accompanied by Mr. Here ward Carrington, and Mr. 
Baggally afterwards joined them. Eleven sittings were held 
during November and December, and it is hoped that a full 
report of the investigation will appear in the Proceedings. 

In May the Council adopted a scheme for the establishment 

38 Journal of Society for Psychical Research. FEB., 1909. 






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40 Journal of Society for Psychical Research. FEB., 1909. 

and recognition of Local Sections of the Society under condi- 
tions specified in the Journal for June, and a Local Section was 
then founded at Dublin, with the Eev. Dr. Barlow, late Vice- 
Provost of Trinity College, as Chairman, Professor Barrett, F.E.S., 
as Vice-Chairman, and Mr. E. E. Fournier d'Albe, B.Sc., as Hon. 
Secretary. This Section has now a membership of 75, and 
the Council look forward to valuable results from the vigour 
and activity already shown by it. 

In June the offices of the Society at 20 Hanover Square 
were enlarged by the addition of a convenient room for the 
Kesearch Officer, for whom up to that time accommodation had 
had to be found elsewhere. 

Mr. E. A. H. Bickford-Smith resigned the post of Secretary 
and Editor at the end of the year. The Council have appointed 
Miss Isabel Newton, formerly Assistant Secretary, as Secretary 
and Sub-Editor, and Miss Johnson, Editor as well as Eesearch 

The Council record with regret the death of their original 
Secretary, Mr. E. T. Bennett, who had served the Society faith- 
fully for twenty years. 

Two General and four Private Meetings of the Society (for 
Members and Associates only) were held during the year. The 
dates and the subjects of the papers read were as follows : 

* January 30th. "Automatism and Possession," by Sir 

Oliver Lodge, F.E.S. 
March 30th. "A Eecent Case of a Veridical Phantasm 

of the Dead," by Professor W. F. Barrett, F.E.S. 

" Experiments in Thought-Transference," by Miss C. 


*May 19th. Presidential Address by Mrs. Henry Sidgwick. 
June 29th. "The Hallucination Theory as applied to 

certain Cases of Physical Phenomena," by Count 

November 2nd. " The alleged Miraculous Hailstones of 

Eemiremont," by Monsieur M. Sage. 

December 14th. Papers discussing the question of " Cross- 
Correspondences," by Mr. Podmore, Mr. G. Lowes 
> Dickinson and Mr. F. C. Constable. 

* Those marked with an asterisk were General Meetings. 

., moo. Case. 4-1 


G. 284. Apparition. 

THE following account of an apparition seen by several different 
persons was received from Dr. J. H. Gower, who interviewed 
the witnesses and collected their evidence. His first report of 
it was as follows : 

August 5th, 1908. 

Last Christmas the body of a man employed in one of our 
business buildings was found dead at the bottom of the elevator 

Recently an apparition answering the description of the dead man 
has been seen by three or four people at different times in the 
midnight hours in the engine room of the same building. Neither 
of the parties seeing the ghost knew the deceased at all, and it was 
therefore only by the description given that my friend, who runs 
the building, could place him. 

I carefully examined the engine room, and believe it would be 
almost impossible for a "joker" to make his escape. I have closely 
questioned the percipients and am quite impressed by their declara- 
tions. They, at least, are quite convinced that they have seen the 
"real thing." On the first occasion it shook up a sleeping fireman, 
and when he was about to expostulate with it for rough treatment 
it vanished. On each occasion it appears to have been "sensible to 
touch as to sight." The case has been given to me to investigate, 
and I shall try to visit the scene at night; maybe I shall see it 

myself. . . . 


Dr. Gower's next letter on the subject was as follows : 


Nov. $th, 1908. 

Enclosed please find particulars so far obtained of the Ghost Case 
about which I wrote you some time ago. 

Upon the receipt of Mr. Roberton's letter of Aug. 3rd, I went 
down to the building for the purpose of making inquiries. I spent 
over an hour in questioning the men and examining the place where 
the apparition was seen. The sworn statements give you a fair 

42 Journal of Society for Psychical Research. FEB., 1909. 

idea of what was said on that occasion and all subsequent statements 
were entirely of a corroborative nature. I have not yet seen Ellis, 
but I understand that his experiences were very similar to the 
others, with the exception that he saw nothing, but the ghost 
handled him in the same uncanny manner that it had handled the 

The room in which the phenomenon occurred is a very small one 
and is very difficult of access. It is situated in the basement of 
one of the office buildings in this city, and to reach it one has to 
climb down a short ladder way from an entrance somewhat of the 
trapdoor kind. 

The room is well filled with machinery a compressor-tank and 
it is only with difficulty that one can move about in it, although it 
is well lighted by electricity. It has no door, but an entrance, 
through which a man of more than ordinary size would have to 
squeeze himself. I mention this because it was quite clear to me 
that an attempt to play "spooks" here would have resulted in 
being caught in the act immediately. 

The men stood a pretty severe cross-examination on all occasions, 
both by Dr. Rogers and myself, without weakening in any particular, 
and I was much struck by the open way in which they gave their 
evidence, and am quite impressed by the fact, that they all fully 
believe that they have seen the real thing. . . . 

I should add that I understand that none of the men knew the 
engineer who was killed personally ; but that it was entirely from 
the description given of the apparition that Mr. Roberton was 
able to recognize the likeness, which seems to have been quite 
remarkable as to detail. 

I will send Ellis' statement as soon as I obtain it, together with 
any further information that you may wish to have. 


The statements enclosed by Dr. Gower were as follows : 

DENVER, COLO., Aug. 3, 1908. 
DEAR DR. GOWER, About a week before last Christmas the 

Engineer of the Block was found dead in bottom of front 

Elevator Shaft. His successor, 2 night engineers and the wife of 
one of them, I understand, declare that an apparition answering 
the description of the dead Engineer has been appearing to them 
recently in the dead of night in the Engine Room. If there is 
anything in this to interest you I will be glad to introduce you 

FEB., I'.iO'J. 


to the parties interested (barring the principal) any time you care 
to cal1 here ' FRANK ROBERTON. 

DENVER, COLO., Nov. 7, 1908. 

DEAR DR. GOWER, I enclose herewith sworn statements of 
Wm. Kelley and Wm. Norder, engineers of the 
of Mrs. Norder, in reference to the Psychical Phenomena experi- 
enced by them in the Block. 

You ask me to include a statement from myself, but the 
statement I can make is that about a week before Christmas, 1907, 
an engineer of the block was killed in the elevator shaft, and the 
engineers whose statements are included were, of course, aware of 
this accident, and naturally connect the apparition with 
deceased engineer. Anything further that I might add would only 
be a repetition of the statements made by the parties already 


Trusting this will be all that is necessary, I remain, 

Yours very truly, 


Bill Kelley, Night Engineer of the Block, states that 

about the 10th of June, 1908, about a week before he started to 
work in this building, he was visiting the night engineer of the 
building, and while the latter was making his round of the building 
at 12 o'clock midnight, he lay down in the corner of the com- 
pressor room, underneath the tank, which was located a few feet 
above him. He was sleeping in this position when he felt a hard 
rap on his shoulder. He jumped up suddenly, and in doing so 
struck his head against the tank, and at the same time his atten- 
tion was arrested by seeing a figure standing just inside of the 
open doorway (there being no door leading from the compressor 
room into the boiler room). 

He states that the figure was that of a man about 25 years 
30 years of age, of medium height, dressed in the regulation 
overalls and dark cap of an engineer; that he was of slight build 
and pale complexion and smooth-shaven face, and what hair was 
visible on his head was of a light colour. 

A month or so later than this he was standing in the 
room at the rear of the boilers oiling one of the valves leading to 
the water tank, and resting his arm on one of the pipes, when his 
arm slipped and he commenced swearing, when he heard a low 

44 Journal of Society for Psychical Research. FEB., 1909. 

mumbling voice a short distance away and looked in that direction, 
but saw nothing. He then went on with his swearing, and dis- 
tinctly heard a voice immediately behind him say, "Don't do that. 
I wouldn't do that. You don't gain anything by swearing. I 
wouldn't do that." Glancing over his shoulder and seeing nothing 
around he became alarmed, and dropping his oil-can made a bolt 
for the front end of the boiler room. This happened about 2 
o'clock in the afternoon. 


Kelley also states that Bill Norder, chief engineer, and his wife, 
and a fireman named Ellis, have all seen this same figure; that 
Bill Norder told him that he was sitting in his chair in the com- 
pressor room when something took hold of his foot and shook it, 
and when he looked up suddenly he saw a figure standing in the 
doorway and answering the same general description as the figure 
which had appeared to him. At the time this figure appeared to 
them there were three electric lights burning in the room, and as 
soon as they saw the figure it vanished. 

Kelley also states that Mrs. Norder (his sister) told him that 
she was sitting in the chair in the compressor room one night 
while her husband was making his round of the building about 10 
o'clock in the evening. She was sitting in the compressor room 
with her knees crossed when she distinctly felt some one take hold 
of her foot and push it down on the floor alongside the other foot, 
and that this happened repeatedly, and that on one occasion she 
felt something shake her by the shoulder when she was sitting in 
the same place dozing and until she roused up and saw standing 
immediately in front of her a figure which she described practi- 
cally the same as the figure described by Kelley. 

Kelley also states that the man named Ellis, who worked there 
a short time as night engineer on the building, saw this figure on 
more than one occasion, arid became so disturbed at it that he quit 
work after a short time. 

(Signed) WM. KELLEY. 

Subscribed and sworn to before me this 5th November, 1908. 

FRANK RGBERTON, Notary Public. 

Bill Norder, day engineer of the Block, says he has been 

working here as night engineer about 2 months, when one night 
about 11 o'clock, he was sitting in the chair in the corner of the 
compressor room reading an engineer book, when he felt something 

1909. Case. 45 

grab him by the foot and shake it, and thinking it might be a fireman 
just amusing himself, did not pay any attention to it until the same 
thing occurred again very emphatically, when he looked up and saw 
a figure standing in front of him, within an arm's length, staring 
straight at him. Bill Norder said "What the - - you want?" 
and jumped up, when the figure vanished completely. 

This figure he described as of medium height and slight build, 
about 26 years of age, and dressed in ordinary working clothes of 
an engineer, also of a pale complexion and light auburn hair. He 
then started out into the boiler room to investigate thoroughly, but 
could see nothing. He said to himself that it could not be any- 
thing human and get out of sight that quick. That was the only 
time he ever saw anything of the sort, either there or elsewhere, 
although he had often been on night picket duty with the U.S. 
Army around Manilla, sometimes on graveyard picket duty, where 
the surroundings were such as might tend to cause a person of 
imagination to think that they saw such apparitions. 

Norder states that the feeling he experienced was exactly as if 
some one had taken firmly hold of his foot and shaken it, and as 
he looked up, the figure was standing quietly in front of him and 

(Signed) WM. NOKDER. 

Subscribed and sworn to before me this 4th March, 1908. 


Notary Public. 

Mrs. Norder, wife of Wm. Norder, engineer of the Block, 

states that soon after her husband went to work in this building, 
about 2 o'clock one morning, when her husband was away on one 
of his rounds of the building, she was sitting by the desk in the 
compressor room and leaning back in the chair in a light sleep, 
when she felt something take hold of her shoulder and shake her, 
first one side and then the other, until she was completely awake. 
Looking up she saw standing before her a figure, and having had 
similar experiences many times before in her life, she looked at it 
steadily and critically. She states that it was dressed in overalls 
and in an under-shirt, and had the general appearance of an 
engineer or fireman. 

Mrs. Norder stated that she had heard that an engineer had been 
killed in the building some time previous, but had never given the 
matter more than a passing thought. She did not at the time tell 
her husband anything about the appearance of this figure, thinking 

46 Journal of Society for Psychical Research. FEB., 1909. 

that it would only make him nervous ; but some time afterwards, 
when he was sitting in the same place, the figure appeared to him, 
and when he described it to her, it agreed exactly with the 
description of the figure which she had seen, and which she had 
described to a neighbour, whom she got to corroborate her testimony 
to her husband. She states that at the time this figure appeared 
to her she felt perfectly at ease, and was in a condition to notice 
carefully the details of its appearance, but that after her husband 
returned she felt somewhat nervous at the idea of remaining alone, 
so she accompanied him on his further rounds that night. 

On another occasion, about 10 o'clock at night, she went to the 
building to take her husband's supper, and while sitting alongside 
of him in the compressor room, she felt distinctly what seemed to 
be a hand grasping her foot and moving it off to one side on the 
floor several inches, and thinking to see if it would continue, she 
placed her foot back again in its original position several times, 
and each time had the same experience, but did not at that time 
see anything. 


Subscribed and sworn to before me this 5th Nov., 1908. 


Notary Public. 

Mrs. Norder states further that she had on several occasions 
seen apparitions of persons known to her, both living and dead, 
but " had never paid much attention to psychical matters." 
Dr. Gower writes later : 

December 3rd, 1908. 

. . . Ellis's statement (which I expect in a few days) will, I 
understand, be to the effect that he felt the ghost, but did not see 
it. This seems to me important as dispelling the theory of trick 
or joke, as by no possible means could a joker have shaken Ellis 
in the engine room without showing himself and being spotted at 
once. . . . 

In another letter, dated January 26th, 1909, Dr. Gower 
tells us that Ellis has been lost sight of, so that it has not 
been possible to obtain his evidence. 

The following further statement was received by Dr. Gower 
from Mr. Eoberton : 

DENVER, COLO., Dec. 2, 1908. 

Eeplying to your inquiries suggested by a recent letter from the 
Psychical Society in London, I have seen Norder, and he says that 

FKH., 1!KW. 'X6. 47 

before the appearance which he describes he had heard Kelley and 
some of the other boys talking of what had been seen in the Boiler 
Room, but had not heard any detailed description of the figure 
alleged to have been seen. He treated the matter as a joke at 
that time, and did not pay any particular attention to it, but he 
adds that, no one could now convince him that he did not see 
clearly the figure which he describes, or did not experience the 
shaking, etc., of which he speaks. 

I have also inquired of each of the parties testifying, and find that 
none of them had ever met the engineer who was killed. . . . 



Books added to the Library since the last List, JOURNAL for April, 1908. 

Abbott (David P.), Behind the Scenes with the Mediums. 

Chicago. 1908. 

+ Andrews (W. S.), Magic Squares and Cubes. Chicago, 1908. 

Barrett (Professor W. P., F.R.S.), On the Threshold of a New World 
of Thought. London, 1908. 

*Bennett (E. T.), The Direct Phenomena of Spiritualism. London, 1908. 
Bertrin (Georges), Histoire Critique des Evfcnenients de Lourdes. 

Lourdes and Paris, 1908. 

Lourdes : A History of its Apparitions and Cures. 

(Translated from the French.) London, 1908. 

**Bozzano (Ernesto), Dei casi d' identificazione spiritica. Genoa, 1909. 

**Calderone (A. Innocenzo), II Problema dell' Airima. Palermo, 1908. 

Davies (T. Witton), Magic, Divination and Demonology. 

London and Leipzig. 
Davis (A. J.), Views of our Heavenly Home. Boston, 

- Death and the After-Life. Boston, 

- Nature's Divine Revelations. Boston, 

- Penetralia, containing " Harmonial Answers." 


- Beyond the Valley. Boston, 1885. 
The Philosophy of Special Providences. Boston, 1876. 

- A Stellar Key to the Summer Land. Boston, 1887. 
^Davenport (Reuben Briggs), The Death-Blow to Spiritualism. 

New York, 1897. 

Forel (August, M.D.), Hygiene of Nerves and Mind. (Translated from 

the German.) London, 1907. 

*Fournier d'Albe (E. E.), Two New Worlds : I. The Infra- World, II. The 

Supra- World. London, 1907. 

- New Light on Immortality. London, 1908 

48 Journal of Society for Psychical Research. FEB., 1909. 

France (Anatole), Vie de Jeanne d'Arc. Paris, 1908. 

JFrazer (Persifor), Bibliotics, or The Study of Documents. 

Philadelphia, 1901. 
Home (Mme. Dunglas), D. D. Home, His Life and Mission. 

London, 1888. 

SHorst (Georg Conrad), Von der alten und neuen Magie : Ursprung, Idee, 
Umfaug und Geschichte. Mainz, 1820. 

Hyslop (Professor J. H.), Psychical Eesearch and the Resurrection. 

London, 1908. 

Ilngleby (C. M., LL.D.), An Introduction to Metaphysic. London, 1869. 
Janet (Pierre, M.D.), The Major Symptoms of Hysteria. (Translated from 
the French.) New York and London, 1907. 

* Les Nevroses. Paris, 1909. 

JKane (Dr.), The Love-Life of. New York, 1866. 

JKerner (Dr. Justinus), Geschichte zweier Somnambulen. 

Karlsruhe, 1824. 

jKingsley (Mary H.), Travels in West Africa. London, 1897. 

% - West African Studies. London, 1899. 

Lang (Andrew), The Maid of France. London, 1908. 

[E] Jde Mainauduc (J. B., M.D.), The Lectures of. London, 1798. 

Morselli (Professor Henrico), Psicologia e Spiritismo. Turin, 1908. 

*Piobb (P.), L'Ann6e Occultiste et Psychique. Paris, 1908. 

Podmore (Frank), The Naturalisation of the Supernatural. London, 1908. 
Quackenbos (J. D., M.D.), Hypnotic Therapeutics in Theory and Practice. 

London and New York, 1908. 

R/ibot (Th.), Essay on the Creative Imagination. (Translated from the 
French.) Chicago, 1906. 

Richmond (A. B.), A Review of the Seybert Commissioners' Report. 

Boston, 1888. 

*Sidis (Boris, Ph.D., M.D.), Psychopathological Researches. London, 1909. 
JSinistrari (Rev. Father), Demoniality, or Incubi and Succubi. 

Paris, 1879. 

^Thoughts of a Modern Mystic : a Selection from the Writings of the late 
C. C. Massey. Edited by Professor W. F. Barrett, F.R.S. 

London, 1909. 

Wilbur (Sibyl), The Life of Mary Baker Eddy. New York, 1908. 

**Wilson (Albert, M.D.), Education, Personality and Crime. 

London, 1908. 

Worcester (Elwood, D.D., Ph.D.), M'Comb (Samuel, M.A., D.D.), and 
Coriat (Isador. H., M.D.), Religion and Medicine : the Moral Control 
of Nervous Disorders. London, 1808. 

* Presented by the Publisher. ** Presented by the Author. 

t Presented by J . Y. W. MacAlister, Esq. J Purchased from the late American Branch. 




Society for Psychical Research 



The Dowsing Rod. By Professor W. F. Barrett, W 

Possible Automatism of Young Children. By Sir Oliver Lodge, 60 

Society for Psychical Research : Dublin Section, 68 


A Private Meeting of the Society 





On TUESDA Y, MARCH y>th t 1909, at 4 p.m. 


" Some Incidents in the Script of 
Mrs. Holland" 



N.B. No Tickets of Admission are issued for this Meeting. Members 
and Associates will be asked to sign their names on entering. 

50 Journal of Society for Psychical Research. MAR., 1909. 


SINCE I published my monograph on the sp-called divining or 
dowsing rod a vast accumulation of additional evidence has 
reached me. Some of it is of considerable value, but at 
present I have neither time nor courage to sift the whole of 
this mass of material. It is, however, I think, desirable to 
publish the following letters as affording evidence on behalf 
of the dowser from men of some distinction and accustomed 
to weigh evidence. 

The first letter is from Sir John Franks, K.C.B., the Secretary 
to the Irish Land Commission, who writes : 


DEAR PROFESSOR BARRETT, I want to make search for water on 
a farm I have in Co. Kilkenny and I am told no one can advise 
better as to the modus operandi than you ; so perhaps, if not too 
much trouble, you will give me the benefit of suggestions on the 

The lands lie at an elevation of from 100 to 440 feet, and are 
bounded by a stream at the lowest level, and there are good wells 
or rather springs close together at an elevation of about 200 feet. 

On the old Ordnance map (made in 1836) there are some wells 
which had been afterwards marked (probably by my father) in quite 
another part of the farm, but these have not been wanted for many 
years past, and there is nothing on the surface to show where they 
were. They would be of use now, if water is to be found. . . . 


I gave Sir John Franks the name of an amateur dowser 
living on the borders of Co. Kilkenny, viz. Mr. J. H. Jones, 
of Mullinabro, Co. Waterford. Mr. Jones met Sir John at 
his place, with the following result: 


DEAR PROFESSOR BARRETT, ... I was quite astonished at the 
results of the tests to which I subjected [Mr. Jones's] work and 
methods, before I incurred the expense and trouble of sinking for 
water at the place indicated by him. 

He had never been over the ground before, and there is nothing 

M.\i:. f i'.io'.i. The Dowsing Rod. 51 

on the Ordnance sheets (which are very old) to indicate the 
position of the old wells mentioned before. I made three tests by 
bringing him from 100, 200, 800 yards away from these wells, 
which are only apparent when quite close, with no paths lead- 
ing to them. He quartered the ground back and forwards 
like a dog looking for game, and after some delay in each 
case eventually found a flow, and the direction [of the flow]. 
Once the direction was found, he followed it steadily, working 
back and forwards across flow, till without aid he hit off the 
place where the concealed wells are. The last test was quite 
wonderful, as I brought him quite half a mile away to the top 
of the watershed, to a place from which he could not have had 
an idea where the well opened, in a spot quite out of sight until 
one got within two yards of it, but he hit it off with absolute 
accuracy. In the place where he indicated a site to sink for a 
new well there were no surface indications at all, and it was quite 
half a mile away from any of the old wells. We had to cut and 
blast principally through solid rock, 38 feet down, before we hit 
the spring. There are now 20 feet of water in this well. 


Three other remarkable cases in which Mr. Jones was 
successful when other attempts, some under expert geological 
advice, had failed, I have investigated. The evidence in these 
cases is, however, too long to quote here ; one was at the model 
farm at Glasnevin, Co. Dublin, under the Department of Agri- 
culture and Technical Instruction ; another was at Dunganstown 
Eectory, Co. Wicklow, a very striking case, concerning which I 
have detailed reports, and have myself visited the spot and 
verified the statements ; another was at the National Consump- 
tive Hospital, Newcastle, Co. Wicklow, which, at a critical time, 
saved the Hospital from a water famine. 

Through the kindness of Sir Oliver Lodge I have received 
the following letters. The dowser referred to in Mr. Andrew 
Lang's letter is Mr. E. Howson, of Middlesboro', a gentleman 
with whom I have had a good deal of correspondence, and who 
has also been very successful in dowsing for minerals : 

MONREITH, WHAUPHILL, N.B., July 15, 1907. 
DEAR LODGE, An amazing dowser has been staying here, a gentle- 
man, a land agent in Lancashire. My host, Sir Herbert Maxwell, 
F.R.S., is not a very credulous philosopher, but what he tells me 

52 Journal of Society for Psychical Research. MAR., 1909. 

of the man's success in tracking people here, and finding hidden 
things, beats anything I have heard of. I understand that the agent 
has electrical theories on the subject. If you care to know more 
about and try to see this gentleman I will give you his address, if 
he consents, and some particulars. 


The next account was written by Mr. Jesse Ceilings, M.P., 
at Sir Oliver Lodge's request, and is as follows : 

EDGBASTON, Feby. 1, 1909. 

MY DEAR SIR OLIVER, . . . The dowsing incident took place 
during the last annual excursion of the British Dairy Farmers' Asso- 
ciation. About a dozen of us were going through a field a short 
cut to rejoin the others who were on the road. The question of 
water-divining came up, and Mr. Walker, a well-known journalist who 
was with the excursionists, cut a twig from a tree in the middle 
of the field. It was this shape [sketch omitted]. 

He grasped it in his hands [by the two ends]. The field was 
a dry hilly one, and we all went down to a " bottom " which 
was swampy. As we came close to the wet swamp the top of 
the twig steadily rose indeed the whole of it to about this angle 
or more, and when we left the swamp it gradually fell back into 
position. Several of the farmers present tried it without any effect 
whatever. Mr. Walker said that very few could do it. I think 
he said not one in a hundred or one in a thousand, I forget 

Being very sceptical, I took the twig and we went down to the 
"bottom" again, when the twig rose as we approached the water, 
higher and more deliberately than before. Though I had grasped 
the ends very tightly I suggested that the parts in my hands had 
turned and so turned the other part of the twig. Mr. Walker 
then cut notches at the ends of the parts held in my hands. On 
renewing the experiment the twig behaved exactly as before, while 
the notches showed that the parts held in the hands had not revolved 
or moved in any way. 

What followed astonished us still more. Mr. Walker took a very 
thick twig speaking from memory about \ in. or -fths thick. He 
notched the ends and grasped them in the same manner, and on 
getting near the water the part not held rose up with such force 
that the arms of the twig being too thick to yield twisted them- 
selves to such an extent [between his hands and the apex] that 

MAR., iuo:>. The Downing Rod. 53 

the rind was broken and the inside skin was laid bare and twisted, 
and but for the fibrous character of the wood would have dropped 
off altogether. It looked like a rope instead of the smooth stick 
it was before. As it was it became listless with no further animation. 
The parts grasped, as shown by the notches, had not moved or 
turned in the least. Mr. Walker stated that this experiment hurt 
his wrists, as he had to hold the ends with all his force to prevent 
them following the motion of the other parts. 

I certainly should not have believed in the experiments if I had 
not seen them. As it is I have no theory to advance, but simply 
describe accurately, I think what I saw, and what others present 
did not pretend to doubt or dispute. 


Mr. Jesse Ceilings' experience is similar to others I have 
already given in my published reports, and to the following, 
which my friend Dean Ovenden has kindly written at my 
request. The Dean, I may mention, has published some useful 
little books on elementary science, hence he does not take 
refuge in the usual electricity t neor y> albeit nothing will shake 
his conviction that some force external to the dowser moves 
the rod. The unanimity with which all dowsers hold this 
view shows how distinct from our conscious personality are the 
involuntary actions of our sub-conscious life. 

Nov. 22, 1906. 

DEAR PROFESSOR BARRETT, I knew nothing about dowsing, I 
never saw a dowsing rod nor a dowser. My mental attitude towards 
the subject was the same as about apparitions, viz. I had heard of 
apparitions and dowsers, but both were absolutely outside my personal 

On Tuesday, the 13th inst., I went to Rossory Glebe as the Bishop's 
representative on a commission of repairs and dilapidations, a new 
rector having been appointed. We found in the corner of an old 
kitchen a small well of clear water. The outside well was 39 feet 
from the ground to the surface of the water. We asked the outgoing 
rector where the clear water came from which supplied the indoor 
well. He replied, "I don't know." Mr. Jervois, the district R.B. 
architect, said, "Come out until we look for the source." He cut a 
forked twig of a snowberry bush shaped like a Y. Then he held 
his elbows to his sides and his palms upward, the little fingers 

54 Journal of Society for Psychical Research. MAR., 1909. 

being next one another. He bent the forks of the twig outwards 
and gripped them at [the two ends], with the point projecting hori- 
zontally before him. I noticed that he held the bent forks very 
tightly. In this attitude he walked across the bank sloping towards 
the rectory. For some- time the stick remained pointing straight 
outwards; then, suddenly, as he crossed a certain spot, the twig bent 
upwards violently and hit him on the chest. He was holding it so 
tightly that the parts held in his hands could not turn, and the 
wrench broke the stick like an untwisted cord. I was amazed. He 
passed by the spot and the twig remained inert; but going back- 
wards and forwards, always at the same spot, where the stream was 
running underground, the twig leaped upwards. He said, " Now 
touch my hand and you will neutralise the effect." I laid my hand 
loosely on his closed fist and we passed over the spot without any 
movement in the stick. Being more surprised, I said, "Let me try 
it." He said, " You would be no good, for you stopped my power 
by touching me." However, I held the twig as he did, having cut 
off the broken part, and when I passed the spot I felt the light twig 
suddenly become as heavy as if it were made of steel and was being 
pulled downward by a strong magnet. I held it as tightly as I 
could close my strong hands, but in spite of my efforts it twisted 
round and pointed downwards. 

Mr. Jervois said (and I heard this for the first time in my life) 
that with most dowsers it did point downwards. 

The next day I cut a forked snowberry twig here and went out 
to make experiments in the garden. Passing down one of the walks 
the stick insisted on pointing downwards until I reached a spot where 
it became light again. I left the walk where the drag ceased and 
crossed the earth bed where potatoes had been. Immediately the 
stick began to drag downwards. The gardener said, "You are right, 
sir, for that's where the drain goes off towards the pond. I found 
it when I was digging." Knowing nothing of the drainage of the 
old garden, and not being sure that the drains were where the stick 
indicated them, I called out my daughter and put the stick in her 
hands, but go where she would over the spots which I had passed, 
she felt nothing. I therefore went to the avenue gate, where I knew 
that the water supply of Enniskillen crossed the road. The moment 
I came over the pipe the stick pulled downwards with a force which 
I could not resist. Just then a small boy, aged about 12, passed by 
with some baskets. I told him nothing, but asked him to hold the 
stick as I placed it in his hands and to walk down the road [opposite 

MM;., iijoa. The Dowsing Rod. 55 

to and away from the gate]. When he came to [a certain] point he 
called out, " I can't hould it, sir, it's lepping." He reversed his walk 
and I walked beside him. At [this same point] I saw that he 
struggled to hold the stick out straight and could not prevent it 
from pointing straight down towards the earth. 

On Monday last an engineer, Mr. Allman, came here to pay a 
visit. I took him outside the hall door and gave him the same twig, 
which by then was not fresh. He detected the drain from the house 
foundations at once. He did not know where the water pipe crossed 
the road, but at the same point at the avenue gate the stick felt so 
heavy that it twisted itself down. He and I crossed the lawn, and 
easily detected every drain in it. Coming to the house, he said, 
"My fingers are all cramped trying to hold that stick against its 
extraordinary pressure." 

Mr. Allman was as ignorant of the phenomenon as I was. He was 
much interested, and has taken away the stick to find water for his 
father-in-law, at whose house there is a great scarcity. I may mention 
that when I held the stick over a water barrel and over the garden 
pond it was absolutely inert and remained as a light twig pointing 
out straight before me. 

These are the plain facts, from which I infer that . . . [your] 
suggestion that the motion of the twig is due to unconscious muscular 
action is wholly incompatible with my experience. Obviously, having 
seen Mr. Jervois' twig turn upwards, if there were any mental sug- 
gestion, it was that mine should do the same, but, contrary to my 
expectation, it did exactly the opposite. I felt a downward drag 
which I was unable to resist, although employing all my muscular 
force in the opposite direction. Mr. Allman's hands were blistered 
in his efforts to prevent the twig from turning. There was, I am 
convinced, a force external to myself pulling against me. [See p. 59.] 
In the case of Mr. Jervois that force acted in an upward direction, 
and in my case in a downward direction, and when I touched him 
on the hand the upward and the downward forces neutralized one 
another, so that the twig remained inert. . . . 

I send you a snowberry twig, the same as I used. 
Yours very sincerely, 

Dean of Clogher. 

P.S. I have just tested these sticks. The snowberry twig is much 
more sensitive than the hazel. 

56 Journal of Society for Psychical Research. MAR., 1909. 

I have investigated a number of cases of remarkable success 
which Miss Miles had in water-finding. The following is a strik- 
ing case, as it comes from the authorities at the Curragh Camp, 
where good potable water is difficult to obtain and a supply was 
needed for a memorial hospital. Captain Greer writes : 

Co. KILDARE, September Qth, 1903. 

The facts relating to the finding of water to supply the Drogheda 
Memorial Hospital are as follows : 

The Woods and Forests Department offered a site on The Cur- 
ragh for the building of the hospital for a small rent. Before 
accepting this offer the committee responsible for the building had 
to assure themselves that a water supply to the hospital could be 

Miss Miles, hearing of these circumstances, kindly consented to 
endeavour to find by " divining " whether a spring existed, under- 
ground, in the portion of land embraced in the proposed site for 
the hospital. (This occurred in the winter of 1896-97 : I think 
January, 1897.) She came here and visited the proposed site with 
Mrs. Greer and me. She went backwards and forwards over the 
site with the divining rod, and for some time could not find a 
spring, though she informed us that there was a large deposit of 
surface water (she thought about 15 ft. under the surface). After 
considerable search she came on a genuine spring, which, after 
measuring, she said was about 45 to 50 ft. underground, and quite 
separate from the deposit of surface drainage. By my orders a well 
was sunk on the spot over which Miss Miles declared the spring 
existed. At 17 feet we came on an apparently plentiful supply of 
water, which resisted an endeavour to pump it dry, lasting for eight 
hours, and we were convinced, in spite of Miss Miles' caution about 
the surface water, that this was the spring, and we actually built 
in the well and connected the water supply to the hospital. This 
supply, however, turned out to be surface water. On analysis it 
was declared to be of moderate quality, and was used only for 
washing, drinking water being obtained from a house close to the 
hospital, which was then a small institution. 

In the following spring the well, which had contained 4 to 5 ft. 
of water, went dry, and then for the first time we realised that 
Miss Miles must have been correct in her diagnosis, and that we 
had made a well to contain what was merely surface drainage. 

MAR., 1009. The Dowsing Rod. 57 

I sunk through the bottom of the well with an Artesian borer, 
and found at 43 ft. a strong spring of perfectly pure water, which 
has provided the hospital with a perfect water supply ever since. 


I gave several cases of the successful use of dowsing in 
America in my monograph. The late Dr. Hodgson sent me 
many more : here is one of some interest, as it is from the 
engineer to the Mount Whitney Power Co. in California : 

VISALIA, CALIFORNIA, May 20th, 1905. 

The method that some of the well-borers use in locating wells 
is by means of a forked "switch" or stick cut from a live tree. 
They say that the particular kind of a tree makes no difference, 
the only requirement being that the tree be alive. In using the 
switch the operator grasps the two branches of the fork in his 
hands and holds the switch upright; witli the switch in this posi- 
tion he slowly walks over the ground which he is exploring for 
water. If an underground stream is passed over, this is indicated 
by the movement of the switch downward, like a pointer. Men 
with whom I have talked say that, when the underground stream 
is passed over, they can feel the switch twitch or jerk in their 
hands, and that they can feel the tendency of the switch to point 
downwards, the hands simply following this movement. They also 
say that they can tell roughly or approximately the amount of 
water in the stream and the depth below the surface at which it 
will be found. 

I do not recall now a single well that has been bored where 
indicated by the switch that has been a failure; on the other hand 
many wells not so located have been failures. 

Some of the evidence that appears rather convincing to me is 
as follows : 

The company of which I am superintendent had occasion to bore 
a well at Lindsay for the town waterworks. This well I had bored 
at a point most convenient with respect to the buildings ; the well- 
borer at this time said that no water or little water would be 
found, for the stream was twelve feet south of the point selected. 
The well, however, was bored down to a depth of one hundred and 
fifty feet, a small quantity of water was found, but the amount was 
insufficient. The next year (1903) another well was bored, this 
time at the point indicated by the switch twelve feet south of the 
first one, and an abundant supply of water was found. 

58 Journal of Society for Psychical Research. MAR., 1909. 

Mr. Robert Berry, of Lindsay, located this well, as well as many 
others throughout that section. 

Another instance occurred at Lindsay Heights, where several wells 
were located by Mr. Berry for Messrs. Hammond and Wishon, 
president and manager of this company respectively. 

Mr. Wishon was on the ground when Mr. Berry was exploring 
for the wells ; and as he was rather sceptical about the method, he 
thought he would try it himself, and was surprised to find that 
the switch would respond for him as well as it would for Mr. 
Berry. To check the matter further he had Mr. Berry walk two 
or three rods ahead of him over the ground with their switches in 
position. As Mr. Berry would pass over a stream he would 
indicate it; as Mr. Wishon came to the same point he would say 
each time : " Yes, I feel it." 

Two or three times, to try him, Mr. Berry would not say any- 
thing when he passed over a stream. As Mr. Wishon came over 
these places he would say : " Here, Bob, you missed one." This 
occurred several times. 

Another test that I knew of was made by Mr. James N. 
Reynolds, of Lindsay. He engaged Mr. Berry to locate a well for 
him on a certain piece of land ; the point selected Mr. Reynolds 
privately marked. He then engaged another man, and had him 
locate a well on the same piece of land. This second man, after 
exploring about with his switch, selected the identical spot that 
Mr. Reynolds had marked ; a well has since been bored at this 
point, and a supply of water has been found. . . . 


As regards the explanation of the dowsing rod, I have seen 
nothing to shake the conclusions which were given in my 
last report (Proceedings S.P.R., Vol. XV., pp. 313 and 314). 
That there is no special property possessed by running water 
which affects the dowser is shown by his discovery of under- 
ground mineral ores, oil wells, etc. Concerning the latter, Miss 
Margaret Benson informed me, on the authority of a personal 
friend who knew the facts, that in locating the exact spot for 
sinking for petroleum wells in Peru scientific experts are not 
employed, but always " instinctive experts." A dowser is an 
instinctive expert, and we may call his peculiar instinct " a 
sub-conscious transcendental perceptive faculty," as I have done, 
or anything else we like. The Right Hon. A. J. Balfour, who 
has both read and seen much about dowsers, writes to me : 

.MAK., I'.m The Dowsing Rod. "/' 

" All the evidence that I have seen or heard of entirely supports 
your conclusions, strange though they may appear." 

That the vigorous motion of the rod, one limb often being 
broken, is really caused by the unconscious muscular action 
of the dowser is, as I have said, hotly contested by every 
dowser, who is persuaded the twig moves his hands, and not 
vice versa. For example, Dr. Eshelby, of Stockton House, near 
Worcester, writing to me about a youii.^ fanner in his 
neighbourhood, named Skyrne, who is a very successful dowser, 
says : " He (Skyrne) tries to resist the motion of the rod, and 
I assured myself of this by clasping his hands tightly in 
mine and then walked over a buried pipe of running water 
at night- Lime. The moment we came over where we subse- 
quently found the pipe to be, the sensation was as though 
some one had seized the apex of the forked branch and forcibly 
pulled it down. Our hands resisted this downward movement, 
and the two sides of the forked twig gave way at the spot 
where they left his hands, and showed a green-stick fracture. 
I certainly should have detected any muscular movement 
sufficient to break the forked stick, and I know he did not move 
his hands or wrist, as I had hold of them all the time." 

The extraordinary and often violent motion of the rod was 
naturally enough during the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries 
attributed to supernormal agency, good or mischievous demons 
as the case might be. Later on, when the use of the rod for 
finding underground water became more general than its use 
for locating underground ore and buried treasure, some attrac- 
tive force exerted by the water was urged by the Abbe de 
Vallemont and other Cartesian philosophers. But that remark- 
able man, who was really the founder of modern experimental 
science, the learned Jesuit, Father A. Kircher, showed that if 
the rod were delicately suspended on some fixed support, no 
motion whatever was produced on the approach of water or 
metals. Kircher, two centuries before Chevreul and Carpenter, 
discovered the agency of involuntary muscular action. 1 There 
are no cases, so far as I know, where any one has shown the 
rod will move over underground water unless held by the 
dowser. It is not any known physical force that attracts the rod. 

J See my report Proceedings S.P.R., Vol. XV., p. l27t> : also Kirdrt/a 
Subterraneus, 1646, Vol. II., p. 200. ^HT*^ 

3 IvlC * 


60 Journal of Society for Psychical Research. MAR., 1909. 

One cannot deny the possibility that some unknown force 
may be concerned, but what we know of unconscious and in- 
voluntary muscular action is adequate to explain the ordinary 
sudden movements of the forked twig. There are, it is true,, 
certain extraordinary cases which stretch this hypothesis almost 
more than it can bear. Such cases are worth careful investi- 
gation by a trained anatomist. It is possible we may have 
to fall back on an involuntary, unconscious exteriorisation of 
the muscular force of the dowser. If so, it would bring the 
motion of the rod into the same category as many of the 
" physical phenomena " of spiritualism : for I am convinced 
there is a much closer connection than is at present recog- 
nised between these latter phenomena and the actual physical 
personality of the medium. 


IT occurs to me that perhaps we have paid insufficient attention- 
to what is sometimes called genius, but which may be a 
variety of automatism, as displayed by young children. 

If, for instance, it were possible to obtain sensible automatic 
writing from a very young child, it would be proof of some- 
thing supernormal. But the obvious objection is that it is 
probably impossible. The only thing that suggests anything 
in the direction of its possibility is the existence of musical 
prodigies, able to play the piano by instinct long before they 
can have learnt. The most striking case of this, known to 
me, is the Spanish boy Pepito Eodriguez Arriola, who is stated 
to have begun at the age of two and a half and to have 
played before musicians and crowned heads before, or about 
the time that, he was three years old. This boy is authentic, 
as he was seen and reported on by Professor Richet, when 
his age was between three and four ; and one of my sons saw 
the child at Professor Richet's house. 

I have looked up Professor Richet's report, which is con- 
tained in the Annales des Sciences Psychiques for 1900, p. 324. 
It appears that Pepito, who was born in December, 1896, 
sometimes pretended to write music, but his attempts were 
obviously only imitative, and had no meaning. He did, how- 

MAR., 1909. Possible Automatism of Young Children. ;l 

ever, frequently improvise on the piano, as well as play from 
memory. Even if he had only heard an air in the form of 
a song, a few times, he could usually play it with adequate 
harmonies. His execution was unequal. There were times 
when he broke down and hesitated for half a minute or so, 
and then suddenly, as if inspired, he began to play again 
with skill and precision. But although his execution was 
decidedly less than perfect, the amount of expression he got out 
of his very inferior piano seems to have been amazing. " II a 
une richesse d'expression e"tonnante," says Professor Eichet. 

An abstract of Professor Richet's paper is contained in the 
Journal of the S.P.R., Vol. X., p. 20, where another not alto- 
gether dissimilar case is also quoted, that of Mr. R. C. Rowe 
of Cambridge, who at a later stage was known to me, as well 
as to most Cambridge members of the Society. And in his 
case even a printed musical score used to give him pleasure 
at an extraordinarily early age. 

It is probably worth noticing that musical notation has more 
of a natural and less of an artificial character than ordinary 
writing or printing has. Relative pitch is clearly represented 
by the spacing of the notes ; absolute pitch is indicated by 
the simple, though crude, device of " signature ; " and though 
the duration of each sound is recorded in an entirely arbitrary 
manner, yet the elementary convention involved is such as to 
appeal readily to a very slightly instructed eye, genius being, 
of course, presupposed. 

The only thing that is not at all represented by the notation 
is the division into octaves, and the occurrence of musical 
intervals generally. But apart from any knowledge of arith- 
metical ratios among the frequencies, the detection of which 
involved a certain amount of scientific discovery, the sesthetic 
appreciation of musical intervals must be regarded as a matter 
of direct sensation, existent among people of quite ordinary 
musical faculty, if not universal. 

To return to Pepito. Since 1900 I have not heard of 
him ; but a statement now appears in the papers that his 
half-sister, now about four years old, has the same faculty, 
being able to play classical music by ear only, of course ; 
and a photograph has recently appeared in an illustrated paper 
showing this child seated, with Pepito standing by her. 

62 Journal of Society for Psychical Research. MAR., 1909. 

Now, if it be true that a child of between two and four 
years of age can play the piano, the question arises, Why 
should they not write also ? To that question, however, I 
suggest a definite answer. 

The symbols of writing, and words themselves, are pure 
conventions, having no relation whatever to actual things, 
beyond convention and mutual agreement based upon historical 
tradition. That is what makes the existing multiplicity of 
human languages so profoundly unsatisfactory and hindering to 
the progress of the race. 

There is a certain amount of convention about the diatonic 
scale in music, but the sequence of notes in the gamut does 
correspond with something in nature ; while even the arrange- 
ment of keys on a piano in regular order and succession may 
be regarded as a natural, and not an artificial phenomenon. For 
its artificiality is of the very simplest character, such as even a 
child could understand, viz., a series of pieces of wood or bone 
of equal widths, all associated with the notes of a regularly 
ascending scale, and such that if any one is struck, the interval 
necessary to reach any other note may be considered evident 
to a musical genius. The harmonies producible by striking 
notes simultaneously are also natural phenomena, such as can 
excite direct and uninstructed appreciation. Hence the act of 
instinctive playing, although surprising, must be considered 
possible ; while the act of instinctive writing conventional words 
in some human language may have to be considered impossible. 

The question next arises : Is there anything else, then, that 
can be done with the hands, of a more natural character 
than writing ? And the answer is, I think, moulding and 
drawing. About moulding there would seem to be a minimum 
of convention. Drawing involves some perspective ; but, after 
all, that represents what the eye really sees, though an 
untrained person is not aware of it. Hence it would seem 
that an exceptional child might be expected to draw auto- 
matically, although not to write. 

It is possible that performances of this kind would not 
attract as much attention from parents as a musical perform- 
ance does, nor would they be so likely to be encouraged ; 
but it may be well to be on the lookout for them. And it 
is not wise to lay down any restriction as to what may turn 

., 190. Possible Automatism of Youny Children. 63 

out to be possible, because few things can compete in prima 
facie incredibility with elaborate musical execution from a 
child of three. 

A further possibility is worthy of attention. A child may 
bd old enough to be able to write normally, and yet be 
unable to write anything beyond matter of infantile quality. 
This would be the ordinary state of things ; but in excep- 
tional cases it would seem as if it ought to be possible to 
obtain, through such an automatist, ideas and language as 
much beyond its normal capacity as classical music necessarily 
is. The oft-quoted Greek and Hebrew recital of an ignorant 
servant-girl was perhaps of this character, unless it is quite 
apocryphal as seems not unlikely ; at any rate, if any such cases 
are known, they ought to be communicated to the Society. 

But an obvious caution is necessary. If any such records 
are ever obtained, parents and guardians ought to be very 
careful not to allow the children to think that there is 
anything uncanny in the proceeding, nor encourage an 
unwholesome amount of attention to it. Wisely dealt with, 
the script might be made available for scientific purposes 
without confusing the normal mind of the child with specu- 
lations concerning its origin and meaning. These may be 
puzzling enough to anybody, and should no more be emphasised 
in the hearing of the automatist than any other effort of 
genius should be. Emotion and excitement are utterly unneces- 
sary and out of place in any scientific enquiry. 

It is a commonplace to say that " prodigies " of any kind 
require protection from themselves, or, rather, from the public 
curiosity which they attract; but, as natural though rare 
phenomena, they may be of the utmost interest for psychological 
investigation of a careful and judicious character. 


[This Report was held over from the February Journal for want 
of space. ED.] 

A MEETING of the Dublin Section was held on Saturday, 
December 19th, 1908, at 3.30 p.m., at the Leinster Lecture 
Hall, Molesworth Street. Professor Barrett, F.RS., Vice- 

64 Journal of Society for Psychical Research. MAR., 1909. 

Chairman, presided, and forty-seven members of the Section 
were present. 

The Chairman briefly reviewed the history of the Section 
to date, and pointed out the various directions in which 
researches could be undertaken by members. 

Mr. Fournier d'Albe, Hon. Secretary, exhibited a modified 
planchette, designed to test whether the writing produced was 
ever done otherwise than by normal automatic muscular action. 
It consisted of an ordinary planchette, from which the castors 
had been removed. The planchette thereupon assumed an in- 
clined position, the inclination to the paper depending solely 
upon the length of the pencil. Such an inclined planchette could 
be used for ordinary automatic writing without much difficulty, 
but as soon as a postcard was interposed between the hand 
and the planchette, writing by normal muscular action became 
impossible, as did also the drawing of a circle, or of any curve 
having a component in the direction pointing from the tip of 
the pencil towards the centre of the edge in contact with the 
paper. The interposition of a postcard did not interfere with 
the action of the ordinary planchette, for he had obtained such 
writing (which appeared to be unconscious) with the postcard 
interposed. As regards writing with the new " test plan- 
chette," he thought he had obtained it on two occasions with 
one writing medium, but until the experiment had been many 
times repeated he could not be sure whether the test conditions 
had been strictly observed. 

At the request of the Chairman, Mr. T. H. Webb exhibited 
and explained the action of the " Ouija," through which, he 
said, he had obtained many communications purporting to come 
from deceased relatives. 

Professor Barrett gave a short summary of the theory of 
cross-correspondences, with illustrations from his own experi- 
ence and from the data accumulated by the Parent Society. 

Canon Carmichael wished, he said, to rectify some errors 
which had got abroad with respect to the objects of their Section. 
Members were not necessarily identified with spiritualism or 
with any other interpretation of the phenomena studied. All 
that was expected of them was an open mind with regard to 
the existence of supernormal phenomena, and a desire to take 
some part in the laborious task of elucidating them. 

No. CCLVIIL VOL. XIV. A run., I9<>9. 



Society for Psychical Research 



"Spirit Hands," Suggestion and Dogs. By Andrew Lang, 05 

Cases, 72 

Correspondence, 77 

Review: M. Fournier D'Albo's "New Light on Immortality." By F. J. 

M. Strattou, 78 

Notes on Current Periodicals, 80 


MOVED by the discussion between Miss Johnson and Count 
Solovovo as to the amount of hallucination caused by suggestion 
at Home's and other stances, I wrote a paper in defence of 
" Neolithic Metaphysics and Metapsychics." But for many good 
reasons I spare the readers of the Journal, and merely draw 
attention first to a very odd story of a visionary hand seen 
" where nae hand should be," and without any traceable 
suggestion, by an excellent witness, my niece, Miss Grieve. 1 

[G. 285.] The account was received by me on August 3rd, 
1908, being as follows: 

On Saturday, July 4th, [1908], I and my friend Miss Baughan 
started on a cruise to Norway. After seeing the fjords as far north 
as Trondhjem we came south to Stavanger, which we reached Monday, 
July 13th. 

We knew nothing whatever about the town beyond that there 
was a cathedral and an old church now converted into a school. 
After strolling round for some time we happened on what we thought 

1 Some earlier experiences of Miss Grieve's have already been printed in the 
Journal, namely a case of collective crystal vision (Vol. X., p. 134); a short 
series of experiments in thought-transference (Vol. X., p. 260); and an appari- 
tion of a friend, apparently visible also to Miss Grieve's dog (Vol. XIII., p. 27, 
February, 1907). 

66 Journal of Society for Psychical Research. APRIL, 1909. 

was this old church (it was in reality the cathedral), and entered. 
The moment I closed the door behind me I felt a strange and 
decidedly unpleasant feeling as if something or some one was present 
I could not see. I looked at Miss Baughan to see if she noticed 
anything, but she was already half-way up the aisle and deep in the 
dog-toothing and designs on the beautiful old Norman pillars and 
arches. Quite suddenly, about 6 feet above my head and a little in 
front of me, appeared a shadowy forearm and hand ; most conspicuous 
was the hand, pointing. It hovered for a moment where I first saw 
it and then slowly turned towards Miss Baughan, but passed her, 
and pointed steadily towards the chancel. Presently, from a side 
chapel behind the chancel, came a man, apparently a tourist like 
ourselves. The hand immediately pointed at him and followed him 
wherever he went. After a few- minutes he left the church, and the 
visionary hand slowly faded from my sight. I regret to say I did 
not say anything to Miss Baughan at the moment, but told her the 
same evening when we got back to our hotel. 

We looked into the cathedral on our way back in the evening 
(before I told her of the vision) but there was no one there, and I 
saw nothing and had no unpleasant feeling. The old verger outside 
could not speak English at all, and neither of us had enough Norwegian 
to inquire about legends, so we left Stavanger without any sort of 
clue to the meaning of the vision. Immediately on my return to 
Aberdeen, I went down to the Free Library and searched among 
books on Norway for legends of Stavanger. At last in Norwegian 
By-ways, by Charles W. Wood, I found an account which tallied in 
almost every detail with my own experience. 


Miss Baughan adds : 

July 31st [1908]. 

I was present with Miss Grieve in Stavanger Cathedral, on July 
13th, and was given this account of the occurrence the same evening 
by her. 


In reply to various questions Miss Grieve wrote : 

October llth, 1908. 

... I certainly had never read or even heard of Nonvegian By-ways. 
Had I done so the tale would certainly have lost interest from a 
psychical point of view, but would have been far more interesting 
to me, for I should have experimented (as the author did) and linked 
arms with my friend to see if she could see the hand then. 

APHII., 1909. "Spirit //",/'/>," HiHjij'-xtion and Dogs. 67 

The arm ended at the elbow; it was only a forearm, shadow-like 
but white, and the hand much whiter and therefore more distinct. 
The elbow end simply tailed off from white to grey to nearly black, 
so that it faded into the surrounding shadows of the cathedral aisle, 
about 10-12 feet above the ground. 

It just appeared in mid-air, not from behind any obstacle. I had 
l-.-rn looking round uncomfortably for some minutes and could see 
nothing, and quite suddenly the pointing hand was there where I 
had looked many times before. No, the actual point where it left 
off was not visible to me; I saw as far as the elbow and then it 
merged into the general atmosphere. The date was July 13th, 



Norwegian By-ways, by Charles W. Wood, was published in 
1903. The following is the account there given (pp. 13-16): 

Never can I forget an evening spent there [at Stavanger Cathedral] 
years ago waiting for the steamer. . . . 

We were a party of four friends, and the writer alone remains 
to tell the tale. . . . We were the only Englishmen in the place 
and waited the Bergen boat. 

It was evening and a glorious sun was sinking westward. I 
had obtained the key at the fire-station (it is still kept there) and 
with some difficulty had persuaded the others to visit the cathedral. 
Sport, they declared, was more in their line than architecture. 

We strolled up the narrow, hilly street, and had it to ourselves. 
Daylight was waning as the door slowly rolled back on its hinges, 
and we all passed into the impressive silence and solitude of the 
empty church. The Norman arches, softened by the gloaming, 
stood out in all their beauty. 

I don't know what it was, and shall never know, but as we walked 
through the aisles criticising the work, noting the dog-tooth moulding 
on the arches between the pillars, here and there varied by the 
old Norwegian and interesting dragon-tracery as we moved about 
contemplating minute detail and general effect, a strange feeling 
came over me, a sensation or conviction of some unseen presence 
hovering about us. It thrilled me from head to foot with an 
emotion never felt before and never since. 

I glanced at the others. Two seemed absorbed in the building 
and in that alone ; the third, Sir John Dacre, youngest of all 
he was only just twenty was evidently under the same strange 

68 Journal of Society for Psychical Research. APRIL, 1909. 

influence. His face was pale, his eyes looked into vacancy. He 
used to say that he had the gift of second sight ; and his mother, 
old Lady Margaret, was descended from a long line of ancestors 
who had all believed in or possessed the faculty to the point of 
superstition. She still lives, though her boy, as she yet fondly 
calls him, has been lying for twelve long years in the chapel of 
the old castle. They were Scotch of the Scotch. 

I looked at Dacre, his eyes met mine, and each felt conscious 
of something withheld from the others. Then he linked his arm 
in mine and we went up the long aisle towards the communion-table. 

"What is it?" I asked. 

" The place is haunted. Do you see nothing ' 

I shook my head. 

"Look," pointing down the aisle we had just traversed. Whether 
that interlacing of arms in some way communicated his power for 
the moment, certain it is that I plainly saw the outlines of a shadowy 
form, whilst a hand appeared to hover over the heads of the two 
who were standing in the aisle. The other hand pointed towards us. 

"It is intended for me, not for you," said Sir John; "I noticed 
it when we all stood together, and the hand carefully avoided 

" But what does it mean ? " And even as I spoke the ghostly 
apparition, or whatever you may choose to call it, seemed to slowly 
fade from sight. 

" It means death a warning ; call it what you will. Not 
necessarily immediate; in fact I should say some years will first 
pass : but we shall all three die young, and all within a short 
time of each other. I shall be the first to go, for the hand first 
came to me ; but the others will not tarry long." 

He spoke calmly as though making the most common-place remark, 
but it was assumed; in reality I saw that he was much moved. . . . 

Some years went on, and then, as he had predicted and in the 
order indicated, came the end. 

You ask what the ghost was like ? I can hardly tell you, it 
was so shadowy and insubstantial. The most visible part was the 
hand that seemed to float over their heads and the finger that 

Mr. Wood informs the Editor of the Journal that this incident 
took place between twenty and thirty years ago, and that he 
had not heard of any apparition having been seen there since 
(except the case above recorded). In regard to the question 

A mi i., i'.io:>. ~ H/nrit Hands," Suggestion and Dogs. 69 

whether his own experience had been published elsewhere, he 
writes that his Norwegian By-ways first appeared in the Argosy 
Magazine, but that he feels sure the story has not been mentioned 
in any guide-book. 

Miss Grieve writes : " I am quite certain there was no 
reference whatever [to the story] in Baedeker, which was the 
only guide-book we had." It is, of course, possible that at 
some previous time she had seen or heard of Mr. Wood's 
account and completely forgotten it, in which case the apparition 
would represent a revived subliminal memory. But her account 
shows that, if this was so, it had been so completely forgotten 
that she was not reminded of it again, either by seeing the 
apparition or by reading the book. 

Mr. Wood has informed me that, as is obvious, Dacre was 
not the name of his friend : the Dacres held the Southern 
Border against the Scots. Miss Grieve gave me the name and 
address, recorded in the hotel book, of the Irish tourist whom 
the hand followed. I may add that she is not in the way of 
seeing uncanny things ; the only two instances are the hand 
and the phantasm of a friend, viewed by herself and her dog, 
a much respected Dandy Dinmont terrier, on August 6, 1906 
(see Journal, February, 1907, pp. 27-30). 

In that case Miss Grieve, on the top of Skelfhill, in Teviot- 
dale, saw a friend, a lady, whose dress she minutely describes ; 
but the friend was in Cornwall. " I was so surprised that I 
did not say anything for a second or two, till the dog began 
to growl." Miss Grieve pursued the appearance, and " Turk 
barked and growled the whole time, but kept close to my 
heels and would not run out as he usually does at strange 
people or strange dogs. His hair was all on end, and his tail 
hooked over his back as stiff as a poker. . . . Had it not 
been for Turk I would have doubted my senses ; but he was 
so unmistakably disturbed and angry." The lady seen was 
actually wearing the costume described by Miss Grieve, plus 
a wet bathing gown on her arm, and was walking down a 
hill at Tintagel. 

If there was suggestion here, did it come from Miss 
Grieve's momentary surprise ? Turk began to growl before 
Miss Grieve called to her friend by her name, "Dr. H." 
Could Miss Grieve's moment of surprise suggest to Turk that 

70 Journal of Society for Psychical Research. APRIL, 1909. 

he had better bristle, growl, and keep in to heel, while Miss 
Grieve walked downhill after the appearance ? 

Can anybody seriously believe all that ? Turk, probably, 
had often seen Miss Grieve silent " for a second or two," and 
that was all the suggestion that she gave, and Turk growled, 
as she informed me at the time, before she spoke. Nothing 
that Turk could do was apt to suggest the presence of her 
friend to Miss Grieve. 

If suggestion did not affect either Turk or Miss Grieve, 
something of unknown nature was there which affected Miss 
Grieve, and, in his doggish way, affected Turk. In my neo- 
lithic metaphysics, that something was the stuff that " spirit 
hands " are made of. 

At Mr. Home's stances people expected to see them ; not so 
at Rerrick about 1695, in the case so well observed and 
recorded by the Rev. Alexander Teller. There a small 
unattached white hand was a phenomenon of the poltergeist 
case, and I remember none previous, except in the Book of 

[G. 286.] Here is another case of a dog sharing an experi- 
ence, given in the letters of the percipient to me : 


February I9th, 1909. 

DEAR SIR, In your Morning Post article to-day you mention a 
case of an apparition appearing to a lady and a dog simultaneously. 
It may interest you to hear that I and my dog had a like experience 
about six years ago. We were sitting in a room by a fire, with the 
door shut; I reading, the dog sleeping on the floor. I was roused 
from my book by the dog Dan's growling, and stooped to talk to 
him and console him ; and while stroking him, as he continued to 
growl, I followed the direction of his gaze with mine (I had to turn 
in my chair to do so), and saw to my astonishment a figure in a 
grey gown by the door, its face hidden from me by a plant which 
stood between us on a table. In my surprise I took it to be my 
sister, and addressed it, asking how she had returned so quickly 
and quietly. Then, recollecting that I was alone in the house and 
the outer doors locked, I got up hastily and Dan sprang towards 
the figure, which disappeared, the door remaining shut. The dog 
showed every symptom of fear and anger lowered head, glaring 
eyes, hair erect all down his spine. He was evidently convinced 

API;II., UMI'.I. "Spirit //"/"/>/' Suggestion /"/ Dogs. 71 

that some one was there, for on my opening the door of the room 
lie tore out barking and rushed up and down stairs in a vain chase 
after the visitor, whom I need not say we failed to find. The house 
\\a> empty, and I was quite glad a little later to hear the l>ell lin- 
and to let my sister in. I have no theories on the subject, nor can 
I in any way connect the appearance of my strange visitor with 
anything that happened before or since. But I am absolutely certain 
that Dan and I did see something, though I can bring no other 
witnesses to speak for us. 


Mrs. Darton writes further : 

February 23rd, 1909. 

DEAR SIR, 1 am very glad to give the particulars for which you 
ask. (a) There were no servants in the house at the time, nor 
would it have been possible for any person to have escaped our 
notice, as Dan and I were in the passage outside the door (which 
was shut until I opened it) within a moment of the figure's dis- 
appearance. The room is on the first floor, (b) The house is in a 
country village, and stands about 15 yards from the village street 
in its own garden, (c) This is my only experience of an apparition, 
though I have, as I suppose most people have, had sensations 
implying the presence of the unseen. 

I might add that the house is one in which the sound of a 
person moving is very audible, and footsteps coming along this 
particular passage are always heard in the room and on the floors 
above and below. 

I do not feel certain that any of my relations in the present 
generation have had any experiences of the kind, but my grand 
father, Joseph Sheridan Le Fanu, the novelist, used to assert that 
he saw this sort of thing constantly. 


P.S. I told my sister of the appearance on her return. 

In this case I surmise that the figure in grey was what 
the Kev. Eobert Kirke (ol. 1692) calls the co-walker of the 
percipient's sister. It was " an arrival case " ; the lady was on 
her way home. Such cases are very common ; the Scandi- 
navians have a special name for them. As to suggestion, why 
should the growling of the dog, who would not growl at his 

72 Journal of Society for Psychical Research. APRIL, 1909. 

familiar friend, make Mrs. Darton see a lady in grey ? Some- 
thing was there, something invaded the house, as something 
invaded the bracken and grass of Skelfhill. Perhaps Mr. 
Myers's term, psychorrhagy, is the right word to use in such 
cases. I have a third case, a precise parallel to the second 
(bar the absent sister). The percipient was an eminent 
painter, an intimate friend of mine, and the dog began it. 
But my friend knew that the figure in grey had once been 
seen by his wife in the room where he sat. He has had no 
other visual hallucination, but you may invoke suggestion, as 
the appearance had once been seen before, and a lot of 
poltergeist was about. 


L. 1174. Dream. 

THE following account of a dream that occurred on December 
29th, 1908, about twenty-four hours after the Messina earth- 
quake, was sent to Mr. Andrew Lang by Miss Aitken, the 
sister-in-law of the dreamer, who wrote : 


February 2nd [1909]. 

I enclose my sister's account of her dream. It is almost exactly 
what she wrote to me the same morning. 


The letter enclosed was as follows : 

January 30th, 1909. 

I dreamt I was sitting at a breakfast table in a room all painted 
white ; facing the chimney piece at each end of the table were 

Major and Mrs. ; at the end of the room were two deep 

high windows looking upon a harbour. Suddenly the room began 
to rock ; the pictures swung out from the walls, and the ornaments 

on the chimney-piece rattled. I said to Major : " Do you 

think this is an earthquake ? " and he answered : " It looks uncom- 
monly like it." Then suddenly the whole room seemed to rise up 
towards me ; my two companions were turned over, chairs and all, 
and the whole of the breakfast things shot into my lap. I got out 
of the house and saw the sea in the harbour was very rough and 
a lot of ships rolling and pitching, and then there was another 

Cases. 73 

violent shock and I woke up. I don't think I was frightened, but 
my heart was shaking, and I felt very sick, as if I had just com.- 
off a rough sea. 

I woke my husband and told him what a vivid dream I had 
had of [an] earthquake; then I heard the clock in my room strik* 

That morning I saw in the newspapers that there had been a 
bad earthquake in Calabria, but there were no details to hand. 


Mr. Aitken writes : 


January 30th, 1909. 

My wife woke me in the early morning saying that she had 
dreamt that she had been in an earthquake, gave me the outlines 
of her story contained in her statement. At breakfast, when opening 
morning papers, there was a report of an earthquake having taken 

place in Sicily. 


In answer to our enquiries Mr. Lang wrote : 


ST. ANDREWS, SCOTLAND, Feb. 6th [1909]. 

. . . The first news of the earthquake reached Mrs. Aitken (Miss 
Aitken's sister-in-law) with the morning paper, probably the Scotsman^ 
at breakfast, after a dream which was before 5 a.m. 

It was, I think, about three weeks ago that Miss Aitken told 
me of her sister-in-law's letter. She wanted to know if the tremor 
could have been the cause of the dream. . . . The letter to Miss 
Aitken was written after the arrival of the newspaper on the same 
day. , . . 


Feb. 8th, 1909. 

I saw Miss Alice Aitken and her mother yesterday. The dream 
was at the address on the letter of the sister-in-law, which you 
have. They get the Scotsman about 10 a.m., and the Scotsman of 
Dec. 29 would contain the first sketchy news of the earthquake, 
unless it had reached the dreamer from an evening paper of Dec. 28. 
She is not aware of having heard of any earthquake till she got the 
Scotsman about 10 a.m. on Dec. 29. . . . The earthquake was at 
5.20 a.m. on Dec. 28. The news, therefore, could not appear in a 
morning paper of that day, but there may have been a second 
edition out about 8 a.m. , It seems certain that the dream was 

74 Journal of Society for Psychical Research. APKIL, 1000. 

on the day after the earthquake, that is, was [at] 5 a.m., Dec. 29, 
so it resembles dreams and crystal-gazings containing the contents 
of letters just about to arrive. . . . Miss Aitken thinks that 
in the torn-up letter to her of Dec. 29 the mew of the harbour icas not 
mentioned. . . . 

Mrs. Aitken, senior, remembers reading the letter of Dec. 29. 
It was torn up because the dreamer and Miss Aitken are in constant 
correspondence, and [the latter], at least, does not keep the letters. 
'The dreamer is coming here this week and I expect to meet her. 


After this meeting, Mr. Lang wrote again : 

Feb. nth [1909]. 

'The dreamer saw no evening paper of December 29 [28], and knew 
nobody in Sicily or Calabria. She says that she wrote very briefly 
on Dec. 29 to Miss Aitken on the dream, the hour of it, and the 
.tea-cups falling over on her when her chair was upset. Miss Aitken 
:gives this account of the letter of Dec. 29. ... 


The earthquake was reported in the evening papers of 
December 28th, 1908 ; but we have ascertained that there 
was no mention of it in any edition of the Scotsman of that 

In regard to the question whether any tremors had been 
felt in Scotland on the morning of December 29th, which 
might possibly have had some influence in causing the dream, 
we have received the following letter from the Eoyal Observatory, 
Edinburgh : 

March 2nd, 1909. 

I am desired by the Astronomer Royal for Scotland to say in 
reply to your letter of Feb. 23, that we have no information as to 
any earthquake tremors having been felt in the south of Scotland 
on the nights of Dec. 28, 29, 1908, nor is there any mention of 
tremors happening on these nights in the columns of the Scotsman 
newspaper. I may remind you, however, that the great Messina 
earthquake happened on the morning of Dec. 28, and tremors 
resulting from it were recorded from 4 h. 16 m. to 6 h. 14 m. of 
that morning on the seismograph of this Observatory, the maximum 
being at 4.37. 


L. 1175. Dream. 

THE following case was sent to us by Major-General Charles 
II. Owen, of Hfinlry, (Jamberley, Surrey, whose daughter, Mrs. 
('i)inyn, had a vivid dream of her mother a few hours before 
the latter's death, which, as stated in the Times of October 
14th, 1908, occurred on October llth. Mrs. Cornyn's account, 
extracted from a letter dated November 17th, 1908, is as 
follows : 

I will write out exactly what appeared to me, but I cannot say 
whether I was asleep or dozing, but all was quite clear to me at 
the time. On Saturday night I went to bed, the 10th; first about 
4. -SO I was awakened by three distinct scratchings on the door, 
which were also heard by the servants in their room at the top of 
the house. I then dozed off, and whether really asleep I cannot 
say, but there appeared to me my mother, looking very young, 
not more than 18 or 19. She was very pretty, lovely pink and white 
face, round beautiful eyes, also a great deal of brown hair; she 
was dancing about, when suddenly I heard singing, which seemed 
to come closer and closer, as if hundreds of voices (women's voices). 
My mother was there, and these voices sang and sang, at last so 
loudly, and seemed so powerful, that I then awoke, feeling my head 
in a whirl with the deafening voices ; my ears sang from the effect, 
and I felt very ill. I fancy this was between 5.30 and 6.30 a.m. 
on the morning of the llth. It must have been her soul soaring 
upwards, and she disappeared from sight. 

Mrs. Comyn adds on November 23rd, 1908 : 
When I saw my vision I heard the music distinctly coming nearer 
and nearer to my mother, and when it came closer she disappeared 
into the midst of these voices. She did not smile at me, but was 
smiling all the time in my dream. The singing was like that of 
angels, but I did not see the angels; but she went up with the 
voices, it seemed like amongst angels. 

(Signed) SOPHIA A. COMYN. 

Mrs. Comyn's statement was corroborated by her husband 
as follows : 

SOUTHSEA, January 19//&, 1909. 

On awakening about 7 a.m. my wife informed me that she had 
heard during the night distinct sounds like scratching at our door : 
that she then dozed again, and whether asleep or awake she knows 

76 Journal of Society for Psychical Research. APRIL, 1909. 

not, but heard the sound of many sweet and high voices quickly 
increasing in volume. She now perceived the presence of her 
mother, looking young as a girl, fair and pleasant. Her mother did 
not look at her, but disappeared as the voices became lost. 

My wife became very apprehensive, knowing of her mother's 
illness. Next morning at breakfast she ate nothing, and on a 
telegraph boy's arrival told me to open the message. I did so, and 
read the sad death of Mrs. Owen. The servants told me later that 
they had heard the scratching, but had seen nothing, and heard 
nothing more. 


Dep. Surgeon-General A. M.S. 

Dr. Comyn adds later : 

Feby. 6/A, 1909. 

My wife told me of her vision on Sunday morning, and the 
telegram from her father arrived at breakfast time the same day. 
I opened it at her request, she being then under the gravest appre- 
hension regarding her mother. 


P.S. The vision was about 5.30 on Sunday morning. 

General Owen, in sending the account, states that the shock 
so prostrated Mrs. Comyn that she could not attend the 
funeral, and adds : 

The description she here gives of her mother corresponds exactly 
with what she was when young. Her mother had a beautiful 
complexion, and large lovely eyes with deep soft expression, and 
brown hair plentiful then, although thin of late. The time of 
the vision was that of the last fatal attack, which lasted from 
about 6 to 8 a.m., and she was all this time quite insensible. Mrs. 
Owen had a strong idea that human beings had guardian angels 
watching over and assisting them in dangers and troubles, and 
always had a cast of a guardian angel hung above her bed. Although 
Mrs. Owen had been ill for a couple of weeks, neither I nor the 
nurse attending her, nor, I think, the doctor, thought she was going 
to die until an hour before the end; the doctor had declared she 
was better the day before. Mrs. Comyn had no reason to think so, 
as the accounts she had received were favourable. 


In regard to the question of how much anxiety existed as 
to Mrs. Owen's illness, General Owen kindly procured for us 

A IT. 1 1., i!o!. Cases. 77 

a medical statement from the doctor who attended her, and 
himself wrote on January 22nd, 1909: 

. . . No one thought she was going to die, and Mrs. Comyn 
had received my report that she was better. The vision frightened 
her, and caused her to fear the arrival of the wire received. 

The illness commenced with an attack of headache and sickness, 
and she had several other slighter ones, but was apparently getting 

over them. . . . 



THE following letter, referring to Mrs. Sidgwick's review (pub- 
lished in Proceedings, Part LVI.) of Professor Morselli's book 
on Eusapia Paladino, has been addressed to her by Professor 

CHERE MADAME SIDGWICK, J'ai lu avec un vif interet ce que vous 
dites des experiences deja bien anciennes d'Eusapia P. a Tile 
Rouband et & Carqueiranne, et tout ce que vous dites est parfaite- 
ment exact. 

Me permettez-vous d'ajouter un fait de detail a ces experiences, 
et sur ce point mon souvenir est tres precis. Quand les objets 
etaient fortement deplac6s autour, et qu'il y avait des attouchements 
repetes, vous teniez la main gauche et le Dr. Segard ten ait la main 
droite. Toute la question etait done de savoir si Segard tenait bien 
la main droite. Vous le lui demandiez sans cesse, et il repondait, 
"Je tiens la main droite." Alors, persuade de Timportance fonda- 
mentale de cette constatation, je lui ai dit (et meme je I'ai repete), 
" Prends garde, si tu te trompes, en affirmant ainsi que tu tiens la 
main droite, cest plus qu'une erreur ; c'est de la complicity ! " En effet 
il me parait important d'etablir aujourd'hui, apres quinze ans passes, 
que nous n'avons, ni les uns ni les autres, passe legerement sur ce 
ph6nomene de la main bien tenue par Segard. 

Voici, chere Madame Sidgwick, le seul point a ajouter a votre 
excellente notice de E. Morselli. 

Je profite de cette occasion, chere Madame, pour vous assurer de 
mes sentiments de tres profonde et respectueuse gratitude. 


78 Journal of Society for Psychical Research. APRIL, 1909. 


New Light on Immortality. By E. E, FOURNIER D'ALBE. Longmans, 
Green and Co. London, 1908. 334 pp. 6/- net. 

THE title-page of this book, with its description of the author as Hon. 
Secretary of the Dublin Section of the Society for Psychical Research, 
is somewhat misleading. It led us to look first for a discussion of 
the recent investigations conducted by the S.P.R. into the problem 
of survival. We found these just referred to, but not discussed, in 
a passage at the close of the book. For the rest, the phenomena 
of the type dealt with by the S.P.R. referred to as evidence support- 
ing the theories advanced in the book, date for the most part from 
a period of over thirty years ago. These phenomena, curious and 
puzzling as some of them are, can hardly be made to shed " New 
Light on Immortality" unless they are carefully discussed from the 
point of view of some new theory. 

Such a discussion is not seriously attempted by our author. For 
the most part he contents himself with quoting a miscellaneous 
selection of extracts of very diverse values from the writings of 
others on these subjects. He merely uses the alleged facts as 
illustrations of his theories, and makes no attempt to criticise the 
evidence on which his facts rest. He seems equally willing to ex- 
plain a rap as produced by supernormal as by normal means, and 
appears indeed to have a bias towards the supernormal explanation. 
For he mentions raps obtained in the presence of Miss Kate Fox 
in the text of his book, while he relegates her "confession" of 
fraud, with a caution against its too ready acceptance, to a footnote. 
No trace is shown of any feeling that a very careful scrutiny of 
the evidence for so-called supernormal phenomena is not only 
justifiable but necessary before these phenomena can be urged in 
support of any theory. We are free to confess that the effect upon 
us of reading the third part of the book, in which psychical matters 
are chiefly referred to, was a distinct weakening of the effect of 
the first two parts, in which the peculiar theories of the book are 
developed. For a theory that can be made to explain "the alleged 
' exposures ' of honest mediums " by the recombination of two forms 
and by the non-dematerialisation of drapery is apt to repel the 
serious investigator of matters psychical. It would, however, be a 
pity if the unsatisfactory nature of Part III. prevented readers from 
taking up the book at all. For Mr. Fournier D'Albe's speculations 
make very interesting reading. So long as they are regarded merely 
as speculations and nothing more, little can be urged against them 
in the way of criticism. The idea that the soul may consist of 
some 10 18 psychomeres, which pass out of the body at the time of 
death and float together to some higher stratum of the atmosphere, 
is harmless as a hypothesis and leads to a good deal of interesting 
theorising and to some clever pieces of writing on the part of the 

I'.'iv.'. Review. 7:> 

author. But it does not, so far as we can see from the book, find 
positive support in any known physical or physiological facts, while- 
it fails to give any adequate explanation of the very uncertain 
phenomena urged in its support. 

In fact the sole support of all the theories in the book and 
these theories are clainn-d to give "New Light on Immortality "- 
lies in ignorance rather than in knowledge. Now ignorance may 
fairly be allowed to open the door to speculations outside the 
pale of scientific orthodoxy, but it is not a safe key wherewith to 
unlock the inner chambers of truth. Some such attempt has been 
made with it by our author. Starting from the fact that we kn<\\ 
very little of the behaviour of individual atoms of matter, and still 
less of the meaning of the reactions of inorganic and organic 
chemistry, he deduces the conclusion that a materialistic hypothesis 
based upon a mechanical view of life has but a weak foundation. 
But he is not content with this, and proceeds to construct a rival 

His own scheme of nature is essentially this Life and freedom for 
the individual hold right down the scale from man to atom, and 
probably further. Our so-called natural laws apply only to aggregates 
of individuals, and correspond to the social laws governing the be- 
haviour of masses of men. Much is said by way of analogy in support 
of this idea. From the nature of the case little can be said by way of 
proof. But the conclusions derived from this hypothesis are freely 
scattered throughout the book in such a form that the ordinary reader 
might easily take them for statements of scientific fact. There is a 
serious danger for the general public in such treatment as this. 
A parade of scientific knowledge, in the absence of any careful 
discrimination between the purely speculative parts of a theory and 
those which are experimentally demonstrable, is apt to mislead the 
non-scientific reader, and we should wish to record a most emphatic 
protest against some of the expressions in the book. The list of 
conclusions given in the last chapter, unaccompanied as it is by 
certain very necessary qualifications, is a sample of the statements 
to which we think strong objection should be taken. 

The book has been put forward in the hope that it may provide the 
basis of a working hypothesis of a future life which may be accepted 
by scientists and theologians alike. Like so many eirenicons, we fear 
that it is likely to be rejected by both sides. Few scientists 
will have the patience to read it through, and those who do so will 
probably remain unconvinced. Few theologians will find it possible 
either to fit its conclusions into their present theories or to build up 
on its basis truer and deeper views of the universe. The book seems 
to fail wherever it aims at the serious discussion or solution of difficult 
problems. If it could be reissued as a series of delightful speculations 
with no claim to a true scientific character, we would gladly welcome 
it. As it is, since the writer has in all seriousness attacked a most 
difficult problem, it seems necessary to point out the fundamental 
defects in his attempted solution of it. 


80 Journal of Society for Psychical Research. APRIL, 1909. 


IN the February-March, 1909, number of The Journal of Abnormal 
Psychology, Dr. Morton Prince continues his monograph on The 
Unconscious. By the unconscious he means the neural dispositions 
which persist as the physiological residua of conscious experiences. 
Under certain conditions the ideas making up an experience tend 
to become organised into a system or complex, and when the 
experience is past, the mental complex is said to become dormant 
and the correlated nervous complex unconscious. The subsequent 
functioning of such dormant complexes is part of the ordinary 
mechanism of memory. But if the complex becomes dissociated so 
that it cannot be synthetised with the main stream of consciousness, 
its functioning gives rise to the phenomenon of co-consciousness 
(usually called sub-consciousness). In certain psychological states it 
is a question whether we have to do with a physiological complex 
without consciousness, or with a co-conscious complex. 

W. D. Scott defends the thesis that the psycho-analytic method 
of Breuer and Freud (see Human Personality ', Vol. I., p. 50) is nothing 
more than an unusually skilful application of the method of 
suggestion, and that it offers no proof for the existence of sub- 
conscious complexes of suppressed emotional ideas. 

An abstract is given of a case of suicide prevented by a hallucina- 
tion which was recorded by Th. Flournoy in the Archives de Psychologic, 
Vol. VII., No. 26, Oct., 1907. 

In the Revue de V Hypnotisme, of February, 1909, there is a short 
note on some experiments in thought-reading which took place at 
a meeting of the Societe d'hypnologie. It seemed plain to the 
members that there was in this case no true thought-reading, but 
merely muscle-reading of the Cumberland type. 

Dr. Paul Farez exposes the mystery of the Mexican "jumping 
beans," whose movements have been believed by some people to be 
produced by an effort of will on the part of the exhibitor. Each 
of these beans (Sebastiania palmeri) contains one or more larvae 
(Glaeocapsa saltitans) which, having eaten all the soft interior of the 
bean, remain imprisoned by the thin hard shell. It is the move- 
ments of the larvae which cause the bean to "jump." 

Professor Benedikt of Vienna contests the conclusion of Peterson 
and Kennelly (N.Y. Med. Jour., 1892) that the physiological and 
therapeutical action of magnets, described by Charcot, Benedikt, and 
Hammond, is due to suggestion. He gives some instances from his 
own experience, in which he claims, on what appears to us insufficient 
grounds, that the possibility of suggestion was excluded. 

T. W. M. 

No. CCLIX. VOL. XIV. MAY, 1909. 



Society for Psychical Research 



New Members and Associates, 82 

Meeting of the Council, 83 

Private Meeting for Members and Associates, 84 

Mental Types : A Suggestion for Experiments. By Edward Bullough, - 84 

VI"> Congres International de Psychologic, .-,.-- 89 
Review: Professor W. F. Barrett's "Thoughts of a Modern Mystic." By 

J. W. Graham, 94 

Donations received for Research, 96 


A Private Meeting of the Society 





On TUESDAY, MAY iSt/i, 1909, at ^ p.m. 


" A New Group of Automatic Writers " 



N.B. No Tickets of Admission are issued for this Meeting. Members 
and Associates will be asked to sign their names on etitering. 

82 Journal of Society for Psychical Research. MAY, 1909. 


Names of Members are printed in Black Type. 

Names of Associates are printed in SMALL CAPITALS. 

Assheton-Smith, Mrs,, Vaynol, Bangor, North Wales. 

Bailie, Mrs., 54 Sloane Street, London, S.W. 

Moss-Cockle, Mrs., 26 Hertford Street, Mayfair, London, W. 

ADKIN, MRS. G. E., Crudwell Rectory, Malmesbury, Wilts. 

BALL, MRS. SIDNEY, St. John's House, St. Giles', Oxford. 

BRADLEY, F. H., Merton College, Oxford. 

CANTACUZENE, PRINCESS HELENE, Edintzy, Bessarabia, Russia. 

CARPENTER, MRS., Withleigh, Shoot-up-Hill, Brondesbury, London, 

CAWLEY, THOMAS ARTHUR, Lea Dale, New Bedford Road, Luton, 

ELDRED, EDWARD HENRY, Fleet Paymaster R.N., H.M.S. "Bulwark," 

Channel Fleet. 

ELLIS, HERBERT, 120 Regent Road, Leicester. 
FFOULKES, MRS., 4 Nevern Square, Earl's Court, London, S.W. 
FLUGEL, J. C., Craven hurst, Reigate, Surrey. 
HANSON, MRS., 7 Canning Place, Kensington, London, W. 
HOLLINS, MRS., 24 Sussex Place, Regent's Park, London, N.W. 
JACKS, L. P., M.A, 28 Holywell, Oxford. 
LEAF, Miss ELLEN, 2 The Abbey Garden, Westminster, London, 


LEGGATT, EDWARD O. EVERY, I.C.S., Saharanpur, U.P., India. 
LIBRARIAN, Newberry Library, Chicago, 111., U.S.A. 
LIBRARIAN, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pa., U.S.A. 
M'ADAM, D. J., JUNR., Ph.D., Leonard Hall, South Bethlehem, Pa., 

NOEL, Miss FRANCES, 40 Beaufort Mansions, Chelsea, London, 


POGSON SMITH, MRS., Bourkes, Blackball Road, Oxford. 
ROBBINS, G. M'L., Titusville, Florida, U.S.A. 

ROE, Miss JESSIE T., 55 Nightingale Vale, Woolwich, London, S.E. 
ST. DAVIDS, THE LADY, 43 South Str., Park Lane, London, W. 
SCHOELLER, W. R., Ph.D., c/o The British Gelatine Works, Ltd., 

Luton, Beds. 

MAY, 1909. New Members and Associates. 83 

SCOTT, W. SIBBALD, M.B., Hampton-in-Arden, Warwickshire. 
SHAKESPEAR, MRS. H. HOPE, 12 Brunswick Gardens, Kensington, 

London, W. 

SMALL, MRS. WILLIAM, 9b Hyde Park Mansions, London, W. 
SMITH, WILLIAM P., Crestline, Ohio, U.S.A. 
THORNLEY, THE REV. ALFRED, M.A., 17 Mapperley Road, 


VAN MKTER, SOLOMON L., JUNR., Exeter College, Oxford. 
WRCHOVSZKY, WILHELM, Kronprinz Rudolf Str. 12, Vienna, II./8. 


THK 96th Meeting of the Council was held at 20 Hanover 
Square, London, W., on Tuesday, March 30th, 1909, at 3 p.m., 
the President, Mrs. Henry Sidgwick, in the chair. The following 
Members of Council were present : Mr. W. W. Baggally, the 
Rt. Hon. Gerald W. Balfour, Professor W. F. Barrett, Mr. E. 
N. Bennett, Sir William Crookes, the Hon. Everard Feilding, 
the Eev. A. T. Fryer, Sir Lawrence Jones, Sir Oliver Lodge, 
Mr. W. M'Dougall, Mr. J. G. Piddington, Mr. St. G. L. Fox 
Pitt, Lieut-Colonel G. L. Le M. Taylor, Dr. C. Lloyd Tuckey, 
and Mrs. Verrall ; also Miss Alice Johnson, Research Officer, 
and Miss Isabel Newton, Secretary. 

The minutes of the last Meeting of the Council were read 
and signed as correct. 

Three new Members and thirty-one new Associates were 
elected. Their names and addresses are given above. 

The monthly accounts for January and February, 1909, 
were presented and taken as read. 

On the proposal of Sir Oliver Lodge, seconded by Sir 
Lawrence Jones, the Right Hon. Gerald W. Balfour was elected 
a member of the Committee of Reference. 

It was decided that the front rooms of the office should be 
re-decorated, and the Secretary was instructed to obtain an 
estimate for painting and papering, etc., and to submit it to 
the House and Finance Committee. 

An application for the recognition of a Local Section at 
Philadelphia was brought forward ; and on the proposal of 
Professor Barrett, seconded by Mr. G. W. Balfour, the applica- 
tion was granted. 

84 Journal of Society for Psychical Research. MAT, 1009. 

The President's Introductory Note to the forthcoming Report 
on Sittings with Eusapia Palladino was read, and after discussion 
and amendment, approved of. 

On the President's proposal, seconded by Mr. Piddington, a 
vote of thanks was passed to Mr. G. B. Dorr for the work he 
has been doing for the Society with Mrs. Piper, and the great 
trouble he has taken in the matter. 

A letter was read from Mr. Frank Podmore resigning his 
seat on the Council. The Council commissioned the Hon. 
Secretary to convey to him their cordial recognition of his 
great services to the Society and their deep regret at his 

Permission was given to Mr. Podmore to make use of some 
cases in the Proceedings and Journal for a book on psychical 
research on which he is now engaged. 

The Council filled the vacant place among their elected 
Members by appointing to it Dr. F. C. S. Schiller, hitherto a 
co-opted member. 


THE 26th Private Meeting of the Society for Members and 
Associates only was held in the large Hall at 20 Hanover Square, 
London, W., on Tuesday, March 30th, 1909, at 4 p.m.; the 

Miss ALICE JOHNSON read a paper on " Some Incidents in 
the Script of Mrs. Holland," which it is hoped will appear later 
in the Proceedings. 


THE following method of experimenting, with a view to estab- 
lishing the personal identity of " controls," occurred to me a 
little while ago as offering perhaps a novel chain of problems 
of relatively easy access. 

Hitherto the proofs of such identity have been attempted 
by showing that the contents of manifestations or communica- 
tions, the purport of messages from the controls, correspond to 
or are identical with the experience (memories, associations, 

MAY, ifKW. M '>-/> / < 1 1 Types : A Suggestion for Experiments. 85 

etc.), which the deceased and "controlling" personality was 
known to have possessed. Such a line of testing is indeed 
the most natural, and the advantage of such a "proof by 
content" is unquestionably its relatively objective validity. It 
furthermore appears that to those who personally knew the 
deceased, the communications seemed in many cases also 
strikingly characteristic of the person, not in respect to their 
content, but by reason of the particular form which the message 
took. Thus an acquaintance of the late Mr. X, might feel 
with regard to a certain communication: "This is just how X. 
would have put it " ; the convincing point being not so much 
ii-hat was said, but how it was said. The " life-likeness " of 
communications which is bound to carry much conviction with 
those to whom they are addressed is obviously founded largely 
upon this characteristic form of the messages. At the same 
time it is evident that such a formal similarity between the 
turn of phrase of the message and the turn of mind of the 
deceased can only be of definite value to the person who 
enjoyed his acquaintance, and would . carry little weight beyond 
being " subjectively convincing " if I may say so in that 

Now the point of my suggestion lies in the fact that the 
method proposed would from this side the side of form too 
be capable of yielding objectively valid results, accessible to 
closer and more precise study than so-called " characteristic 
expressions " usually are ; and that, combined with " proofs by 
content," they might form a valuable reinforcement of the 
latter. Even if found useless from this point of view, experi- 
ments on these lines might help to cast a little light upon 
the unknown conditions of communication, created by the co- 
operation, and probable interference, of a second the medium's 

The suggestion is based upon the assumption that it is not 
merely in respect of the content or matter of experience and 
its elaboration that one mind differs from another, but that 
persons differ also, and more fundamentally, by reason of the 
particular type of mind which they severally possess, and which 
in its turn determines only secondarily the selection and 
utilisation of experience at large. Thus two persons might, 
even with complete identity of experience (of course, an impos- 

86 Journal of Society for Psychical Research. MAY, 1909. 

sible case), yet differ in the form of their mentality. This in its 
wider sense is self-evident ; every one recognises at once that 
the late F. W. H. Myers was of a cast of mind different from 
the late Edmund Gurney or the late Dr. Hodgson ; but in this 
general sense this fact could not be subjected to experimentation 
or tests. It would be necessary to select less vague and more 
hidden peculiarities of the mind, peculiarities less likely to 
draw attention to themselves, and therefore less exposed to 
imitation (by the medium's subliminal mind or secondary per- 
sonalities), in order to obtain definite data for comparison. 
The peculiarities I have in view are those differences which 
are known to exist between certain types of mind, described 
as " visual," " auditive," " motor," etc., types, with their sub- 
divisions or modifications, each possessing its own kind of 
" imagery," memory and associations, organised upon the basis 
of its particular type. Although the majority of people are of 
a mixed type, relatively pure examples are by no means 
infrequent, and can easily be detected by means of a few test- 
questions. Let us assume that a representative of the auditive 
type tries to communicate to another, say the meeting with 
a person, unknown to the latter: the question, what was he 
like ? would meet with little response ; the answer would 
probably be : he has a very agreeable voice and said . . . ; 
of the external appearance nothing, except generalities, would 
be remembered ; nothing of those minor details which alone stamp 
a person's appearance as characteristic of him and him alone. On 
the other hand, it would be manifestly useless to ask a " visual " 
for a description of an auditive impression, as I know from per- 
sonal experience. There is nothing more difficult for me than to 
describe, for instance, a concert, as, in spite of the momentary 
enjoyment of the music, I cannot remember the music itself, 
though I may vaguely recall specially striking passages, by 
means of motor-images. Even within the visual sphere, my 
colour-memory is less reliable than my linear-memory, and I 
usually notice the outlines of objects more easily than their 
colouring. Thus for each individual type the differences can 
be refined beyond the main distinctions. 

Such peculiarities, if at all pronounced, generally lead to 
the working of the whole mental apparatus on the lines of 
the special tendencies. " Visuals " organise their present ex- 

MAY, 1909. Mental Types : A Suggestion for Experiments. 87 

periences as well as their memory of past ones on a visual, 
" uuditives " on an auditive basis, etc., and can communicate 
experiences only in terms of their particular imagery. 

These considerations may suggest the following possibilities: 

(1) Differences of type may constitute a special difficulty to 
telepathic communication. As I have personally no experience 
whatever, I must appeal to the experience of others, who may 
prove this to be a merely imaginary obstacle. Is it possible 
to communicate to a " non-visual " the visual image of an 
object, say a cross ? can you convey to him the image " -f " or 
only the word-image " cross," or the motor-image " X " or the 
general idea " cross " ? If " cross " is conveyed at all, how has 
it been transferred to him ? This, it seems to me, would be a 
case in which the interference of the second mind might be 
experimentally tested. 

There is undoubtedly the difficulty that telepathic "experi- 
ments " of a complicated nature are at present not yet sufficiently 
developed to allow of tests of this kind. It might, however, 
be a step towards approaching them from the experimental side, 
to apply the test to cases of elementary thought-transference, such 
as were undertaken by the Society some years ago. Might 
not, even in such elementary attempts to transfer an idea or 
image, instances of failure be due to some extent to incompati- 
bility of mental type ? Among the few successful telepathic 
experiments of a complex kind, those of the Misses Miles and 
Kamsden could perhaps prove of the greatest value. In what 
form of imagery do they attempt to convey or receive their 
transmitted thoughts ? To what degree is there any original 
agreement of mental type between them ? 

(2) A complication might arise from the fact that, as it 
seems, the missing types of imagery of the waking-state are 
regained in dream-states. At least in the " hypnagogic " con- 
dition, non- visuals recover their visualising power and visual 
imagery. Does the subliminal consciousness always retain its 
imagery complete, while only the supraliminal consciousness 
represents a special type ? Yet, as I believe Miss Goodrich- 
Freer pointed out, visualising power is essential for crystal- 
gazing. What conditions prevail in trance-states ? Eetention 
of the ordinary type or recovery of missing imagery ? 

(3) The application of these ideas to the messages purporting 

88 Journal of Society for Psychical Research. MAY, 1009. 

to come from the dead is obvious. The agreement or disagree- 
ment of the terms of a communication with the known imagery 
possessed by its " control " during his terrestrial existence might 
be of considerable value, especially if by means of numerous 
preliminary experiments with living subjects the positive im- 
portance of such an agreement could be shown. If it were 
objected that the conditions after death could hardly be brought 
into comparison with life here, as regards mental imagery, 1 it 
could be urged in return that, since a certain mind on this 
side was of a certain type, this mind's memory could, in the 
beyond, scarcely be changed in respect to terrestrial experiences 
which were all organised on the lines of this particular type, 
which only existed for him, so to speak, in terms of this type 
and could not well be communicated in any other terms. It 
would, for the same reason, appear unreasonable to expect from 
a " non-visual," for instance, information, intended for purposes 
of identification, which could only be given in visual terms. 
That there must have been in some measure obstacles of this 
kind seems to me evident, in the failure, for instance, to 
correctly convey test-passages from writings, or the difficulty 
experienced by "Hodgson" in communicating the word "Arrow" 
(Proceedings S.P.R, Vol. XXII. pp. 77-86). 

The ideal problem would be, in the case of an individual of a 
clearly-established, pure type, attempting to communicate through 
a medium, whose ordinary, as well as trance-imagery (if 
necessary ?) is known, to ascertain to what extent these messages 
conform to the type previously exhibited by him, or to what 
extent deviations from it might be referable to the interferences 
of the medium. This latter question could easily be separately 
studied by means of telepathic experiments and suggestions with 
subjects in the waking state, in trance and under hypnosis. 

These suggestions are not only intended for the study of the 
" controls " now upon the scene, although it would probably be 
possible to form a fairly accurate idea of Mr. Myers', Mr. 

1 The theoretical objection based upon the presumable physiological connexion 
between imagery and certain brain-centres, according to which imagery naturally 
ceases with the destruction of the brain at death, is a fundamental difficulty 
attaching to all "communications," and need not be specially considered here, 
the more so as it can be met by the same explanations which have been advanced 
as rendering the facts of communications from surviving personalities possible. 

MAY, woo. Mental Types: A '/</</>*//'<>// for J^cperiments. 89 

Gurney's or Dr. Hodgson's imagery from their writings. In 
order to render the proceedings truly experimental and of 
' prospective " utility, the experiments ought to include especially 
the study of the mental types of living beings, of such, for 
instance if the mention of names may be excused as Sir Oliver 
Lodge, Prof. William James, Mr. Piddington, Mrs. Verrall, etc., as 
of persons most likely to figure after their death as "controls." 
Whether we regard " communications " from the spiritistic point 
of view or explain them by the theory of dramatic impersonations 
of the medium's secondary personality, there is in any case a 
strong presumption of certain people eventually playing a part in 

Altogether the scope of the experiments is considerably wider 
than their application to the present state of the Society's work 
only. They would involve experimentation on a large number of 
side-issues (as the above-mentioned differences between supra- 
and sub-liminal imagery, hypnotic imagery, trance-imagery, inter- 
ference by a second person, as a medium or a mere receiver of 
transmitted thoughts) and if the value of imagery as a criterion 
could be shown, the organised registration of living beings, 
according to their mental characteristics, for possible reference 
after their death. 

It seems to me that, even if leading to no positive results, 
this line of experimenting might conceivably throw a little 
light upon the so far quite unknown conditions of mediumship, 
and might possibly as experiments so often do direct atten- 
tion to other ideas infinitely more valuable than the initial 



GENEVE 3-7 aout 1909. 
Circulaire No. 2 (Fevrier 1909). 

LE VI me Congres international de Psychologie s'ouvrira a Geneve le 
mardi matin 3 aout et durera jusqu'au samedi 7 aout inclusivement 
(le lundi soir 2 aout il y aura deja une reunion familiere des 
Congressistes presents & Geneve). 

Voici le programme des travaux du prochain Congres tel qu'il 
se presents a cette heure. 

90 Journal of Society for Psychical Research. MAY, 1909. 



Un certain nombre de questions dont plusieurs nous ont ete 
suggerees du dehors ont ete raises a 1'ordre du jour de nos dis- 
cussions. Les Rapporteurs qui ont bien voulu se charger de les 
introduire devant le Congres ont 6te pries de nous envoyer leurs 
rapports le plus vite possible, afin que nous puissions les faire im- 
primer et les expedier a toutes les personnes inscrites comme membres 
du Congres. Elles pourront ainsi les lire a loisir et preparer leurs 
remarques et objections en connaissance de cause. Cela permettra 
aux rapporteurs de ne donner a la seance meme qu'an court resume" 
de leur travail, et laissera plus de temps aux discussions, qui seront 
d'autant plus nourries et fecondes que les congressistes auront pu y 
r6flechir a 1'avance. 

Ces questions sont les suivantes : 


1. Les Sentiments. Rapporteurs : MM. le prof. 0. Kiilpe (Wiirz- 
burg) et le Dr. P. Sollier (Paris). 

2. Le Subconscient. Rapporteurs : MM. les prof. M. Dessoir (Berlin), 
P. Janet (Paris) et Morton Prince (Boston). 

3. La Mesure de V Attention. Rapporteurs : MM. les prof. M. L. 
Patrizi (Modene) et Th. Ziehen (Berlin). 

4. Psychologie des Phdnomenes religieux. Rapporteurs : MM. les prof. 
H. Hoffding (Copenhague) et J. Leuba (Bryn Mawr). 



5. Classification psycho-pe'dagogique des ArrUrts scolaires. Rappor- 
teurs : MM. le Dr. O. Decroly (Bruxelles), le prof. G. C. Ferrari 
(Imola-Bologne), le Dr. Th. Heller (Vienne), le prof. L. Witmer 

6. La Mtthodologie de la Psychologic pedagogique. Rapporteur : Mile, 
le Dr. I. loteyko (Bruxelles). 


7. Les Tropismes. Rapporteurs : MM. le Dr. G. Bohn (Paris), les 
prof. Fr. Darwin (Cambridge), H. S. Jennings (Baltimore) et J. Loeb 

1 D'un interest moins general pour 1'ensemble des Congressistes que les sujets 
precedents, ces dernieres questions pourront faire 1'objet de seances particu- 
lieres paralleles destinees aux personnes qui s'en occupent specialement. 

MAY, 1009. VI' M ConyreH International de Psychologic. 91 

8. L'orientation lointaine. Rapporteur: M. le prof. A. Thauzies, 
president de la Federation des Socie'te's colombophiles de POuest-Sud- 
Oucst (PeVigueux). 


'.'. La perception des Positions et Monuments de notre corps et de nos 
mernbres. Rapporteur : M. le prof. B. Bourdon (Rennes). 


Toutes les sciences, arrivees a un certain point de leur deVelop- 
pement, n^cessitent I'^tablissement de certaines conventions simpli- 
ficatrices en fait de vocabulaire et d'^quivalences terminologiques, 
de proce'de's techniques, d'unites de mesure, etc. Les congres inter- 
nationaux sont 1'occasion la plus propice pour jeter les premieres 
bases de ce travail d'entente et pour organiser des commissions 
permanentes auxquelles incombera la tache de le mener a bonne fin. 

II nous semble que pour la Psychologic aussi le moment est venu 
d'entreprendre activement cette ceuvre d'unification, en faveur de 
laquelle un voeu avait e"te d6ja emis il y a neuf ans au Congres de 
Paris. C'est pourquoi nous inscrivons les quelques articles suivants 
au programme de notre reunion de cet etc* : 

1. Terminologie. Comme introduction a ce sujet et pour engager 
nos collegues de tons pays & nous apporter leurs idees et leurs 
suggestions utiles en ce domaine un pen aride a premiere vue, nous 
publierons et leur enverrons au cours de ce printemps un premier 
essai ou avant-projet de convention, portant sur un certain nombre 
de notions indispensables et d'un emploi constant dans les recherches 
de psychologic experimentale. 

2. Etalonnage des Couleurs (Standard-Colours). II serait fort de- 
sirable que les divers experimentateurs qui ont a se servir de couleurs 
dans leurs investigations puissent les designer d'une faon a la fois 
precise, simple et commode, en se refe"rant a une echelle numerotee 
suivant les nuances et les degres de saturation, et universellement 
admise comme etalon. Nous invitons ceux de nos collegues qui sont 
competents dans cette branche, ainsi que les fabricants d'appareils 
d'optique ou de papiers de couleur, & nous apporter leurs propositions, 
et, eventuellement, des echantillons. 

Nous esperons que cette question si importante sera introduite au 
Congres par M. le prof. W. Nagel (Rostock). 

3. Mode de numeration des f antes dans les experiences de temoignage. 
M. Otto Lipmann, Dr. phil. (Berlin) rapportera. 

4. Notation de I'dge des enfants. Certains auteurs ont 1'habitude 

92 Journal of Society for Psychical Research. MAY, 1909. 

d'indiquer en jours ou en semaines 1'age des enfants. Cette notation 
est mal commode : on ne voit pas tout de suite quel est 1'age qui 
correspond au 164 me jour ou a la 89 me semaine. Nous proposerons an 
Congres d'adopter le mode de notation recemment emplo} r e par Stern. 

5. Determination mathe'matique des rdsultats numdriques des experiences. 
Lorsqu'il s'agit de prendre la moyenne d'un grand nombre de 
resultats, ou de chercher la correlation de caracteres psychiques ou 
autres, de difficiles problemes se posent a 1'investigateur. Ces pro- 
blemes, cependant, sont de nature trop delicate et speciale pour que 
nous ayons demande a des rapporteurs de les introduire devant le 
Congres avant de savoir si certains de nos collegues desirent qu'ils 
figurent & Tordre du jour. Si c'est le cas, nous sommes prets a 
organiser une seance speciale qui reunirait les personnes s'interessant 
a ces questions de math^matique appliquee. 

Les membres du Congres qui desireraient que d'autres objets 
d'unification fussent porte"s a 1'ordre du jour sont pries de bien 
vouloir nous en aviser au plus tot. 



Toutes les personnes (psychologies, fabricants, etc.) qui auraient 
Fintention d'exposer pendant le Congres des instruments, appareils, 
livres ou brochures, collections et objets divers concernant les 
recherches et 1'enseignement de la psychologic, ou de faire des de- 
monstrations experimentales, sont prices de nous en donner avis le 
plus vite possible, avec toutes les indications necessaires pour que 
nous puissions leur re"server Pemplacement qu'elles desirent. 



Ainsi que nous 1'avons indique dans notre premiere circulaire, un 
de nos vifs d6sirs en tachant de concentrer les efforts des congres- 
sistes sur les themes de discussion indiques plus haut serait de 
reagir contre cette plethore de communications individuelles dispa- 
rates dont les derniers Congres ont tant eu a souffrir. Cependant, 
nous ne nous sentons pas le droit de fermer d'emblee et absolument 
la porte aux travaux inedits et particulierement interessants que des 
membres croiraient devoir presenter au Congres. C'est pourquoi 
nous conservons cette rubrique des Communications individuelles, en 
priant leurs auteurs eventuels de bien vouloir nous les annoncer le 
plus vite possible (au plus tard avant le 15 juin). L'organisation de 
Sections particulieres pour y r^partir ces communications indiyi- 

MAY, 1909. VI me Congr&a International de Psychologic. 93 

duelles ne se fera qu'ulterieurement, selon le nombre et la nature 
de celles-ci. 

Toutefois, vu lea demandes qui nous en ont etc* adresse'es par 
plusieurs biologistes, nous instituons des maintenant une Section de 
psyclwlogie animale, qui fonctionnera pendant toute ou partie de la 
diiifft du Congres. 

Les psycho-zoologistes sont done invites a presenter a cette Section 
des communications individuelles, en les accompagnant si possible de 
presentation d'animaux. 

Communications deja annoncees : 

M. le prof. R. M. Yerkes (Harvard, Cambridge, Mass.), Scientific 
methods in animal psychology (avec demonstration d'appareils). 

M. Hachet-Souplet (Paris), Thtorie et applications psychologiques du 

Les personnes qui s'inte"ressent au Congres de Psychologic sont 
prires de bien vouloir envoyer au plus tot & notre tresorier leur 
adhesion accompagnee d'un mandat-postal de 20 fr., en retour duquel 
elles recevront une carte de Membre du Congres et toutes les 
publications y relatives, rapports, imprimes, etc., au fur et a mesure 
de leur apparition. (Chaque congressiste peut obtenir pour les autres 
membres de sa famille des cartes a moitie prix, 10 fr., donnant droit 
aux memes avantages, receptions, etc., que les cartes entieres, sauf 
les publications et le volume des comptes rendus du Congres.) 


TH. FLOURNOY, President. 
P. LADAME, Fice-President. 
ED. CLAPAREDE, Secretaire ge'ne'ral. 
L. CELLERIER, Trdsorier. 

N.B. Adresser tout ce qui concerne le Congres (en dehors des 
cotisations) au Secretaire general, '11, avenue de Champel, Geneve. 

Adresser les adhesions avec les cotisations (par mandat-postal "ou 
cheque) a M. Lucien Cellerier, Montchoisy, Geneve. 

nomme par le Congres de Rome, avril 1905. 

Kr. Aars (Christiania). M. Baldwin (Baltimore). V. M. Bech- 
terevv (St-Petersbourg). A. Binet (Paris). B. Bourdon (Rennes). 

1 Les membres du comite* de propagande sont pries de nous indiquer par 
carte postale le nombre de circulaires qu'ils d^sirent pour les repandre autour 
d'eux ; ils les recevront par retour du courrier. 

94 Journal of Society for Psychical Research. MAY, 1909. 

F. Brentano (Florence). J. Me. Cattell (New York). E. y Cajal 
(Madrid). Ed. Claparede (Geneve). J. Demoor (Bruxelles). S. de 
Sanctis (Rome). W. McDougall (Oxford). G. Dumas (Paris). H. 
Ebbinghaus (Breslau). A. Ehrenfels (Prague). S. Exner (Vienne). 

G. C. Ferrari (Bologne). D. Ferrier (Londres). P. Flechsig (Leipzig). 
Th. Flournoy (Geneve). A. Forel (Yvorne). F. Galton (Londres). 
S. E. Henschen (Stockholm). E. Hering (Leipzig). H. Hoffding 
(Copenhague). A. Hofler (Prague). G. Heymans (Utrecht). W. 
James (Cambridge, Mass.). P. Janet (Paris). O. Kiilpe (Wurz- 
bourg). P. Ladame (Geneve). G. T. Ladd (New Haven, Conn.). M. 
Lange (Odessa). A. Lehmann (Copenhague). Th. Lipps (Munich). 
N. O. Looskij (St-Petersbourg). L. Luciani (Rome). L. Magalaes 
(Lisbonne). A. Marty (Prague). Al. Meinong (Graz). M. Mendels- 
sohn (St-Petersbourg). G. Mingazzini (Rome). E. Morselli (Genes). 
A. Mosso (Turin). Y. Motora (Tokio). J. Mourly-Vold (Christiania). 
H. Munsterberg (Cambridge, Mass.). Novicow (Odessa). L. M. 
Patrizi (Modene). G. Retzius (Stockholm). Th. Ribot (Paris). 
Ch. Richet (Paris). Y. Sakaki (Fukuoka). Von Schrenk-Notzing 
(Munich), f E. Sciamanna (Rome). J. Seglas (Paris). U. T. Sere- 
brennikow (St-Petersbourg). G. Sergi (Rome). P. Sollier (Paris). 
R. Sommer (Giessen). G. Stanley Hall (Worcester, Mass.) C. N. 
Stewart (Cleveland, Ohio). C. Strong (New York). G. F. Stout (St- 
Andrews). Anderson Stuart (Sidney). C. Stumpf (Berlin). J. Sully 
(London). A. Tamburini (Reggio d'Emilie). J. de Tarchanof (St- 
P6tersbourg). A. Thiery (Louvin). E. B. Titchener (New York). E. 
Toulouse (Paris), f N. Vaschide (Bucarest). J. Ward (Cambridge, 
England). C. Winkler (Amsterdam). W. Wundt (Leipzig). H. 
Zwaardemaker (Utrecht). 


Thoughts of a Modern Mystic. A Selection from the Writings of the late 
C. C. Massey. Edited by PROFESSOR W. F. BARRETT, F.R.S. 
London: Kegan Paul, Trench, Trubner & Co., Ltd. 1909. Pp. 
iv + 227. 3s. 6d. net. 

PROFESSOR BARRETT has raised a memorial tribute to his friend Mr. 
Massey, who was, like himself, one of the founders of the Society 
for Psychical Research, but who, in very early days, retired from 
it because he was out of sympathy with its demand for scientific 
tests for what could be seen, or weighed, or measured, or 
recounted in safe human testimony. His method of acquiring 

MAY, 1909. Review. 95 

knowledge was an inward method, and he applied a life of large 
leisure, unfettered by domestic or professional cares, to thinking 
and writing on ultimate things. 

He lived in chambers in Victoria Street, Westminster, was much 
in the Athenaeum Club, and died in 1905 at the age of sixty-seven. 
He was, by universal testimony, an attractive personality, an 
earnest and fearless thinker, ever engaged in the pursuit of 
abstract truth. Indeed, his friend Laurence Oliphant wrote to him 
that it would do him good to drop his restless questioning for a 
while, and live an outdoor life of physical exercise, inasmuch as 
he was like a man whose head was in a hot box and his body 
suffering from cold. At one time he thought of joining Laurence 
Oliphant at Haifa in Syria. At another he approached the 
Catholic Church, but could not join that either; so he remained 
ever a hovering inquirer, not easily labelled, except as a spiritualist 
who did not value material manifestations, and a theosophist who 
did not value Mahatmas. 

We must also admit that he is an author whom it is very 
difficult to read. He had not the gift of style, and we have 
valued the occasional elucidation added by the editor. He coined 
a number of new words, which a reader has to learn, such as 
"mediated," which means brought into effective action through 
some such intervening medium as a Bible story, or a popular 
religion : " factural," which is applied to a truth not in its aspect 
as a general truth, but as partially revealed and partially obscured 
by some outward fact such as the Resurrection. 

The central idea in his mysticism if I may dare to attempt a 
description of what is so difficult to grasp is that historical 
statements are often crude, unreliable, and likely to be rejected ; 
they are the clothing of a truth behind them. Our author does 
not give us many illustrations of his meaning, but an instance of 
this would be that whilst the story of the Fall of Man is not 
historical, it represents the truth that the absorption of our spirits 
in the garment of flesh brings them into sin. To reach some such 
generalised truth is, then, the second stage of what is called 
"cognition" or "integration." The final stage is to rehabilitate the 
original fact in some way which is to be accepted, because it is 
found to be the vehicle of general principles even eternal truth. 

It will be seen that this sometimes leaves it difficult for a 
reader to know whether the author does, or does not, accept the 
ordinary historical facts with which he begins. One feels that 

96 Journal of Society for Psychical Research. MAY, 1909. 

mysticism of this type ought to be expressed, in order to be clear, 
not in the rather brief concentrated style of a conversational 
letter, but in carefully worded and expanded paragraphs. 

The following passages will give some idea of the author's manner 
of treatment. 

" Therefore, too, to speak of our nature the nature of our 
present consciousness as entitled to respect from 'interference,' 
is for me a radical nonconception of the religious problem. 
Certainly I do not believe in the Gospel narrative [of the Virgin 
Birth] as let alone in its crude immediacy as historic fact, but I 
conceive in its 'truth,' as having a process of intelligence, which 
must go through the negative 'moment' of denial of fact, but with 
the consummate result of a resurrection of the fact as dependent 
and consequent on the ideal or eternal truth which is in the 
history, and which eventually restores the very history which it 
breaks in its own evolution. ". . . . 

"It seems to me that if we deny the Virgin birth so explicitly 
stated in two of the Gospels, we may as well 'be hanged for a 
sheep as a lamb,' and deny the whole historic basis of Christi- 
anity all that realises its idea for us. Doubtless, the true 
realisation, the true ' witness,' must be in our own experience and 
I still often doubt. But as often do I recur to my belief in the 
' resurrection ' of the ' fact,' transfigured, surely, eternalised, ' raised ' 
to 'truth.'" 

It would be impossible to judge a difficult book of this kind by 
isolated paragraphs ; the reader has to get into its swing and 
acquire such a new vocabulary as indeed is to some extent inevit- 
able in mystical researches. 



WE have much pleasure in stating that a donation of 30 
has been received from Sir Oliver Lodge towards the expenses 
of the sittings with Eusapia Palladino recently held by Mr. 
Feilding, Mr. Baggally, and Mr. Carrington at Naples. Another 
member of the Society, who wishes to remain anonymous, has 
generously contributed 26 5s. for the same purpose. 

No. CCLX.-VoL. XIV. i , 1909. 



Society for Psychical Research. 



New Members and Associates, 98 

Meeting of the Council, 98 

Private Meeting for Members and Associates, 99 

Case, '.".> 

Review: Drs. Worcester, M'Comb, and Coriat'a "Religion and Medicine." 

By T. W. Mitchell, M.D., 100 

Notes on Current Periodicals, 104 

Correspondence: Identifying Characteristics of Living People. By Sir 

Oliver Lodge, Ill 

Mr. Dickinson's "Is Immortality Desirable?" 112 


A General Meeting of the Society 





On FRIDAY, JUNE i8//z, 1909, at 3.30 /.;//. 


" Some Sittings with Eusapia Palladino v 



It is hoped that SIR OLIVER LODGE and others will speak. 

N.B. Members and Associates will be admitted on signing their names 
at the door. Visitors will be admitted on the production of 
an invitation card signed by a Member or Associate. 

98 Journal of Society for Psychical Research. JUNE, 1909. 


Names of Members are printed in Black Type. 
Names of Associates are printed in SMALL CAPITALS. 

Chambers, John, Mokopeka, Hastings, Hawkes Bay, New Zealand. 

Frith, Mrs., Swynnerton Rectory, Stone, Staffordshire. 

Niven, Mrs. Graham, Carswell Manor, Faringdon, Berks. 

Tennant, Lady, Wilsford Manor, Salisbury. 

Walker-Munro, L., R.N., Rhinefield, Brockenhurst, Hants. 

BELL, Miss ALISON H., 11 St. Luke's Road, Westbourne Park, 

London, W. 
BOOTH, HERBERT L., Thirsk, Yorks. 

BRADLEY, PROFESSOR A. C., 9 Edwardes Square, Kensington, 
London, W. 

BROWN, GUSTAVUS R., 900 14th Street, Washington, D.C., U.S.A. 

HANSARD, MRS., 11 Granville Place, London, W. 

HARRISON, ARTHUR S., M.A., The Old Hall, Wellington, Salop. 

HARRISON, H. LEEDS, M.B., 104 Marine Parade, Worthing. 

LIBRARIAN, Library Association of Portland, Portland, Oregon, U.S.A. 

MANDEE, C. A., The Mount, Wolverhampton. 

NEWTON, Miss I., 20 Hanover Square, London, W. 

PARKE, RODERICK J. M., 179 Cottingham Street, Toronto, Canada. 

STUART, MRS., Gloucester House, Lansdown, Cheltenham. 

WILKINSON, Miss M. S., M.A., The Lodge School, The Park, Hull. 


THE 97th Meeting of the Council was held at 20 Hanover 
Square, London, W., on Tuesday, May 18th, 1909, at 6 p.m., 
the President, Mrs. Henry Sidgwick, in the chair. The following 
Members of Council were present : Mr. W. W. Baggally, the 
Hon. Everard Feilding, the Rev. A, T. Fryer, Sir Lawrence 
Jones, Sir Oliver Lodge, Mr. J. G. Piddington, Mr. St. G. L. 
Fox Pitt, Mr. Sydney C. Scott, Mr. A. F. Shand, Mr. H. 
Arthur Smith, Lieut.-Colonel G. L. Le M. Taylor, Mrs. Verrall,. 
and Mr. V. J. Woolley ; also Miss Alice Johnson, Research 
Officer, and Miss Isabel Newton, Secretary. 

JIM., 1909. Meeting of the Council. 99 

The minutes of the last Meeting of the Council were read 
and signed as correct. 

Five new Members and thirteen new Associates were elected. 
Their names and addresses are given above. 

The monthly accounts for March and April, 1909, were 
presented and taken as read. 


THE 27th Private Meeting of the Society for Members and 
Associates only was held in the large Hall at 20 Hanover Square, 
London, W., on Tuesday, May 18th, 1909, at 4 p.m.; the 

MRS. VERRALL read a paper on " A New Group of Automatic 
Writers," which it is hoped will appear later in the Proceedings. 


L. 1176. Veridical Impression. 

THE following case has been sent to us by Lady Rayleigh 
through Mrs. Sidgwick, the account being given in a letter 
from the Countess of Leitrim to Lady Rayleigh : 

GOVERNMENT HOUSE, NATAL, January 28th, 1909. 

Either on Sunday, December 20th, Monday, 21st, or Tuesday, 22nd, 
1908, I was conscious of a very definite knowledge that Lord 
Rayleigh was seriously ill. I had no dream about him, but so certain 
was I of the fact that, on coming on deck directly after breakfast, 
I told my mother, Mrs. Henderson. We were then at sea, some- 
where near the Equator, on our way to Cape Town. 

I had never had a definite impression in that way before, and was 
therefore particularly careful to tell my mother at once. 


Mrs. Henderson writes to Lady Rayleigh : 

GOVERNMENT HOUSE, NATAL, January 28th, 1909. 
One morning, in the early part of the week beginning the 20th 
of December, 1908, my daughter, Lady Leitrim, told me she had a 
very strong impression that Lord Rayleigh was ill. She said she 
could not understand why it was, as she had had no dream, but she 
felt certain that he was very ill. 


100 Journal of Society for Psychical Research. JUNE, im 

Lady Rayleigh writes : 

March '23rd, 1909. 

Lord Rayleigh and I went out to Cape Town in November, 1908. 
We travelled about a good deal, and on December 15th Lord Ray- 
leigh was taken suddenly and violently ill of dysentery, on his way 
by Cape cart from Mafeking to Zeerust. He managed to make 
the journey to Pretoria next day, and was laid up at Government 
House, Pretoria. He was sufficiently recovered to leave his room 
for a few hours on December 22nd, and to go downstairs on the 
25th. He was able to travel to Johannesburg in a sleeping carriage 
on December 28th. 

It was quite impossible for Lady Leitrim to have heard of his 
illness, as she was on the sea between Madeira and Cape Town at 
the time. 

She knew he was in S. Africa, and was looking forward to possibly 
meeting him there. 



Religion and Medicine : The Moral Control of Nervous Disorders, by ELWOOD 
WORCESTER, D.D., Ph.D., SAMUEL M'CoRiB, M.A. (Oxon.), D.D. 
(Glasgow), and ISADOR H. CORIAT, M.D. (London : Kegan Paul, 
Trench, Triibner & Co. 1908. Pp. x, 427. Price 6s. net.) 
IN the introduction to this book we are told that its object is to 
describe in plain terms the principles underlying the new medico- 
religious effort which goes by the name of the "Emmanuel movement" 
(from the name of the church in Boston where it originated), and the 
methods by which these principles are applied. This movement is the 
outcome of a conviction on the part of its founders that the Church has 
an important mission to discharge to the sick, and that the physician 
and the clergyman can work together to the benefit of the community. 
Being conversant with the striking results that have been obtained in 
the treatment of functional nervous disorders by modern psycho-thera- 
peutic methods, and recognizing that many of these disorders are 
associated with disturbances of the moral life, they formed the opinion 
that therapeutic suggestions combined with spiritual guidance and 
prayer would effect for sufferers of this kind more than could be 
effected in any other way. But although they thought that the clergy 
are by character and training specially qualified to practise treatment 
by suggestion, they realized that they might do harm rather than good 
if they undertook to treat unsuitable cases. They therefore made it a 

.i. n, I'.iu-.i. /.'- ' >>w. 101 

rule not to treat any case until a diagnosis of functional nervous 
disease had been made by a competent physician. 

The method of treatment employed is that method of modern psycho- 
therapy which is known as treatment by suggestion, with or without 
hypnosis, and the principles which are said to underlie this form of 
treatment are familiar to neurologists who have studied this branch of 
therapeutics, although by no means accepted by all of them. There is, 
indeed, even in this book, a fundamental difference of opinion between 
two of the writers in regard to the psychological status of what they 
both refer to as the " subconscious." Dr. Worcester believes that there 
is in each of us a subconscious mind which is a normal part of our 
spiritual nature, which has more direct control of the physical processes 
ami is, under certain conditions, more amenable to external control 
than our ordinary consciousness. Dr. Coriat takes a totally different 
view of the nature of the subconscious. He regards the subconscious 
as being always due to a dissociation of consciousness ; and to a sub- 
consciousness so originating no peculiar powers can be ascribed. This 
opinion regarding the nature of the subconscious is held by the majority 
of American neurologists, and although its supporters maintain that the 
manifestation of subconscious phenomena is not necessarily an indica- 
tion of abnormality, it differs very little from the opinion of Professor 
Janet, who regards every manifestation of subconsciousness as proof of 
pathological dissociation. Its weakness as a hypothesis lies in the 
difficulty of applying it to the description or explanation of all the 
observed phenomena. 

Dr. Coriat's contribution to this book is restricted to a purely 
scientific discussion of the main problems of abnormal psychology in 
their relation to therapeutics, and he gives no indication that he is 
particularly in sympathy with the views of his clerical collaborators in 
regard to the matters which form the distinctive character of the 
work. In what follows, reference to the writers of the book applies to 
Dr. Worcester and Dr. M'Comb. 

The foundation of the belief that the clergy may successfully under- 
take the treatment of certain diseases is to be sought in the records of 
the results which have been obtained by the use of suggestion as a 
therapeutic agent in medical practice ; and there is just a suspicion of 
arrogance in the attitude of the writers with regard to treatment by 
suggestion as used by themselves. They seem inclined to forget that ' 
what they know about it they have learned mainly from the medical 
profession. The} r say that sufferers from functional neuroses af the 
despair of the ordinary practitioner and " will continue to be such 

102 Journal of Society for Psychical Research. JUNE, 1909 

the physician enlarges the sphere of his culture and qualifies himself to 
treat the whole man." Physicians may apprehend that moral maladies 
require moral treatment, but " on account of their ignorance of psycho- 
logical methods few physicians feel themselves competent to undertake 
such treatment." Now it may be doubted if the ordinary clergyman 
has any greater knowledge of psychological methods than the ordinary 
physician, and the sphere of a clergyman's culture makes him no more 
qualified than the ordinary practitioner to treat "the whole man." 
Although it may be true that the time is coming "when a knowledge 
of physiological psychology will be considered as necessary to the art of 
healing as a knowledge of anatomy," we have no assurance that in the 
meantime the clergy as a whole have any such knowledge as would 
entitle them to exploit this particular branch of the healing art, or such 
qualifications as would justify them in attempting in this matter to 
forestall the ordinary practitioner, who finds it increasingly difficult to 
keep abreast of scientific progress in every department of medicine. 

If the claim of the Church to cure disease be based on the scientific 
attainments of her ministers, there is little to be said in favour of the 
contention. But the plea really put forward is something quite different 
from this ; and instead of regarding this book as giving merely a 
description of the principles and methods of the Emmanuel movement, 
we must regard it as an appeal to the Christian Church throughout the 
world to return to the faith and the practice of its early days, and in 
the fulfilment of its mission to the sick to " outdo the wonders of the 
apostolic and the post-apostolic age." 

It is maintained that the healing of the sick was an essential part of 
Christ's ministry, enjoined on his disciples and practised by the early 
Church, and that in so far as the Church of to-day has lost faith in its 
healing powers and takes no care for the temporal well-being of its 
members, it is failing in its purpose. The thought that lies at the 
centre of the Emmanuel movement is that only by a return to a literal 
fulfilment of Christ's commands in respect to the curing of disease will 
the Church be able to maintain her position in the modern world. 

It is the alliance of religion with the practice of therapeutic sugges - 
tion that mainly distinguishes this book from ordinary works on 
psycho-therapeutics. Besides attaching a religious importance to the 
mental states in which suggestion is most effective and believing that 
in these states " the Spirit of God enters into us and a power not our 
own takes possession of us," the writers also believe in the therapeutic 
value of prayer. " The prayer of faith uttered or unexpressed has an 
immense influence over the functions of organic life." And this influ- 

JUNE, i Review. 103 

ence is not merely a result of suggestion, not merely " a beneficial reflex 
effect upon the mind of him who prays " or of him who knows that he 
is being prayed for. An element of suggestion is tacitly admitted by 
the writers, but they believe that there is something more. They say, 
" If we grasp the thought that we are organically related to God, that 
we exist in Him spiritually somewhat as thoughts exist in the mind, 
we can see that a strong desire in our soul communicates itself to Him 
and engages His attention just as a thought in our soul engages ours." 
Such a prayer " rises in the mind of God, and if it is good becomes one 
of His determining motives." 

Another reason for combining religion with the practice of thera- 
peutic suggestion is to be found in the view which the writers hold as 
to the importance of the kind of faith which has power in effecting 
curative results. Faith in the physician or in his treatment may be 
enough for the cure of an illness, but it is a poor substitute throughout 
life for faith in a living God. A suggestion that a tuning fork is a 
powerful magnet which relieves pain and cures many diseases may work 
well in some cases, but Dr. Worcester says he would " expect no moral 
regeneration, no newer and higher life, to proceed from such a source." 
Here we see plainly that the aims of the writers are essentially 
different from those of the physician. It has been supposed that the 
Emmanuel movement was instituted for the purpose of treating certain 
diseases, but the object of its founders was manifestly something quite 
different. They claim that their work is essentially ethical and spiritual, 
and admit that their chief interest in the men and women who seek 
their care is a moral and religious interest. To the physician the relief 
of sickness is an end ; to the Emmanuelist it is a means of prosely- 

The writers believe that we are living to-day in the midst of a great 
religious movement in which the Church has no part. "Everywhere 
men and women are feeling and apprehending, however dimly, that the 
religion taught and practised by the churches is not the whole religion 
of Christ ; hence we see on one side a wholesale defection to strange 
cults and institutions which, with all their aberrations, hold up the 
promise of immediate help to the whole man, and on the other hand we 
observe a growing apathy and indifference toward the Church." In 
the realisation of the declining prestige of the Church and in the belief 
that by attending more to man's temporal needs she may hold her own 
against aberrant forms of faith, we find the mainsprings of the action 
taken by the leaders of the Emmanuel movement. Not the cure of 
disease or the relief of suffering is their object, but the saving of souls. 

104 Jowrnal of Society for Psychical Research. JUNE, 1909. 

The Christian religion, they say, " despises no undertaking, no matter 
how humble, that is intended to benefit man, but its quarry is the soul, 
it concerns itself only with great things." The Christian religion is 
being defrauded of its legitimate quarry because strange cults have 
arisen which, instead of " preaching that is vague and impractical and 
which deals largely with a distant future " give "the promise of an 
immense immediate good as the result of faith." If, then, the Church 
would resume her old sway over the hearts of men, let her return to her 
early traditions, let her regain the heroism of faith, let her once more 
be able to say in the words of her Founder, "Behold I cast out devils 
and I do cures." 

This desire of devout men once more to make the Practical Motive 
the most important motive of religious belief is profoundly interesting. 
Men, they say, will believe only what is good and useful to believe. 
Yes, but men must believe what is good and useful to believe on the 
whole and in the long run. Two great types of religious belief have 
arisen in the course of man's moral development, and the transition 
from the lower to the higher type has always been characterised by the 
projection of the goal of religious thought out of the present into a more 
and more remote future. The more highly developed man's religious 
consciousness becomes, the more does he realise his relation to the 
universal and the infinite, and the more insignificant does every 
material interest of the present appear. To make temporal welfare or 
well-being a motive for religious belief is to revert to a type of faith 
which all the higher religions of the world have already outgrown. 
Religious systems based on the promise of material benefits here and now 
must die out because they are no longer adapted to the furtherance of 
man's destiny, and the introduction of such promises as a motive for 
belief into the highest form of religion the world has ever known can 
only tend to lower the ideals of believers and pervert their outlook on. 
the universe. 



Proceedings of the American S.P.R. Vol. II. Part 3. (December, 
1908). The first article in this number is a further record by Mrs. 
Lambert of experiments in automatic writing, etc., made by her and 
her husband's clerk, Mr. Hannegan, and various other people. Mr. 
Hannegan is said to have suddenly discovered in March, 1908, 
that he had great mediumistic capacity, and a report of some 
of his earlier sittings with Mr. and Mrs. Lambert and their 

JIM:, 1909. Notes on Current Periodic 1"~ 


friends during May and June, 1908, was published in the previous 

number of the Proceed/, 

The phenomena seem to be of the usual spiritualistic type ; and 
,i very complete and minute dramatisation of the controls is shown 
nut only in the automatic writing, but also in the daily lives of 
the mediums. 

Shorthand notes were made of the sittings, but there are no 
signed statements of witnesses published in corroboration of any of 
the incidents in the report. Besides the automatic writinir, a good 
many "physical phenomena" are reported, occurring either in the dark 
or when the medium and Mrs. Lambert alone were present. Thus, a 
message was asked for from the dead wife of a friend and, after the 
lights were lowered, two white roses were laid on the table for this 
friend. Mr. Hannegan undertook the position of tutor to Mi>. 
Lambert's boy of ten, and on one occasion when they were alone 
on the beach together Mr. Hannegan cut his hand. The boy 
apparently did not see the blood, but did see a visionary golden 
hand clasping Mr. Hannegan's. There are instances of both Mr. 
Hannegan and Mrs. Lambert going into trance and mentally 
visiting foreign countries and places and seeing on several occasions 
the same scenes and people. After one of these incidents, in which 
Mr. Hannegan supposed himself to go daily to nurse a wounded 
boy, Mrs. Lambert found him in bed in trance with his hands 
covered with blood. She saw an apparition in the room at the 
time, which she at first thought was Mr. Hannegan himself, 
but judged from his groans that he was really in bed. In the 
automatic writing on one occasion reference is made to a particular 
desk in Mr. Lambert's office which was subsequently found broken 
open. The other phenomena resemble these instances and several 
" incidents too personal to quote " are mentioned. 

In a lengthy introduction Professor Hyslop points out that the 
explanation must lie either in fraud, collective hallucination, or in 
an unusual type of physical phenomena. He puts aside the 
possibility of fraud and suggests that the "physical phenomena" 
may be due to sensory and motor automatisms combined with amnesia, 
and that Mrs. Lambert in particular may often go into and recover 
from a state of trance without knowing it (which from the account 
certainly might be the case) and herself produce the phenomena 

The second article, " A Record of Dreams, etc.," by Marie Shipley, 
gives in detail some fifty-five psychic experiences of Mrs. Shipley, 

106 Journal of Society for Psychical Research. JUNE, 1909. 

the wife of a bank manager of Columbus, Ohio, most of which 
occurred between July, 1907, and September, 1908. Until July, 
1907, when she wrote to Professor Hyslop about her experiences, 
she had kept no record of them; after this date she kept a diary, 
but even then no records of her experiences were signed or 
corroborated until some time after they occurred, and, in most cases, 
not until after the fulfilment or coincidence had become known to 
her and those about her. 

Some of the earlier experiences occurring four or five years before 
her record was kept or corroboration obtained seem, as reported, 
to be very remarkable, and it is noticeable how much more com- 
plete and perfect they appear than those which occurred later and 
-are more carefully observed and recorded. 

The phenomena consist mainly of "premonitory" dreams, but 
there are coincidental dreams and impressions, apparitions of dead 
and living persons, supposed communications from the dead, etc. 
Of these, premonitory dreams, more or less accurately fulfilled, 
constitute nearly half the total number. They take the form of 
" dreams" in which Mrs. Shipley sees her friends in varying circum- 
stances, sometimes very trivial, but usually serious, as when they 
appear to her ill or dying. A curious incident, better corroborated 
than most, is one in which Mrs. Shipley, writing to a friend at 
& great distance, of whom she had not heard for some months, 
mentions that she saw him in a dream, "very plainly yesterday 
in a room with a lot of playthings on the floor children's clothes 
and toys." This friend, Mr. Lewis, is a professor of art and 
drawing, but on the day on which he received this letter from 
Mrs. Shipley (two days after it was written), he had been giving a 
demonstration before a kindergarten to oblige the teacher, and had 
been making a bird-cage surrounded by the children on the floor. 

Another case is one in which she dreamt of a friend's child in 
great danger of falling from an open window ; about three weeks 
later the child's mother found her sitting on a roof outside the 
second-floor window of a shop and was just in time to prevent an 
accident. In another case she dreams of the death of a friend to 
whom in reality an accident occurred. 

One interesting case is the apparition of a dead friend, an old 
nurse, who warns her against kidney disease, which she had no 
reason to fear at the time. About nine months later she developed 
diabetes. This incident is well authenticated, as the account of the 
dream was sent to Professor Hyslop as soon as it occurred.'j. Notes on Current Periodicals. 107 

The third article, "A Record of Experience," by G. A. T., consists 
of transcriptions from a diary of psychical experiences, kept very 
minutely for a period of over a year, together with the writer's 
speculations on their nature and meaning. This mass of material 
is not classified in any way and even the writer's analysis and 
conclusions are interspersed at random in the record, together with 
copious extracts from the writings of Myers, Maxwell, and others, 
so that it is not easy to estimate the value of the material. 

The writer is evidently possessed of some " mediumistic " faculty ; 
his experiences are chiefly raps, metallic and other sounds, "touchings," 
<stc., in the room near him, both when alone or with' other people. 
Mr. T. is accustomed to regard the raps as a signal to begin auto- 
matic writing, which he can usually only obtain after such a signal. 
His writings purport to come from dead friends and relations and 
appear to be in general quite unevidential, while in nearly all the 
instances where they purport to be evidential they are incorrect. 
Mr. T. in fact is himself disposed to regard them as the productions 
of his own subconscious mind. But he is convinced of the objective 
nature of the sounds, raps, etc., which he heard both in his own 
house and in his mother's, and which were apparently heard as 
much by his mother and relations in his absence as by himself. 
On several occasions he noticed that the raps seemed to coincide 
with a heart beat, though at irregular intervals, and after careful 
attention decided that they practically always did so : on this he 
speculates at great length. He is convinced that the raps, etc., are 
not hallucinatory, but that they are produced by his subliminal 
consciousness "as a sort of motor automatism." 

J. R 

The Psychological Review (Baltimore, U.S.A.) for January, 1909, con- 
tains an account by Elmer E. Jones, Ph.D., of the gradual disintegration 
of consciousness under chloroform, founded on three observations upon 
himself. Amongst the noteworthy points are the illusions of the 
kinsesthetic sense. At an early stage of the experiment it was 
noticed that muscular movements appeared to be of much greater 
extent than they actually were, and to occupy a much longer 
time. Mr. Dunbar's observations on his own experience under 
hashish were to a similar effect. The phenomenon may have some 
bearing upon the slowness of movement commonly reported in 
Poltergeist cases. Of course, in those cases the motions observed 
are not in the subject's own organism ; but it should be remembered 

108 Journal of Society for Psychical Research. JUNE, 1909. 

that our chief standard for estimating the rate of motion in external 
objects is to be found in the movements of our own eye-muscles. 
Dr. Jones found that the senses disappeared in the following order 
hearing, the tactile sense (followed by the loss of muscular control), 
vision : consciousness, memory, and the reasoning faculties remained 
for some time, but slightly impaired, after the abolition of all sensation. 

The following passage is of interest : " With the disappearance of 
the tactile sense and hearing, the body has completely lost its 
orientation. It appears to be nowhere, simply floating in space. It 
is a most ecstatic feeling. Consciousness is now almost pure ideas ; 
it is free from any disturbing stimuli from the sense organs, and is 
probably just what is meant traditionally by a free spirit." 

In the Archives de Psychologie for October and December, 1908, 
Mr. Ernest Naville gives an account of numerous visual hallu- 
cinations of which he has been the subject. He is now in his ninety- 
second year ; in good health ; his eyes are free from organic defect 
and serve quite well for the ordinary affairs of life, though he finds 
much difficulty in reading or writing. 

His hallucinations, of which he first became aware some time in 
the course of last summer, are exclusively visual ; they represent 
generally small crowds or processions of human beings, or flocks of 
animals, mostly sheep. The figures are perfectly normal in character 
and movement; indeed, at first he could only recognise them for 
hallucinations because others could not see them. They are seen 
sometimes as if through the window ; sometimes when the 
percipient is himself out of doors. They disappear when the eyes 
are closed (he does not say whether they reappear when the 
eyes are reopened), but fixing the gaze upon them has no effect 
they usually disappear in a natural manner, by moving out of 
sight. On two or three occasions Mr. Naville has attempted to 
approach them, but on each occasion they vanished when he came 
within a certain distance. In one case the hallucination had its 
origin in an illusion some white stones were transformed into a 
flock of sheep, which afterwards multiplied and moved about. In 
another case, when, after passing through a muddy place, he saw 
some mud on his shoes, though none was really there, the hallu- 
cination was apparently due to an immediate provocation from the 
surroundings. In most cases, however, Mr. Naville thinks that the 
visions are due to memory, with very little admixture of imagin- 
ation. A tall building which he has seen on several occasions was 
apparently a reminiscence of a similar building seen in Geneva. 

1909. Notes on Current Periodicals. 309 

In one case he thinks he has traced the hallucination a vision of 
a crowd of women in large white coifs (cornettes) to an incident 
which occurred sixty-two years ago. 

In one case only have the hallucinations been of a disagreeable 
character : they generally interest and amuse him. Mr. Naville notes 
two points which may throw some light on their origin. (1) That 
white is the dominant colour: almost all the figures, whether men 
or women, have white head coverings. (2) The phantom processions 
are generally accompanied by a white smoke : sometimes the smoke 
comes out in puffs from the procession, sometimes it lies above it 
in a horizontal layer. Sometimes the appearance of a procession 
is heralded by the appearance of a white smoke. This white smoke 
may possibly be homologous with the cloud occasionally seen as a 
preliminary to crystal vision. Mr. Naville's grandson saw in the 
smoke a possible reminiscence of a torchlight procession at the 
fete of Zofingue, which would be a familiar sight to Mr. Naville in 

F. P. 

In the Revue de VHypnotisme, March, 1909, Dr. Berillon writes on 
the Psychology of Olfaction and emphasises the importance of the 
part taken by the olfactory sense in the constitution of personality. 
In another short paper he explains the diagnostic value of what he 
has named the " signe de la detente musculaire" He says that ability to 
relax immediately all voluntary muscles is a valuable indication of a 
healthy neuro-muscular state. Any slowness in passing from the 
contracted to the relaxed state, or the need of any voluntary effort 
in order to obtain muscular relaxation, points to some perturbation 
of the cerebral functions. 

Dr. Demonchy writes on the importance of the " awakening " in 
Hypnotism. He thinks that sufficient attention has not been paid 
to this in the past, and declares that just as the sleep of a hypnotised 
person may be more or less profound, so the awakening may be 
more or less complete. He says that he does not regard all the 
patients that come to him for hypnotic treatment as persons who 
are awake and have to be put to sleep in order to cure them, 
but often rather as persons more or less asleep whom it is necessary 
to awake completely. Hypnotism is only a method which facilitates 
the thorough awakening of the patient. There seems to be nothing 
very new in this way of looking at the therapeutic side of hypnotism. 

110 Journal of Society for Psychical Research. JUNE, 1909. 

It is only another way of stating the modern view that in hypnosis 
a synthesis of dissociated mental states can be effected. 

There are several articles dealing with therapeutics of hypnotic 
suggestion and a short notice of Dr. Pierre Janet's Les Ndwoses appears. 

In the Revue de V Hypnotisme, April, 1909, Dr. Paul Farez records 
a case of hysteria in which a secondary personality developed. 

In the Journal of Abnornal Psychology r , April-May, 1909, there is 
an article by C. H. Johnston on The rdle of Sensations and Feelings 
under Ether. The author is of opinion that the intense mentality 
of partial anaesthesis may be the active work of feelings, undisturbed 
by sensory factors ; and he is inclined to justify the position of those 
psychologists, at present in the minority, who claim that there is no- 
inseparable connection of sensation with feeling-tone. 

Dr. Morton Prince concludes his monograph on The Unconscious. 
He discusses the influence of dormant mental complexes on the 
personal consciousness when these complexes have never formed a 
part of the experience of the personal self, as is the case with 
complexes originating in hypnosis or other dissociated states. Such 
complexes may affect the personal consciousness through the for- 
mation of co-conscious ideas, or through the persistence of the emotions 
created in hypnosis. He thinks, however, that the chief mechanism 
is through the stimulation of dormant complexes by associated ideas 
from the environment which act as points de repere. 

In The American Journal of Psychology, April, 1909, Charles W. 
Waddle writes on Miracles of Healing. A useful bibliography, com- 
prising ninety-one publications bearing on the subject, is given. The 
author traces the history of miraculous cures in all ages and amongst 
all peoples, and shows that miracle workers, being unable to explain 
their own results, have invariably attached to them a religious 
significance and have attributed them to such supernatural agencies 
as they believed to exist. The advance of scientific psychology and 
scientific psychotherapy in recent years has done much to rationalise 
our views by demonstrating the possibility of explaining supposedly 
supernatural happenings on the basis of laws of physical and mental 
activity. While ascribing cures of a miraculous nature to the operation 
of the law of suggestion, the writer is impressed with the necessity 
of further careful and accurate study of the operation of this law. 
" We need," he says, " far more data upon the conditions favouring 
and hindering the operation of the law. We have had much 
theorising but as yet too little scientific study and experimentation 
in this promising field." T W M 

i 909. Correspondence. Ill 



(To the Editor of the S.P.R. JOURNAL.) 

May Sth, 1909. 

I am interested in the suggestion made in the May Journal, 
p. 84, by Mr. Edward Bullough, that experiments should be tried 
on the kinds of answers obtainable from living people, to questions 
of a type similar to those which have recently been addressed to 
certain "controls," especially to the trance controls of Mrs. Piper. 

I think it would be quite instructive if a few carefully drawn -up 
questions asking, for instance, what a certain quotation or a certain 
subject suggested were sent round to a few people such as those 
that he mentions on p. 89, to see what they would say. 

I even think that in a few cases the test might be carried 
further, and we might be asked whether we should send a different 
sort of reply if we had to dictate say to "Rector," or to the 
"Nelly" control, or to a presumed stranger like Mrs. Holland. 

But perhaps it is hardly likely that the same question would do 

r every one. For instance, the " autos ouranos " test, so ingeniously 
devised by Mrs. Verrall, and so successful in extracting information 
from a Myers control, would have conveyed to me no literary 
references whatever. I should not have known its source, and I 
should have had no associations with it. All I could have said was 
that it seemed to mean something about " heaven itself." And so 
it might readily be, in my case, with other literary references out of 
the beaten track. 

It may be necessary, therefore, for some one to take special trouble 
to select or concoct a sentence which he or she may think appropriate 
for arousing definite associations in the mind of a specified living 
person, and then to submit the question to that person. It does not 
at all follow that the question selected would be really appropriate ; 
but a test of the questioner, as well as of the questioned, is part of 
the experiment. 

While I am writing, I may add a general remark. 

It has long struck me, as it has no doubt also struck others, how 
very difficult a matter it is to prove identity, especially when general 
telepathy has to be allowed for. For instance, I have often discussed 
in a half jocular manner with Lady Lodge how I should convince 
her of my identity, in a posthumous communication ; and I have 
warned her that if I forget a number of incidents which she thinks 
I ought to remember, such ignorance will not in the least prove a 
negative, since I forget them in a wholesale manner now. 

Small and intimate details family jokes and the like might be 
recollected, but they would have to be discounted on the score of 
telepathy from herself; and no very crucial method of proof has yet 
occurred to me. Progress, however, is so rapidly being made in the 

112 Journal of Society for Psychical Research. JUNE, 1909. 

reception of identifying messages purporting to come from deceased 
persons, that it is becoming quite advisable to try similar experiments 
on people while their identity is undoubted ; partly to practise them 
in the art of communicating, but more especially to ascertain whether 
anything really evidential can by this means be got, assuming that 
the matter has to be given aphoristically or in small compass. 



THE most recent of the " Ingersoll Lectures on the Immortality 
of Man," delivered annually at Harvard University, has just 
been published, and it is interesting to note that this is the 
h'rst time that a member of our Council has been invited to 
deliver it. The subject is treated with the clear thought, the 
wide sympathy for different attitudes of mind, the concise 
felicity and eloquent restraint of style that we are 
accustomed to look for in Mr. Dickinson's writings, and we 
cordially recommend the book to all our readers. We have 
only space here to quote a few passages bearing special 
reference to the work of the S.P.R 

" I must repeat . . . that it is mere dogmatism to assert 
that we do not survive death, and mere prejudice or inertia 
to assert that it is impossible to discover whether we do or 
no. We in the West have hardly even begun to enquire 
into the matter ; and scientific method and critical faculty were 
never devoted to it, so far as I am aware, previous to the 
foundation, some quarter of a century ago, of the Society for 
Psychical Research. . . . [The] alleged facts suggesting 
prima facie the survival of death . . . are now at last being 
systematically and deliberately explored by men and women 
of intelligence and good faith bent on ascertaining the 
truth" (pp. 46-7). 

The writer concludes : " I am not merely asking you . . . 
to become clear with yourselves on a point of values ; I am 
asking you further to take seriously a branch of scientific 
enquiry which may have results more important than any 
other that is being pursued in our time." 

l ls Immortality Desirable? By G. LOWES DICKINSON. The Ingersoll 
Lecture, 1908. (Boston and New York: Houghton Mifflin Co., 1909. Price 
75 cents, net). 

[.VOL, xiv. - I9(i9. 



Society for Psychical Research. 



New Members and Associates, - - 113 

Meeting of the Council, - 

General Meeting : a Report on Some Sittings with Eusapia Palladino, 114 

Mr. Dickinson's "Is Immortality Desirable?" 

The Rooms of the Society at 20 Hanover Square, London, W., will 
be closed during August and September, re-opening on Friday, 
October 1st. 

The next number of the Journal will be issued in October. 




Names of Members are printed in Black Type. 
Names of Associates are printed in SMALL CAPITALS. 

ayton, Mrs. Elizabeth, Box 258, South Kaukauna, Wisconsin, U.S.A. 
Lindsell, Mrs. J. B., 19 Wey mouth Street, Portland Place, 

London, W. 

COOPER, THE REV. CANON, Killanne Rectory, Enniscorthy, Ireland. 
HAWKINS, E. F., Villa des Troenes, Livry, S.-et-O., France. 
RUSSELL, GEORGE M., Post Office, Leavenworth, Washington, U.S.A. 
SLOGGETT, SURGEON-GEN KRAL A. T., C.M.G., P.M.O., 6th Division, 

Poona, India. 


THE 98th Meeting of the Council was held at 20 Hanover 
Square, London, W., on Friday, June 18th, 1909, at 6 p.m., 
the President, Mrs. Henry Sidgwick, in the chair. The following 
Members of Council were present : Mr. W. W. Baggally, 
Professor W. F. Barrett, Mr. E. N. Bennett, the Hon. Everard 
Feilding, Sir Oliver Lodge, Mr. W. M'Dougall, Mr. J. G. 
Piddington, Mr. Sydney C. Scott, Mr. A. F. Shand, Mr. H. 
Arthur Smith, and Mr. V. J. Woolley ; also Miss Alice 
Johnson, Research Officer, and Miss Isabel Newton, Secretary. 
The minutes of the last Meeting of the Council were read 
and signed as correct. 

114 Journal of Society for Psychical Research. JULY, im 

Two new Members and four new Associates were elected. 
Their names and addresses are given above. 

The monthly account for May, 1909, was presented and 
taken as read. 


THE 134th General Meeting of the Society was held in the 
Queen's Hall (Small), Langham Place, London, W., on Friday, 
June 18th, 1909, at 3.30 p.m.; SIR OLIVER LODGE in the chair. 

SIR OLIVER LODGE observed that during the last few years 
the Society had been devoting its energies chiefly to the inves- 
tigation of purely psychical phenomena, automatic writing, 
trance speaking and the like, and the results had been to 
his mind of the utmost importance, since they had brought 
us nearer to a scientific proof of human survival after bodily 
death than any evidence hitherto obtained. The phenomena 
to be discussed that day were of what might be called a lower 
kind, having no bearing, as far as he could see, on the pro- 
blem of human survival. They were physical phenomena, 
consisting chiefly in the movements of objects apparently 
without contact, or with such contact as could not normally 
account for the movement; and there seemed no reason to 
attribute them to anything beyond an apparently supernormal 
faculty in the medium. 

He himself had had four exceptionally good sittings with 
the same medium, Eusapia Palladino, in 1894, at one of the 
houses of Professor Richet, under very favourable conditions, 
and subject to his own control. He had thus become con- 
vinced of the genuineness of some of the phenomena produced 
by her, as stated in his report of these sittings, printed in the 
Journal for November, 1894. Subsequently, as most of those 
present were probably aware, Eusapia had been detected in 
trickery at a series of sittings held at Cambridge in 1895. 
While fully admitting the fraudulent nature of one of the 
Cambridge sittings which he attended, Sir Oliver Lodge felt 
quite sure that the main tricks experienced there, namely, the 
substitution of hands or feet held by two sitters, so that one 
hand or foot was made to do duty for two, while the other 
was freed and used to perform movements, could not account 
for the phenomena he had previously witnessed ; since in several 

j. iv, 1909. General Meeting. 115 

cases he had himself held loth hands of the medium and also 
controlled her legs while some of the phenomena were occurring. 
He had at that time recognised the importance of complete 
holding by a single person, and had insisted on this condition 
before being finally satisfied. He had therefore always retained 
his conviction of the genuineness of some of her phenomena; 
though he felt doubtful if any evidence that could be adduced 
in her case would now be regarded as of any weight by the 
public. For himself the bare fact of the occurrence of unusual 
physical phenomena in the presence of exceptionally constituted 
people was not a matter of serious doubt; though of course it 
was still sub judice for the Society and for the scientific world. 

THE HON. EVERARD FEILDING then read a paper on " Some 
Sittings with Eusapia Palladino," as follows : 

The subject on which I am to address you this afternoon 
concerns certain recent experiments conducted by Mr. Hereward 
Carriugton, Mr. Baggally, and myself, on behalf of this Society, 
with the famous perhaps some will expect me to use the word 
notorious medium, Eusapia Palladino, in Naples. The class of 
manifestations associated with this medium belong exclusively 
to what are called the physical phenomena of spiritualism. 
(The word spiritualism, of course, in this connection implies a 
theory to account for the phenomena in question, but in using 
it I wish it to be understood that I do so only provisionally 
and without intending myself either to endorse or to reject 
the spiritualist hypothesis). 

It is a very long time since the subject of these physical 
phenomena has been considered at meetings of this Society. 
Our President, Mrs. Sidgwick, did indeed touch upon them in 
her Presidential Address, but only to point out that whereas 
great progress had been made in almost all the other subjects 
laid down for study in the original programme of the Society, 
in her opinion practically no positive advance had been made 
in our knowledge, not only of the nature but even of the 
existence of these phenomena. 

Mrs. Sidgwick would of course be the first to admit that 
this opinion is merely personal to herself, and if we take into 
account, as I think we should, investigations of other observers 
not connected with this Society, it is an opinion which many 
will not share. But so far as investigations of the Society itself 


116 Journal of Society for Psychical Research. JULY, 1909. 

are concerned counting only investigations subject to the same 
critical examination and careful presentment of evidence which it 
has been our aim to offer regarding other branches of our work 
it is strictly true. The one problem which, on the foundation 
of the Society, figured so prominently in its scheme, and which, 
on account of the wealth of evidence concerning it, and its 
apparent susceptibility of exact examination, seemed likely to 
be among the first to reach solution one way or the other, 
has proved the very one upon which opinions have remained 
the most divided and regarding which the hopes and expecta- 
tions of the original investigators and their successors have faded 
first into disappointment and ultimately almost into despair. 

The reason for this failure to reach any generally accepted 
conclusions as to the existence of these phenomena is not 
very far to seek. In the first place, the number of persons 
through whose agency they are reported to occur has always 
been much restricted, and has, since the disappearance of the 
famous D. D. Home, been almost entirely composed of people 
of a more or less uneducated class who worked their gifts, 
whatever they may have been, for gain, preferring rather to 
please and astonish their own admirers, against an equivalent 
in cash value, than to lend themselves to serious and exact 
examination. Most of them, even if we assume their original 
honesty or the occasional display by them of powers superior 
to mere conjuring, succumbed to the temptations of their trade, 
and finding that the bulk of their adherents were as well 
satisfied with conditions which admitted opportunity for decep- 
tion as with conditions which did not, chose the easier and 
more profitable course of fraudulent mediumship ; a calling, 
by the way, which has this singular advantage over any other, 
that, while its value depends wholly upon a profession of 
powers superior to those of ordinary mankind, a disclosure 
that they are nothing of the sort appears rather to enlist the 
sympathy and encouragement of your victims than to excite 
their indignation and reproach. There have, it is true, been 
a certain number of private persons possessing, or reputed to 
possess, the powers in question, but they have for the most 
part either regarded them as too sacred for investigation, or 
too wicked for exercise, or else they have professed themselves 
too indifferent to the whole matter or too anxious about the 

,)i I.Y, r.tca General Meeting. 117 

possible consequences to their health, to care to submit them- 
selves for observation. I am of course generalizing, and there 
are exceptions, but if one takes it broadly, between the decep- 
tions of the one class and the difficulties raised by the other 
it has been possible in this country to do but little. We are 
told by our critics among convinced spiritualists that the fault 
is largely ours, and that our unsympathetic attitude has been 
the cause of our ill-success. I am inclined to think there 
may be some justice in this complaint. But when failure has 
followed upon failure, when fraud upon fraud has been dis- 
covered I need not, to those of you who have followed this 
subject, recite the catalogue a body of investigators, as well 
as a single individual, would be more than human if they 
resisted the current of their experiences and were able to 
continue to approach the examination of fresh cases with the 
same sympathy and balance as at first. 

In the year 1894 a break came in the chain of negative 
experiments. Attention on the continent had for some time 
before been directed to Eusapia Palladino, daughter of an 
Italian peasant, illiterate, unable to read, or to write more 
than her own name, and to the remarkable phenomena said 
to take place through her mediumship. She had already been 
the subject of investigation by certain spiritualist groups of 
observers, and had by them been brought to the notice, in 
the first instance, of the Spanish Professor Acevedo, and later 
of Professors Lombroso, Tamburini, and others. Shortly after- 
wards a series of experiments were conducted by a further 
group of scientific men in Milan, including Professor Schiaparelli, 
the well-known astronomer, Professor Eichet of Paris, Professor 
Gerosa, and Dr. Ermacora. Further experiments followed in 
Warsaw by M. Ochorowicz, and eventually, in the year I have 
named, 1894, Professor Eichet, whose interest had been speci- 
ally stimulated, invited some of the leading members of this 
Society, Professor and Mrs. Sidgwick, Mr. Myers, and Sir 
Oliver Lodge, to attend a series of experiments in the South 
of France. The report by Sir Oliver Lodge was printed in 
the Journal S.P.R., for November, 1894, and amounted to an 
expression of conviction, in which Mr. Myers concurred, of 
the possession by Eusapia of some supernormal power affecting 
matter, by which she was able to produce movements of material 

118 Journal of Society for Psychical Research. JULY, 1909. 

objects without any ascertainable material agency, and, still 
more, produce matter itself or the appearance of matter, without 
any ascertainable source of supply. 

The report was subjected to much criticism, notably on the 
part of Dr. Hodgson, who made a detailed analytical study of 
the record of the experiments with a view to proving that it 
did not of itself show that possibilities of fraud had been 
excluded. This study appeared in the Journal for March- 
April, 1895. I need not discuss it, except to say that it 
always appeared to me more ingenious than convincing, and I felt, 
balancing improbabilities, that the improbability of the truth of 
the phenomena, preposterous as they were and preposterous as 
the observers had themselves stated them to be, was less than the 
improbability of such an eminent group of experimenters having 
been deceived in the manner suggested by Dr. Hodgson. 

In any case, it was felt that further experiment was 
necessary, and Eusapia came to Cambridge in the summer of 
1895 for an extended series of seances. You are, or at all 
events most of you are, aware of what resulted. The only 
issue of the experiments was to establish fraud. Eusapia 
cheated, not once or twice, but apparently continuously and 
deliberately, and although, from reading the unpublished records, 
it would appear that there was a certain number of phenomena 
for which the ascertained trickery was insufficient to account, 
it was felt, I think unanimously, by the Committee, among 
whom were several who had taken part in the earlier experi- 
ments in France, that the results of these Cambridge sittings 
were so unsatisfactory as to preclude any judgment in favour 
of Eusapia's supernormal attributes. Not only this, but so 
much doubt seemed to be thrown on the whole investigation 
that it was decided to be inopportune to publish the report 
of the former experiments. Eusapia was dropped, and so far 
as any official investigation of her by this Society was con- 
cerned, her case was considered at an end. 

I am not going to discuss the justice of this conclusion or 
the necessity of this policy. One thing to my mind is certain, 
and that is, that the whole character and conduct of the 
Cambridge sittings differed markedly from the better seances 
among those which had preceded them, as well as among those 
in which I have myself recently taken part. They differed in 

JULY, 1909. General Meeting. 119 

three ways. First, that for the most part they took place either 
in complete darkness or in light so poor as to be useless for 
purposes of observation, all attempts on the part of the experi- 
menters to secure better light being resisted by Eusapia, or her 
" control." Secondly, that the phenomena instead of being 
varied and remarkable were monotonous and of small account ; 
and thirdly, that Eusapia herself interposed so many difficulties 
in the way of reasonable control that the observers ultimately 
abandoned any attempt at effective control whatever, and, in 
order to study her methods, allowed her opportunities for cheat- 
ing, of which opportunities she took the fullest advantages. 

I wish, however, to correct any misapprehensions on one 
point, and it is this : the Cambridge experimenters did not 
discover any new method of tricking, the possibilities of which 
had not been perfectly well known before by experimenters on 
the continent ; and further, that the sum total of her ascertained 
fraud was the trick of substitution of hands, which Eusapia 
is extremely clever at effecting when it is dark enough to 
enable her to bring her two hands close together and make 
the two persons holding them believe they are holding different 
hands, when by manoeuvring she has contrived to get them 
each to hold different parts of the same hand, thus having 
her other hand free. This trick, which can only be success- 
fully done in the dark, had been actually noticed and published 
by M. Torelli Viollier, a Milanese journalist, years before the 
Cambridge sittings, and had already been the subject of a good 
deal of discussion. There is, further, evidence, not only in the 
Cambridge, but also in other records, that she also makes use of 
substitution of her feet, and I have no doubt that in certain 
moods she would, if permitted, make as free use of her feet 
as she sometimes appears to do of her hands. So far as 
I know, with the exception of a few little childish devices, 
such as a hair or a nail, with which Eusapia has been pleased 
to amuse herself, sometimes outside seances altogether, and 
sometimes in order to bring off some special new effect at 
which she is asked to try her hand, these are the only tricks 
of which Eusapia has ever been definitely found guilty, in all 
the countless experiments of which during the last sixteen or 
seventeen years she has been the subject with scientific men 
of almost every European nationality, though opinions have 

120 Journal of Society for Psychical Research. JULY, 1909. 

varied among those who have experimented with her as to 
how often she practised them. Although, as I have said, the 
net result of the Cambridge experiments was not to show 
any hitherto unsuspected method of trickery, they did never- 
theless show that these particular already discovered methods, 
substitution of hands or feet in the dark, were far more 
frequently resorted to than the continental observers had up 
to then ascertained. The reply, in effect, of the continental 
observers was that that was the fault of the Cambridge 
group, who should not have allowed her ; and the reply of 
the Cambridge group, that it was the fault of Eusapia, who 
would not allow them to do anything else. 

So much then for the Cambridge series, I believe the only 
wholly negative series of any importance in the experience of 
this medium. This Society had, as I have said, dropped her : not 
so her continental investigators. From that time to this she 
has undergone almost continuous experiments with Professor 
Eichet, M. Camille Flammarion, Professor and Madame Curie 
and Professor d'Arsonval and their colleagues of the Institut 
General Psychologique, and other distinguished men in France ; 
Professors Bottazzi and Galeotti in Naples, and Professor 
Morselli, with whose enormous work on the subject some of 
you may be familiar, in Genoa. The list is by no means 
exhaustive. The evidence of men of European reputation had 
mounted up and could not further be ignored, and towards 
the close of last year the Council of this Society decided that 
the question should again be reopened, and Mr. Carrington and 
I were asked to go to Naples and try to obtain a further 
series of experiments with Eusapia. 

I have, I fear, been a very long time in coming to my 
point, but I have thought it necessary to make these pre- 
liminary remarks in order to put you in possession of the 
general situation, and I must still say a few words as to the 
special objects in view in sending out this new Committee. 
Group after group of eminent scientific men and others had 
already experimented with Eusapia, and with practical unani- 
mity (with the exception of the Cambridge group) tempered, 
of course, in many cases with reserve, with reluctance and 
with caution, and in the case of certain individual members, with 
complete dissent, had reported their belief in the display by 

,7 1 i.v, 1909. General Meeting. 121 

her of some force hitherto unascertained. The general public, 
however, both scientific and lay, remained wholly unmoved 
and unconvinced. In the eyes of the world at large a belief 
in, even an interest in, the hypothesis of the existence of 
such a disreputable force, was indicative, and in this country 
undoubtedly, from our omniscient big man of science to 
our still more omniscient little man of the press, still is 
indicative, of a general mental unsoundness, and symptomatic 
of a not distant intellectual decay. The scientific reports 
produced practically no impression. The facts reported were 
preposterous, and could not take place. Therefore, they did 
not take place. What hope, then, is there that any report 
from a Committee of far less eminence than its predecessors 
can possess any interest ? 

Well, the reason why the former reports have not had 
more influence in forcing attention to their consideration, is 
that in most of them the conclusions of the investigators 
have been more prominent than the evidence by which they 
were led to them. Even Sir Oliver Lodge's report of the 
experiments at the ile Roubaud, which seemed detailed enough 
to those who were present, was not found proof against the 
hostile criticism of the absent Dr. Hodgson. Further, it was 
said that men of science, accustomed to deal with the forces 
of nature which do not cheat, are not the best investigators 
of the forces of human nature, especially the forces of 
niediumistic human nature, which generally try to. Better a 
conjuror. And so upon a conjuror the choice of the Council 
fell. In Mr. Hereward Carrington they found a man who, 
besides having made conjuring a pursuit for many years, had 
for some time conducted investigations for the American Society 
for Psychical Research, and after a pretty exhaustive exami- 
nation of most of the physical mediums in America, had 
written, to their very great annoyance and confusion, articles 
in the Journal of that Society showing how they did their 
tricks, as well as a large book on the Physical Phenomena of 
Spiritualism, in which he gave his opinion that, so far as 
anything that he had ever seen was concerned, there weren't 
any, though he judiciously left himself a loophole as regards 
things which he had not seen. We had not only one 
conjuror, but two, for Mr. Baggally, a member of the Council 

122 Journal of Society for Psychical Research. JULY, im 

of this Society, joined Mr. Carrington and myself in time for 
our fifth stance. Mr. Baggally also, though not a professional, 
had made a considerable practice of the art of conjuring with 
special reference to the conjuring of spiritualism, and as a 
result of the investigation of practically every medium that 
had appeared on the spiritualist horizon for the last thirty 
years, had come to the same conclusion as Mr. Carrington, 
though I think without any reservation whatever. As for 
myself, though not a conjuror, I had had a fairly complete 
education at the hands of fraudulent mediums, my unbroken 
experience of whom had led me into an attitude of entire 
scepticism as regards the probability of ever finding anything 
worth serious examination, and, I regret to say, into such a 
habit of flippancy of mind, or at all events of utterance, 
concerning these things, as to have evoked censure, both public 
and private, from enquirers of a more sober temperament. 

Such, then, was the Committee. As regards our method of 
investigation we felt that our one object should be not merely 
to come to a conclusion ourselves as to whether or not the 
phenomena were true, but to present a report in such a form 
as to enable a reader to judge of the possibility of our having 
been deceived ; that is, to give an absolutely full account of 
the occurrences at each stance, with a detailed statement of 
the precautions taken and of the control existing at each 
moment. Our first care, therefore, was to procure a short- 
hand writer, who was present at an adjoining table through- 
out the stances, and to whom we dictated the conditions of 
light, the phenomena themselves as they occurred and the 
position and the visibility of the hands, feet and head of the 
medium at the moment of occurrence. Whether we have 
succeeded or not, we have at least attempted to avoid the 
criticism which Mrs. Sidgwick made of Professor Morselli in 
her review of his book, that, before speculating upon the 
agency producing the phenomena, it was advisable to have 
more evidence of their existence. 

The seances took place in my bedroom on the 5th floor of 
a hotel. Across a corner of the room we hung, at the 
medium's request, two thin black curtains forming a triangular 
recess which is called the " cabinet," about three feet deep in the 
middle. Behind this curtain we placed a small round table, and 

JULY, 1909. General Meeting. 123 

upon it various toys which we bought at Naples, a tambourine, 
a flageolet, a toy piano, a trumpet, a tea bell, and so forth. 

If you ask me to defend the reasonableness of this pro- 
cedure, I can only say that, as the phenomena which take 
place in Eusapia's presence consist chiefly, though not ex- 
clusively, of the movements and transportations of smallish 
objects within a certain radius of her, objects of some kind, 
it doesn't much matter what, have to be placed there. 
And as to the curtain, all I can say is that Eusapia believes 
that the provision of a closed space helps to concentrate 
" force," and that, as most of the effects seemed to radiate 
from the curtain, she is possibly right. 

Eusapia herself never looked behind the curtain and did 
not know what had been arranged there. Outside it was 
placed a small oblong table 85 \ c.m. x 48 c.m. (2 ft. 9 in. x 
1 ft. 6f in.). Eusapia herself sat at one end of this table with 
her back to the curtain, the back of her chair distant from 
the curtain about a foot or 18 inches. One of us sat on 
each side of her, holding her hands and controlling her feet 
with our legs and feet, while on certain occasions a third was 
under the table holding her feet with his hands. 

In front of her hung from the ceiling at a distance of 
about 6 feet from her head, a group of 4 electric lights of 
varying voltage, candle power, or colour, and therefore of 
varying illuminating power, which could be altered from the 
shorthand writer's table by means of a commutator. The 
strongest light was bright enough to enable us to read small 
print at the furthest end of the room, and of course at our 
places at the table, while the weakest was sufficient to enable 
us to see the hands and face of the medium. On a very few 
occasions we were reduced to complete darkness. 

We had eleven stances in all, at some of which we were 
alone, while at others we invited the assistance of friends 
of our own, and by way of experiment, of Eusapia's. The 
seances varied greatly. It is noteworthy that among the 
worst stances were those at which Eusapia's friends assisted, 
while the best were among those at which we were quite 
alone. As a general rule, though not invariably, the pheno- 
mena classified themselves according to the prevailing light; 
that is, for certain phenomena a feeble light seemed necessary, 

124 Journal of Society for Psychical Research. JULY, 1909. 

while for others it was immaterial whether the light was weak 
or strong. From the point of view of facility for trickery we 
were unable to trace any special connection between the de- 
gree of light and the phenomena generally producible in it. 
From the first seance to the last, with certain sets back, there 
was a gradual progression in the phenomena ; that is, in the 
earlier stances they were restricted in variety, though not in 
frequency of occurrence, while later on they became more com- 
plicated. Sometimes they took place so rapidly, at the rate 
of several a minute, that the dictation of one was constantly 
interrupted by the occurrence of another. Sometimes they 
were sparse and intermittent. On these occasions Eusapia 
would ask for the light to be reduced, but we did not find 
that the reduction of light had any favourable influence on 
the production of the phenomena. On the contrary, the dark- 
est stances were those at which least occurred. 

The actual procedure of a stance was as follows : About 
half-an-hour before the expected arrival of Eusapia the room 
was prepared by the removal of unnecessary furniture, the 
arrangement of the objects inside the curtain, and so on. 
One or two of us remained there, while one went downstairs 
to await her arrival. She came escorted by her husband, who 
then went away, and Eusapia was brought alone up the five 
flights of stairs to our rooms. She immediately sat down at 
her place at the table, with her back to the curtain, behind 
which, as I have said, she never looked. Sometimes the 
manifestations, which I will describe presently, began at once 
in the brightest light. Sometimes we had to wait half-an- 
hour, an hour, even an hour and a half, before anything took 
place. Those delays seemed to proceed from one of two 
causes. Either she was in such a flamboyantly good temper 
and talked so incessantly that she did not give her mind to 
the proceedings ; or else she appeared so unwell and fatigued 
as to be incapable of accomplishing anything. On the former 
occasions there was nothing to do but to wait till she had tired 
herself out with her own conversation. Eventually she would 
begin to yawn. This was a favourable symptom, and when 
the yawns were followed by enormous and amazing hiccoughs, 
we knew it was time to look out, as this was the signal for 
her falling into a state of a trance. 

JUI/T, 1909. General Meeting. \ -i:> 

Her trance was of varying stages. It was not absolutely 
necessary for the production of phenomena of a simple kind, 
and in two or three stances she remained wide awake 
throughout and had a continuous memory of the proceedings. 
Her state of half trance, which was her usual condition during 
the production of phenomena, was only distinguishable from 
her normal state by the fact that she was quieter in demean- 
our and by the fact that she professed to have no recollection of 
what had happened ; in her state of deep trance, however, which 
did not often supervene, but, when it did, was nearly always 
accompanied by the more startling phenomena, she appeared 
deeply asleep, sometimes lying immovable in the arms of one 
of the controllers at either side and always surrendering her- 
self completely to the fullest control of her hands. In this 
state she spoke little and in a deep bass voice, referred 
to herself in the third person as " my daughter " or " the 
medium," and called us " tu." In this state she professes to 
be under the " control " of a spirit to whom she gives the name 
of " John King " and who claims to be the chief agent for 
the production of her phenomena. In her state of half trance 
there constantly appears to be a battle between her and this 
" control," which manifests itself through tilts or levitations 
of the table, and, by means of a code, gives directions as to 
the conduct of the seance and the degree of light to be 
allowed, against which Eusapia herself often protests vigor- 
ously. Thus 5 tilts of the table mean less light. Eusapia 
generally insists on the light remaining up, or if it has been 
diminished, on its being turned up again. The table, how- 
ever, persists in its demand and Eusapia eventually gives way. 

Now as to the phenomena themselves. They consisted in 
the first place of levitations of the table at which we sat, 
outside the curtain. As a rule the table began to rock in a 
manner explainable by the ordinary pressure of her hands. It 
then tilted in a manner not so explainable, that is, in a direc- 
tion away from the medium while her hands were resting 
lightly on the top, and finally it would leave the ground 
entirely and rise to a height of one or two feet rapidly, 
remain there an appreciable time and then come down. 
Sometimes there would be slight contact with the hands on 
the top, but very frequently no apparent contact whatever, her 

126 Journal of Society for Psychical Research. JULY, 1909. 

hands being held by us at a distance of a foot or two from 
the table, either in her lap or above the table. These levita- 
tions were among the most frequent phenomena and took 
place in the brightest light. No precautions that we took 
hindered them in the slightest. She had no hooks, and we 
could never discern the slightest movement . of her knees or 
feet. We very often had our free hands on her knees, while 
her feet were controlled either by our feet or by one of us 
under the table, and were generally away from the table legs, 
a clear space being discernible between her and the table. 
Sometimes a partial levitation or tilt would last a very long 
time, half a minute or even a minute, during which the table 
remained at an angle. We would press it down and it would 
come up again as though suspended on elastics. 

One of the most frequent phenomena was movements of the 
curtain behind her. For this she generally, though not always, 
demanded a reduction of the light, but it still remained suffi- 
cient to enable every movement of the medium to be clearly 
seen even from the further end of the table. She would 
generally hold out one of her hands towards the curtain, 
always held by or holding one of ours at a distance of about 
8 or 12 inches from it, and the curtain would bulge out to- 
wards it. Sometimes the same effect would be produced if one 
of us held our own hands towards the curtain at her request. 
The bulge was a round one, as if the curtains were pushed 
out from behind. If we made a sudden grab at the bulge, no 
resistance was encountered. There was no attachment to her 
hand, as we constantly verified by passing our hands between 
her and the curtain. Nor would any attachment produce the 
the same effect, as the curtain was so thin that the point of 
attachment of any string would at once have been seen. Be- 
sides these bulges in response to her or our gestures, there 
were spontaneous movements of the curtain, often very violent, 
and frequently the whole curtain would be flung out with so 
much force that the bottom of it came right over to the 
further end of the table. This occurred notwithstanding that 
Eusapia herself was perfectly visible and motionless, both hands 
held and separately visible upon the table, her feet away from 
the curtain in front of her under the table. 

The next phenomenon was touches by some invisible object ; 

.TI-I.Y, 1909. General Meeting. 127 

that is, while the light was strong enough to see the face and 
hands of Eusapia, we were constantly touched on the arm, 
shoulder or head by something which we could not see. The next 
development was grasps through the curtain by hands. When I 
say hands, I mean palpable living hands with fingers and nails. 
They grasped us on the arm, shoulder, head and hands. This 
occurred at times when we were absolutely certain that Eusapia's 
own hands were separately held on the table in front of her. 

The first occasion on which this occurred to me is among 
the phenomena most vivid in my memory. I had been sitting 
at the end of the table furthest from Eusapia. Mr. Car- 
rington and Mr. Baggally had for some time been reporting 
that something from behind the curtain had been touching 
them through it. At last I told Eusapia that I wanted to 
experience this also. She asked me to stand at the side of 
the table and hold my hand against the curtain over her 
head. I held it 2J to 3 feet above her head. Immedi- 
ately the tips of my fingers were struck several times ; 
then my first finger was seized by a living hand, three 
fingers above and thumb beneath, and squeezed so that I felt 
nails of the fingers in my flesh ; and then the lower 
of my hand was seized and pressed by what appeared 
be the soft part of a hand. Eusapia's two hands were 

jparately held by Messrs. Carrington and Baggally, one on the 

ible and one on her knee. These grasps, if fraudulent, could 
only have been done by an accomplice behind the curtain. 
There was no accomplice behind the curtain. 

The next development was that these hands became visible. 
They generally, though not always, appeared between the part- 
ing of the curtains over Eusapia's head. They were of 
different appearances, dead, paper white, and of a natural colour. 
I think only once was a hand both seen and felt at the 
same time, and that was when a hand came out from the 
side, not the middle of the curtain, seized Mr. Baggally and 
pulled him so hard as almost to upset him off his chair. 

I have followed the general development of these hands 
through the course of the seances, but meanwhile other pheno- 

lena had been occurring. As a rule, after the movements 
)f the curtain, the first manifestation took the form of violent 

loises inside the cabinet, as though the tea table were being 

128 Journal of Society for Psychical Research. JULY, 1909. 

shaken. It was sometimes shaken so hard that the objects 
on it fell off. It then itself appeared over Eusapia's shoulder 
and landed on our table horizontally, that is, with its top 
resting on our table and its legs pointing into the cabinet. 
It would then, during the space of a minute appear to hang 
there, partly supported no doubt by Eusapia's arm or ours 
as we held her hand, and try to climb on our table, which 
it never, however, succeeded in doing, but eventually fell back. 

This transportation of the table took place several times, till 
at length, to prevent its upsetting our arrangement of the 
objects on it, we took to tying it down, after which it was once 
or twice violently shaken, but did not otherwise molest us. 
After this, however, the objects which had been placed upon 
it were transported from within one by one. The flageolet 
tapped me on the head, the tambourine jumped on to my lap, 
the toy piano landed on the head of a friend of mine ; the 
tea bell was rung and presently appeared, ringing, over 
Eusapia's head carried by a hand which attached it quickly 
to* her hair, and just as I was putting up my free hand to 
detach it, reappeared, detached the bell itself, rang it again 
over Eusapia's head, and threw it on to the seance table. 
While this was occurring I was holding Eusapia's left hand 
close to my face, while Mr. Baggally held her right hand 
under the curtain on the opposite corner of the table, and 
the light was sufficient for the shorthand writer from his 
table, at a distance of about 8 or 9 feet from Eusapia, to 
see the hand which carried the bell. 

One of the most interesting transportations of objects was 
that of a board on which we had put a large lump of wet 
clay in the hope of obtaining an impression of one of these 
hands. I was controlling to Eusapia's right, and Mr. Kyan, a 
friend of mine whom we had invited to the seance, to her 
left, and therefore opposite to me. Her right hand was under 
mine on my side of the table. Her left hand was on Mr. 
Eyan's on his side. Both were motionless and visible. Mr. 
Carrington was standing behind me. The clay had been placed 
on the tea table inside the curtain, directly behind Eusapia. 
At a certain moment Mr. Carrington saw it appear at the 
further side of the curtain, behind Mr. Eyan, and travel 
through the air on to Mr. Eyan's shoulder. I noticed it first 

JULY, r.'o'i General Meeting. 129 

at that point. I saw it slide gently down his right arm, across 
Eusapia's hand which held his, cross the table towards me, and 
land on the top of my hand which held Eusapia's right. 

Another class of phenomenon consisted of lights, which at one 
se*ance appeared twice over her head, once in her lap, and once 
at the side of the curtain furthest from her. They were of three 
kinds, a steady blue-green light, a yellow light, and a small 
sparkling light like the spark between the poles of a battery. 

Besides the visible hands, which were clear and distinct, 
there were also more or less indescribable appearances of 
various kinds, in themselves of the most suspicious character; 
white things that looked like handfuls of tow ; black things 
like small heads at the end of stalk-like bodies, which emerged 
from the middle or side of the curtain and extended them- 
selves over our table ; shadowy things like faces with large 
features, as though made of cobweb, that shot with extreme 
rapidity and silence from the side of the curtain. 

There were also other phenomena, but the last which I 
shall touch on now were movements of objects outside the 
curtain at a distance from Eusapia of from one to three feet. I 
speak chiefly of a stool which was placed on the floor, about 
a yard from Eusapia. She held her hand towards it, held by 
one of us, and presently the stool moved towards her; she then 
made gestures of repulsion, and it moved away from her. The 
shorthand writer, who, during part of the time, was standing 
close to it, passed his hand round it several times to ascertain 
that it had no attachment, but it continued to move. There was 
a clear space between her and it. The light was sufficient for 
me to follow the movements of the stool while I was standing 
up at the end of the table furthest from Eusapia. 

I am not attempting in this paper to do more than describe 
the kind of thing that took place. For the precautions that 
we took, for the searchings of the medium's person, for the 
control that existed at the time of the production of each 
phenomenon, and for a general discussion of the possibilities 
of deception (incidentally I may remark that two or three 
times we had opportunity in sufficient light to observe her 
substitution trick, unaccompanied, however, by any phenomena), 
or hallucination, I must refer you to our detailed report when 
it is published. 

130 Journal of Society for Psychical Research. JULY, 1909. 

I am fully aware that for evidential purposes a statement 
of the kind I am now making is absolutely valueless, nor do 
I pretend that for all the phenomena I have described the 
conditions were of equal evidential value. I have, however, 
to report on the part of my two colleagues and myself our 
firm conviction that for some of the phenomena, including 
some of the more remarkable ones, we obtained evidence of 
unimpeachable validity. Further, that though a considerable 
portion of the manifestations, taken by themselves, must be 
regarded as non-evidential, we had no ground for believing in 
the fraudulent production of any one of them. 

On the other hand, I wish it to be clearly understood that 
this expression of conviction is a purely personal one on the 
part of the actual investigating committee, and in no way 
represents the corporate view of the Council of this Society, 
which, by the way, has no corporate view on any subject 
whatever, and the majority of which has not yet even seen 
our report, which has not yet passed through the press. 

I will, in conclusion, say one thing more. While I have 
convinced myself of the reality of these phenomena and of the 
existence of some force not yet generally recognised which is 
able to impress itself on matter, and to simulate or 
create the appearance of matter, I refrain for the present 
from speculating upon its nature. Yet it is just in this 
speculation that the whole interest of the subject lies. The 
force, if we are driven, as I am confident we are, to pre- 
suppose one other than mere conjuring, must either reside in 
the medium herself and be of the nature of an extension of 
human faculty beyond what is generally recognised ; or must 
be a force having its origin in something apparently intelligent 
and external to her, operating either directly from itself, or 
indirectly through or in conjunction with some special attribute 
of her organism. The phenomena then, in themselves pre- 
posterous, futile, and lacking in any quality of the smallest 
ethical, religious, or spiritual value, are nevertheless sympto- 
matic of something which, put at its lowest by choosing the 
first hypothesis, must, as it filters gradually into our common 
knowledge, most profoundly modify the whole of our philosophy 
of human faculty ; but which, if that hypothesis is found in- 
sufficient, may ultimately be judged to require an interpreta- 

.ii LT, 1009. General Meeting. 131 

tion involving not only that modification, but a still wider 
one, namely, our knowledge of the relations between mankind 
and an intelligent sphere external to it. Although one may 
approach the investigation of the phenomena themselves in a 
light, shall I say, even a flippant spirit, (I sometimes think 
that in this way alone one can preserve one's mental balance 
in dealing with this kind of subject), one must regard them 
as the playthings of the agency which they reveal, and the 
more perfect revelation of that agency, whatever it may be, 
through the study of them, is surely a task as worthy of the 
most earnest consideration as any problem with which modern 
science is concerned. If our report, by reason of its form and 
detail, is found to do something towards supplying a further 
evidential basis for, and therefore directing the attention of 
men of science in this country towards, the far more important 
and elaborate published investigations of many of our more 
eminent predecessors, and of inducing them to take a part in 
the research, I shall feel that it has- amply served its purpose. 

MR. W. W. BAGGALLY then spoke to the following effect: 
In forming an opinion on the phenomena that we witnessed in 
the presence of Eusapia Palladino, it was very important to 
bear in mind any normal methods by which she might have 
produced them. Thus, it might be supposed that she had 
freed one of her hands or feet by substitution or by the 
mere removal of it from the hand or foot of the controller, 
leaving him under the impression that he still felt it ; or 
that she used her head or some other part of her body, or 
some mechanism concealed about her person, or that she had 
an accomplice. But all these methods would require darkness, 
whereas it was in light, more or less strong, that the majority of the 
phenomena took place. In many cases both hands of Eusapia were 
distinctly seen above or quietly resting on the stance table, or both 
her hands were clearly seen as they were held by the controllers, 
and at the same time her body was in view down to her feet. 

I will now refer to one or two phenomena which took 
place under these conditions. At the termination of Seance VI.. 
the light being good, the medium released both her hands 
from control and placed them on the table. They were 
perfectly visible to all of us. The curtain on her right, which 
*was not in contact with any part of her body, made a slight 

132 Journal of Society for Psychical Research. JULY, 1909. 

movement. Owing to the good light and to my position, I 
could see distinctly, at the same moment, her head, her two 
hands, her body down to her feet and the curtain, which 
was close to me, but not touching her. Very shortly after- 
wards, while I was still intently watching Eusapia, who did 
not move, the curtain bulged out as if pressed by a balloon 
from within the cabinet. The bulge was about a foot and a 
half from her head and on a level with it. She was examined 
shortly afterwards at this stance, and no mechanism was found 
concealed about her person. The force which produced the 
phenomena seemed capable both of attracting and of repelling 
matter. On one occasion, the little stool, which was placed at 
a distance of 3 feet from Eusapia, moved away from her when 
she made a motion of her hand as if pushing it, and came 
towards her when she moved her hand as if beckoning it. I 
was between her and the stool, controlling her foot. Her hand 
was in mine when she made the motions, and at a distance 
of several feet from the stool. 

At the eleventh seance a hand squeezed my left hand several 
times and grasped my left arm. At the time not only could 
I see the medium's hands, but I was grasping them separately 
by her two thumbs with both my hands, and keeping them a 
good distance apart. Mr. Feilding then spontaneously said that 
he could see me doing this (which showed that I was not 
hallucinated). The control of Eusapia's foot was verified by 
me at the time, and she could not have raised it to the 
height of my hand and arm without detection. 

I have no theory to advance as to the nature of the force 
that was manifested at these seances, but I witnessed enough 
phenomena under the strict conditions above described to con- 
vince me of the existence of some supernormal force which 
manifests itself in the presence of this medium, and is capable 
of moving matter at a limited distance from her body. 


WE are requested by Messrs. J. M. Dent & Co. to mention 
that Mr. Dickinson's Ingersoll lecture with this title, a notice 
of which appeared in the Journal last month, is published in 
England by them, and appears in the April number of their 
" New Quarterly " Review (price 2s. 6d. net). 




Society for Psychical Research. 



A Reply to Professor Pigou's Criticism of Cross-Correspondences. By 

Sir Oliver Lodge, .... - - 134 

A Case of Hallucination. By J. G. Piddington, - - 136 

Case, 143 

Notes on Current Periodicals, 145 

Mr. Podmore's " Mesmerism and Christian Science," 148 

Notice, 148 


General Meeting of the Society 




On THURSDA Y, OCTOBER 2&th, 1909, at 4 p.m. 


" Some Classical Allusions in 
Mrs. Piper's Trance 5< 





.B. No Tickets of Admission are issue$ for this Meeting. Members 
and Associates will be asked to sign their names on entering. 

134 Journal of Society for Psychical Research. OCT., 1909. 



AT the conclusion of the recently issued Part of the 
Proceedings (Part LVIII. Vol. XXIII., pp. 286-303) there is 
an interesting discussion by Professor Pigou of the legitimate 
deduction that can be made concerning the source of the 
cross-correspondences which have been so far reported. 

He discusses the question with an open mind, and leaves it 
open at the end, but he is inclined to press for the proba- 
bility that the whole thing originates in the subliminal activity 
of one or more of the automatists; and he adduces as the 
chief argument in favour of this view the fact that the auto- 
matic writings obtained by Mrs. Verrall, in response to an 
effort of Dr. Verrall to transmit the substance of a literary 
episode, exhibited very similar flaws and difficulties and bore 
a very close resemblance to the script obtained, also through 
Mrs. Verrall, in response to an ostensible attempt from a Myers 
control to construct and convey a characteristic literary allusion. 

In fact, Professor Pigou claims that the " one-horse dawn " 
incident exhibits throughout all the signs of a typical case of 
complementary cross-correspondence, and runs in close analogy 
with the " Browning, Hope and Star " and the " Hail, immortal 
Borne" incidents. 

With this statement I fully concur. I admit the close 
resemblance of this whole episode with those which are claimed 
as the work of a discarnate mind. But the argument which 
Professor Pigou bases upon this fact is that, just as the 
former script originated wholly in subliminal activities, so also 
the latter scripts must probably have originated so likewise. 
Here however I disagree, for I must deny the premise. The 
" one-horse dawn " script originated not at all in subliminal 
activities, but in the conscious plan and intention of Dr. 

Undoubtedly the agency of transmission was subliminal 
activity, the transmission was quite beyond Dr. VerralFs 
conscious power, but it was his intelligence and active mind 
which set the subliminal activities to work. It sat above 

OCT., 1909. Professor Pigou on Cross-Correspondences. L85 

thrin and pulled the strings, or at any rate it initiated the 

L-t this be applied to other complementary cross-corre- 
spondences, and the moral is obvious. 

So far as the incident goes, it shows that subliminal 
activities do not originate things of this sort. They carry out 
an effective suggestion, externally initiated, just as the 
subliminal activities of Pierre Janet's or Charcot's patients 
.my out their physiological or pathological suggestions; but 
an intelligent mind is needed to start the whole business, and 
if it were not thus started, any result obtained would presum- 
ably be mere gibberish and would mean nothing to anybody. 

The only reason why all that apparently meaningless stuff 
quoted on p. 301 of Professor Pigou's paper has any signi- 
ficance, is because Dr. Verrall tells us what his intention 
was ; he says he endeavoured to transmit something about a 
one-horse dawn ; and in the light of that information we 
perceive that the fragments fit in. 

Similarly the posthumous Myers control claims that he was 
trying to transmit something about Browning, Hope and a 
Star, or about Ptorne and two persons, one of whom was 
Primus inter pares; and we perceive that in his case also 
the fragments fit in. 

It is true that we may believe the one testimony and not 
the other, but my contention is that the similarity of the 
" one-horse dawn " incident to the "Abt Yogler " and the other 
incident is a help and not a hindrance to those who think 
they detect the initiating agency of the persisting intelligence 
of some specific individual. 

In so far as the one case was certainly brought about by 
an incarnate intelligence, and in so far as any deduction by 
analogy can be drawn, it may be held to follow that the 
other cases were brought about by a discarnate intelligence ; 
for by analogy both sets of messages were initiated by intel- 
ligences, acting of set purpose, conscious of what they wished, 
though constrained to achieve something like the desired 
result by unknown means through unconscious channels. And 
the one intelligence purported to be that of F. W. H. Myers, 
just as the other intelligence purported to be that of Dr. 

136 Journal of Society for Psychical Research. OCT., 1009. 

The 'set purpose' in the cliscarnate cases was indeed specially 
emphatic, since the round-about and allusive character of those 
scripts was not solely accidental or trivial or faute de mieux ; 
it has the air of being part of a plan, for it is essential to 
a real effective cross-correspondence that the fragments sepa- 
rately shall be unintelligible, each to its respective medium, 
in order that the operation of ordinary living telepathy may 
be excluded. 



I LEARNT from Dr. M. that a patient of his, whom I will 
call Mrs. R, had had a curious psychical experience. The 
account which he gave me was briefly as follows : 

Mrs. R., who had given birth to a son over two years previously, 
was expecting her second confinement in the beginning of June. On 
April 12th, 190 / she gave birth to a seven months' child. During 
the labour, which lasted rather over four hours, she saw almost con- 
tinuously the figure of her father, who had been dead twelve months, 
standing by her. During her first confinement she had seen a 
blue-grey bird perched on the picture-rail, and had thought that the 
doctors attending her Dr. M. and Dr. C. were trying, or at any rate 
wishing, to crush the life out of it. 

Dr. M. obtained Mrs. E.'s permission for rne to call upon 
her, which I did on May 7th, 190 , and I wrote the present 
account on the following day. My interview with Mrs. E. lasted 
sixty-five minutes, and she impressed me as being an exception- 
ally clear-headed and scrupulous witness. The record of the 
interview which follows does not profess to reproduce Mrs. E.'s 
statements verbatim, except where words are enclosed in inverted 
commas. Mrs. E., though choosing her words carefully, spoke 
with too great fluency to allow of my taking down her ipsissima 
verba. I regret that I could not do so, for she described her ex- 
periences with a nicety and discrimination of phrase to which 
my record does faint justice. My record has, however, been 
revised by Mrs. E. and her husband, and may accordingly be 
considered to be accurate so far as it goes. 

1 The precise date is given in Mr. Piddington's original account, which is 
in our possession. EDITOR. 

OCT., i'.'o:. .1 Hallucination. 137 


Mi:s. R. At 9.20, on the morning of April 12th, 190, I was seated 
on a sofa by the window in the drawing-room writing out 
on a slate the menu for dinner, when " my father walked 
into the room." 

.!.<;. P. Did you see him walk in? 

MRS. R. No; I was just going to explain. I say "walked in," but I 
didn't actually see him do so. After the experience was 
over it lasted some hours I asked myself, "How did I 
know my father came in?" "Did I see his legs move?" 
And I also asked myself why did I say to Dr. M. (whom I 
saw about 2.45 p.m. that afternoon) that my father 
" walked in." The answer I gave myself was this : " His 
* appearance had to my brain all the ordinary concomitants 

of the physical life." I can't, then, say how he came in ; 
and I can't say how he was dressed. I don't know 
whether I saw his arms and legs. I saw his face very 
clearly, especially his eyes, which were always very 

J. u. P. Did you notice any colour? 

MRS. R. It appeared to me as a form seen at dusk. The eyes and 
brow appeared as they would in broad daylight. 

I. (r. p. Did they stand out from the rest of the features? 

MRS. R. No ; I can't describe exactly. Let me try and explain. After 

t you've gone I shouldn't be able to say what coloured suit 

you had on. It would be just the same with any visitor. 
I realised only after this experience that I'm not much 
in the habit of noticing what kind of clothes people 
wear, especially when their conversation is absorbing or 
interesting me. 
The child was born about 1.45 p.m., and lived a few 
J. G. P. When had you expected the birth ? 

Mus. R. About seven weeks later. I had no idea that the pains I was 
suffering when the figure first appeared were the beginning 
of labour. I stayed in the drawing-room from 9.20 till 
12.30, and all the time my father was in the room, within 
two feet, or less, of me. I was lying on the sofa, and 
my father was standing close beside me and looking down 
at me. I was looking into his eyes, and he into mine 

138 Journal of Society for Psychical Research. OCT., 1009. 

Yet there was no sense of physical fatigue, such as there 
would have been if two ordinary people had been staring 
at each other for three hours. 

J. G. P. While you were 'looking at your father were you aware of 
pain 1 

MRS. R. Yes. When the vision began I was thinking about cookery, 
and not about my father at all. The pain I thought was 
colic or cramp. I had no idea it was labour. 

J. G. P. Do you think that the vision of your father had the effect 
of deadening the pain at all ? 

MRS. R. That, of course, is a very difficult thing to say. The pains 
due to the muscular contractions were probably not 
diminished. When these pains came on "I probably shut 
my eyes and my inner vision too," and did not see my 
father. But during the interludes I think I was conscious 
only of my father's presence, and did not feel as much 
pain as otherwise I should have done. I can, of course, 
only judge by comparison with the pain I suffered during 
my first labour ; and that may be misleading as a standard 
of comparison, because, as is often the case in a first 
labour, it was greatly protracted and very severe. 

J. G. P. Did you speak to your father ? 

MRS. R. During my first confinement my favourite aunt, who had been 
dead about seven years, came into the room, and I clearly 
remember beseeching her repeatedly to take me with her. 
When this happened I had been inhaling a mixture of 
chloroform, ether, and alcohol. 

J. G. P. Had you seen the figure of your aunt before you began to 
inhale ? 

MRS. R. I don't remember for certain whether I saw my aunt before 
or after I began inhaling. 1 When I first saw my father 

1 Mrs. R. wrote on May 11, 190 , as follows: "I only saw the figure of my 
aunt during the last twenty hours or so of labour. But the figure of the blue- 
grey bird appeared nearly forty-two hours before the birth, and remained for 
about five or six hours on the picture-rail. I spoke to it very often, I am told, 
and especially spoke to ' others ' who appeared to be attempting to catch or 
crush or injure it. The bird was very much in my thoughts, very real and very 
dear to me, and its safety was the one thing I thought of at the time, and during 
all the time I was aware of it. But I had very little recollection of its having 
appeared for some days afterwards." 

OCT., 1909. A Case of Hallucination. 139 

I had not inhaled any of the mixture. My aunt looked 
" angelic ; " there was, as it were, *' a brightness about 
her." My father looked like an ordinary human being 
seen in the dusk ; or rather, I should say, " seen at the 
last point of daylight at which one can see a figure." 
When I left the drawing-room and went to my bedroom 
I didn't see the figure of my father. I can't say the 
figure disappeared. I just forgot to think about it 
After lying on my bed face-downwards to get relief from 
pain, and perhaps after two, three, or five minutes, I 
turned over on my back that particular pain having 
passed and I saw my father standing close by my bed- 
side just the same as in the drawing-room, except that 
the light in the drawing-room fell on his face, whereas 
in the bedroom "I was distinctly conscious of a figure 
between me and the light." I was also conscious of there 
being "a countenance on the top of the figure," but I did 
not notice other details. 
.!.<;. 1'. Did you speak to the figure in the bedroom? 

Mus. R. In the drawing-room my father was just like an ordinary 
human being, and I was not aware that he was dead. In 
the bedroom there was a new phase. I thought I was 
a young girl of sixteen ; and I seemed to resume the 
ordinary tenour of my life at that age. I thought I was 
living at home as I was at the age of sixteen. I thought 
I was out riding with my father. Something went wrong 
with a stirrup, and the groom 

J. (T. P. Did you see the groom ? 

MRS. R. No ; I didn't see him. " I sensed he was there." The groom 
couldn't get the stirrup right. This part of my experience 
was rather like a mild nightmare. My husband, who 
was in the bedroom with me for a short time, says 
that I was talking a great deal with my father, and 
that I asked him (my father) to come, and said I wanted 
him. He also heard me talking about the stirrup a great 
deal. I was then inhaling at intervals. I can't remember 

I seeing my father after I was told the child was born. 

It was only during the last quarter of an hour that I 
realised that the pains I was suffering were those of 

140 Journal of Society for Psychical Research. Ocx.,1909. 

J. G. P How was it, if you were not expecting labour to come on, 
that you had the chloroform, ether and alcohol mixture 
by you 1 

MRS. R. I had been having cramps for months back, and had been 
inhaling the mixture, a very mild anaesthetic, now and 
again to relieve them a little. 

After the hild was born I lay and wondered if .my 
father would come again ; but he didn't. 

J. G. P. Were you at all frightened by your experience? 

MRS. R. (laughing) No ; not in the least. I delighted in his presence 
of which I had been deprived for a year. 

J. G. P. Besides these two visions one of your father and one of 
your aunt have you had any others'? 

MRS. R. Yes. I first saw a figure when I was thirteen years old. 
At that age I was very much afraid of the dark; but, 
as you will see, this vision cured me of my dread. 
I was in bed, unable to sleep. I heard a knock at the 
door, and felt very nervous. I waited, but nothing 
happened. I then put the bedclothes over my head and 
tried to go to sleep. Then came three knocks at the 
door. I called out " Come in ; " but no one came in. 
I was in awful terror, and was trembling in agony. For 
;t time nothing further happened. After what seemed 
like an hour, and as I was settling down to sleep, I 
said a prayer for protection for the whole house. I began 
to think over what had happened, and I said to myself 
" I am a coward ; " and I determined to overcome my 
cowardice. So I went to the door and opened it. Before 
me stood a tall figure, taller than the architrave of the 
door by which it stood. (It was standing by a door 
opposite mine.) It was about 7 to 8 feet high. It was 
dressed in a grey cloak. Where the face should have 
been was darker than the rest of the figure, and the 
cavity of the eyes was darker. I could not exactly dis- 
tinguish the eyes, only the cavity where they should 
have been. I saw no limbs. I was in perfectly good 
health at the time. I banged the door shut and fled 
back in to bed. I was dreadfully afraid ; but I said to 
myself I must see it again; and I was conscious that 
I was deliberately exerting my will to conquer my fear. 

OCT., 1009. A Case of Hallucination. 1 4 1 

I went to the door and opened it. I saw the figure again 
across the passage just the same as before. For the first 
time my fear began to disappear. The figure seemed to 
move like spray seen in sunshine. I mean it seemed to 
move within itself, without however moving forwards. 
Then the figure grew smaller, turned and moved pro- 
gressed without limbs (it had no legs) glided round, a 
corner. I then got a shock, for I saw a basket containing 
linen at a spot on the passage floor, where it was not 
the custom to place such things. I followed the figure 
down the passage as far as the door of my brother's 
room, who was lying ill with ear-ache. He died five 
days later. (No I'm not sure if my brother was in 
that room on that night; but he certainly was the next 
day.) The figure then disappeared in the doorway of my 
brother's own room, which was next to the room in 
which he died five or six days later. I then went back 
to bed and was in a sort of dazed state for some time It 
was February. The clock -struck four, and as I listened 
to it I began to be nervous again, so I made myself get 
up and go out into the corridors. I gently opened every 
door on the first floor and ground floor and looked in 
(merely to overcome the nervousness), and then went 
out of the garden door and all about the garden ; and 
it was when I was out of doors that all fear passed, 
and I came in again feeling unusually elated. And never 
again during my childhood did I have the least fear of 
the dark, not even to swim in a lake or tarn at midnight. 
And this liberation from the awful slavery of fear I owe 
entirely to this apparition. 

Some nights afterwards, when my brother's body had 
been laid out, the linen was placed in a basket at the 
spot in the passage where I had seen the basket of linen 
when following the figure. 

When I sent Mrs. E. my record of our interview, I put 
her several questions, which she answered in a letter dated 
May 11, 190 . From this letter I append some extracts. 

"... My senses were so dulled by the pain, and my memory 
by the weakness and prostration, which followed [the first confine- 
ment], that accurate details elude me now, especially as to what I 
did or said at the time. 

142 Journal of Society for Psychical Research. OCT., 1909. 

The only things which have all along remained vividly clear are : 
the blue-grey bird and my anxiety to protect it. Then the beautiful 
vision of my aunt, and my intense longing to go to her. Both 
these (the bird and the angelic vision) came at intervals during the 
Wednesday night, i.e. after 11.30 p.m. The labour began about 
11 p.m. on Wednesday night, and lasted through Thursday, Thursday 
night, and Friday. Chloroform was administered about 6.15 p.m. on 
Friday, and the child born at 7.30 p.m. 

The visions were recurrent, especially the bird. Whenever I 
turned to that side of the room I saw the bird on the picture rail 
facing the window. I saw the visions both before and after inhaling 
the A.E.C. mixture. I clearly remember that of my aunt recurring 
three times ; twice during the Wednesday night, remaining for long 
spaces of time ; and again on Friday afternoon. 

Another thing which I remember with terrible clearness, is the 
utter blank despairing disappointment when I awoke after the child 
was born, and realised that I had to remain on earth, and had not 
been allowed to go to my aunt. A sort of frenzy of longing seized 
me to gather up my husband and child, and fly to her. For the 
vision so penetrated me with a wonderful sense of exquisite and 
calm joy and heavenly satisfiedness (if one can use the word), that 
to come back to an earthly bedroom was really an agony. It was 
a harsh and jarring sense of forlornness and misery which I shall 
never forget as long as I live. 

... I never saw the bird moving to different places, though it -was 
in different parts of the picture rail. . . . But I often saw the 
bird tremble in its feathers, and its head moved. It had dark 
china-blue wings, and a light grey-blue breast. In shape it was 
like a bullfinch, but considerably larger, and [it had] a longer tail. 
It remained for long spaces together on the rail, and I never saw 
it in the act of going away, although sometimes it did not appear 
to be there. (You will remember that we are speaking of a period 
of more than 40 hours' duration.) 

I did not touch the figure of my father, nor that of my aunt. 
I spoke often to both of them, but they did not answer. And yet 
my father's changing expressions of face did serve as conversation 
without any actual words. I thought he spoke several times to 
the groom whom I could not see, for he was between the two 
horses. I saw the horses quite distinctly, but only for a short 
time in my bedroom, not downstairs. 

With my aunt it was quite different. It was not like friendly 

<)<!.. A Case of Hallucinate ,. 14:> 

human intercourse. Her atmosphere, her aura, j>enetrated me. 
M-.'ined to fill me with rays of her own efl'uL'enee. which gave me 
indesrribaMe joy. Hut when tin: vi>inn iaded, and befoie it 
re-appeared again, I felt like an outcast, and trembled lest I should 
really be left behind. I can distinctly remember kneeling before 
her when she reappeared, and beseeching her to take me; though 
I juinot say whether I kneeled physically and spoke the words physically. 
Hut 1 think I did. 

.My aunt had arms, I know, because she held them out to me; 
the rest of her body was like shining draperies, and they shone 
on the floor." 


L. 1177. Veridical Auditory Hallucination. 
Tin: following account of a telepathic auditory hallucination was 
sent to us by Mr. Severin Lauritzen, an Associate of the Society. 

Mr. Lauritzen, who, it will be observed, recorded the case 
a few minutes after its occurrence, writes : 

HOLTE, DENMARK, May 5th, 1909. 

I live in a villa in the country, and in a neighbouring villa lives 
my married daughter, who is named Evelyn. There is only a 
distance of 33 steps, or say some 22 yards, in a straight line, between 
the houses. I have a telephone from a central station in my house, 
and also a short private telephone that connects the two houses. I 
commence writing this 1.20 p.m., May 5th. The same day about 
1 o'clock my son-in-law, K., telephoned from his place of business in 
the town to my house to say that he wanted to speak with Evelyn. 
It was my wife who answered the telephone when K. called, and 
when she heard what he wanted she immediately pressed the button 
of the private telephone to summon E. Just before this moment E. 
heard her mother's very clear and distinct voice call "Evelyn, 
Evelyn." She arose from her writing-desk where she sat absorbed 
in household accounts, opened the door to the hall in her house, 
and asked Miss N., who was working there: "Did mother call?" 
"No," said Miss N., "nobody called." E. said: "Yes, she did call." 
Then she turned to go back to an open window in the room where 
she had been writing, to see if her mother was outside there; but 
she did not reach the window before she heard the private telephone 
bell sounding, so she turned again and went straight to my house 
without answering the call per telephone. Passing the telephone 

144 Journal of Society for Psychical Research. OCT., 1909. 

and Miss N., she said, " There, you see, mother called." Arrived 
at my house, she found that her husband wanted to speak with 
her. Just as she had finished her conversation with her husband, 
I came out from an adjacent room to speak with her, but she 
interrupted me and said, " Now we have a clear case of telepathy ! " 

When E. walks in her garden she can sometimes, with a favourable 
wind (west), and when certain doors and windows in my house 
are open, hear my public telephone bell sounding, and she expected 
her husband to call her per telephone in the course of the day. 
But to hear my public telephone in this case, the sound would have to 
pass to her from the hall in my house either through my kitchen (door 
from hall to kitchen was open), then through a closed door to a 
pantry, through the pantry and an open window there facing east, 
further across the gardens and round a corner of her house, through 
an open window there and into her room, or from my hall upstairs 
through a closed door and a bedroom, and then through an open 
window there facing east, then down and across the gardens, etc. 
all with an easterly wind, the most unfavourable. At two o'clock the 
same day, I tried whether my public telephone could be normally 
heard where E. had been sitting. I had even opened the above- 
named pantry door, but not one of three persons [who tried] 
could hear the telephone bell. Nobody was in the gardens when 
E. K. heard her name. In fact, nobody calling her by her Christian 
name could be there. 

This, it seems to me, is a case of subliminal perception and 
translation either of a telepathic impulse or at least of a subliminally 
caught, extremely weak, sound. There is at least the interesting 
translation (so often met with in telepathic and other cases), because 
there was no one actually calling " Evelyn, Evelyn" My wife corroborates 
this ; I myself heard from my room all the proceedings in my hall, 
and we never call out in such cases ; it would be absurd not to 
take the private telephone instead. 

I have much reason to believe that neither my wife nor my 
daughter is in any way "sensitive" or " mediumistic." 

This account is corroborated as follows : 

The facts were as given above. 


(Mrs.) EVA KEMP. 


!'.">'.'. Case. 14." 

Later, Mr. Lumt/.-n adds: 29M, 1909. 

Mrs. L. was in a room upstairs with an open window eastward. 
When she heard the telephone call she just looked out of the 
window to see whether Mrs. Kemp was aceidentallv in the garden 
outside, because she thought it might be Mr. Kemp who called, 
and she would then have informed her that the telephone called. 
Not seeing Mrs. Kemp there, she at once turned round, went eight 
st.-ps down the stairs, and took the telephone, heard Mr. Kemp say, 
11 I want to speak with Eva," or some such short remark, said 
11 Yes," turned round, and pressed the private telephone button to 
summon Mrs. Kemp. Now, you remember that Mrs. K. heard her 
mother call her, went to her hall, said, " Did mother call 1 " returned 
to her room just beside the hall, and turned again when hearing her 
private telephone, or she heard it in passing it. You will see how 
unlikely it is that she should hear her mother's call immediately 
our public telephone had sounded, or as a consequence of its 
having sounded. No, the time between Mrs. L. looking out of her 
window and her pressing the private telephone button (the telephones 
are placed one yard apart), and the time between Mrs. Kemp's 
leaving her writing-desk and her hearing the private bell, must 
have been almost exactly the same; so I am quite convinced that 
the moment Mrs. L. looked out of her window to call Mrs. K. 
(but she did not call out), was the moment of the telepathic impact. 
The ladies are lively and intelligent, and fully aware of the import- 
ance of being accurate in such matters. S. LAURITZKN. 


IN the Archives de Psychologic for April, 1909, M. Emile Yung has an 
article on "Suggestibility in the Waking State." "His duty is to 
instruct the first year students at the University of Geneva in 
microscopy. Before the pupils are allowed to examine an object 
through the microscope, he gives them a short verbal description of what 
they are to see. Some years since one of the pupils brought him a 
drawing of a diatom which was so unlike the original that he sent 
him back to the microscope. The second attempt was as remote from 
nature as the first, and M. Yung, looking hurriedly through the 
microscope, found that the object-slide was empty ! 

Acting on the hint he took occasion, in the course of fifteen years, 
to place empty slides before 80 pupils. Of these 63 reported that 
the slides were empty, 6 saw images too vague to draw, or possibly 
figures explicable by " mouches volantes." But 11 produced finished 

146 Journal of Society for Psychical Research. OCT., 1909. 

designs, obviously inspired by the verbal description given in the 
lecture. All these students were between eighteen and twenty years. 
Similar experiments succeeded in a higher proportion amongst younger 
students. But M. Yung in no case succeeded in making a second or 
third year student, who had previous experience in microscopic work, 
see figures on an empty slide. 

A further series of experiments in suggestion showing effects from a 
" magnetised " card proved even mote successful. Of 420 persons 
83'8 per cent, proved suggestible, the proportion being higher amongst 
women than amongst men, and amongst those under twenty than 
amongst those above that age. Indeed, all the forty-four students under 
twenty proved in some manner suggestible. The hallucinations wei 
(1) muscular, a thrill or a shock; (2) tactile, including a feeling 
warmth; (3) olfactory; (4) visual, the movement of the card; 
(5) auditory. The last two were rarely successful. 

The results are very similar to those described by Braid fifty 
years ago. 

The Psychological Review, July, 1909, contains a long article by 
Professor June Downey on Muscle Heading (with contact), which, 
however, has no direct reference to telepathy : and there is, perhaps, 
from the standpoint of Psychical Research, nothing strikingly new 
in the results obtained. But a careful exploration of the field of 
muscle reading serves to illustrate once more the extreme difficulty 
of excluding all possible sensory indications in telepathic experimenting 
at close quarters. For "it is difficult to comprehend without first- 
hand experience the wonderful accuracy of the operator's [percipient's] 
response to the slightest variation in the guide's [agent's] muscular 
tension. H., for instance has, as guide, placed a clock on a ledge 
above a long table which is three and a half feet wide and flat 
against the wall. On Dy's arrival at the table, H. begins to chuckle, 
mentally thinking ' she can never reach it.' Dy raises herself on 
tip-toe and leans over the table exclaiming, 'I can never reach it.' 
H. sees in a visual flash Dy climbing the table and Dy actually 
pulls herself over the table and gets the clock." Unfortunately, 
however, in this case we are not told whether the clock was going. 

Miss Downey found that between 70 and 80 per cent, of the persons 
tested by her proved fairly good subjects for simple muscle reading 
experiments, such as finding hidden objects. She lays stress upon 
the extraordinary difficulty which most persons experience in realising 
their own unconscious muscular movements. Very few could succeed 
in observing them : many refused to accept the explanation. 

HK)9. Notes on Current Literature. 147 

Four cases of pronounced verbal automatism, whispering, or moving 
the lips,- -were observed : when it was recorded, it was found that 
the agents were completely unconscious of their actions. F. P. 

In the Revue de V Hypnotism?,, May, 1909, Dr. I&rillon suggests 
that the phenomena associated with the production and cessation of 
sleep tend to demonstrate the existence of a cerebral "centre of 
awakening," u motor centre presiding over a group of motor activi- 
ties on which awakening and the maintenance of the waking state 
(It-pond. Hypnosis is due to inhibition of this centre, and the 
termination of hypnosis comes with the removal of the inhibition. 
The evidence put forward by Be'rillon in support of his contention 
seems inconclusive. 

In the Revue de V Hypnotisme, June, 1909, there is an interesting 
paper by Dr. Georges d'Hotel on the importance of dilatation of the 
pupil as a sign of suggestibility in the waking state. The first 
observations recorded were made in the course of a political cam- 
paign. Dr. d'Hotel found that the people most easily won over to 
his views were those whose pupils dilated when he was addressing 
them. When persuasion was more difficult, he observed alternate 
dilatation and contraction of the pupils according as his efforts were 
effective or not. Later observations on the pupils of many persons 
under a variety of suggestive or persuasive influences confirmed Dr. 
d'Hotel in his opinion as to the close relation existing between this 
pupillary sign and mental receptivity. 

At the present time there is perhaps no matter connected with 
the psychology of suggestion on which it is more important to have 
new observations and experiments than in regard to the conditions 
which hinder or favour the action of suggestion in what are 
apparently waking states. It is mainly in relation to psycho-thera- 
peutics that the question has arisen, but a clear understanding of 
the conditions which accompany or lead to suggestibility in ordinary 
life is of great importance in connection with many of the problems 
of psychical research. Dr. d'Hotel's paper is a welcome contribution 
to a subject on which hitherto little of value has been published. 

A good instance of recovery of a lost memory by means of 
suggestion during hypnosis is recorded by Dr. Paul Joire in the 
Revue de I'Hypnotisme, July, 1909. M. F., an electrical engineer, had 
invented an arc lamp free from certain defects which are common 
to all existing arc lamps. The problem presented was difficult, and 
the solution was arrived at only after much thought. Having made 

148 Journal of Society for Psychical Research. OCT., 1000. 

the necessary notes and drawings of his invention, M. F. laid them 
aside for a time, being absorbed in other more urgent occupations. 
Soon afterwards, his health broke down, and he was treated for 
neurasthenia by Dr. Joire. On his recovery, desiring to continue 
his work on the arc lamp, he searched for the papers which he had 
put away six months previously. He could not find them, and 
when he tried to work out the problem anew, he was unable to 
solve it. He worked at it for five months without success, and 
finally asked Dr. Joire to try to recover the lost memory during 
hypnosis. A graphic account is given by Dr. Joire of how M. F. 
in the hypnotic state \vas made to retrace the events of his life 
back to the occasion on which he had solved the problem, and 
of how the solution was again found and the original drawing 
reproduced. T. W. M. 


MR. PODMORE'S new book, Mesmerism and Christian Science : a 
Short History of Mental Healing, has just been issued by 
Messrs. Methuen & Co., 36 Essex Street, London, W.C. 
(Demy 8vo. Price 10s. 6d. net.) The whole history and de- 
velopment of the subject is here dealt with in a learned and 
exhaustive mariner, combined with much charm of style. The 
contents include : Healing by Fluid ; The Magnetic System ; 
The First French Commission ; The Discovery of Somnambulism ; 
Healing by Suggestion ; Later French Commissions ; Mesmerism 
in England ; The Fluidic Theory ; Clairvoyance ; Spiritualism in 
France ; Spiritualism in Germany ; The Coming of the Prophets ; 
Thomas Lake Harris ; The Rise of Mental Healing ; Mary 
Baker Eddy ; Christian Science. 

A full review of the book will, it is hoped, appear in the 
next Part of Proceedings. 


IN consequence of statements that have lately appeared in 
several newspapers about a club to be called the International 
Club for Psychical Research, a number of enquiries have 
reached us. We therefore desire to make it clear that con- 
trary to the suggestion conveyed by some of the newspaper 
paragraphs the proposed Club has no connection of any kind 
with our Society. It has also been stated that Professor 
Barrett will be the first President of the Club, but Professor 
Barrett informs us that this statement is entirely groundless. 


NOVEMBER, 19<)9. 



Society for Psychical Research. 

Members and Associates, 
Meeting of the Council, .... 
I'rivato Meeting for Members and 

Associates, 151 

Reminiscent Crystal Visions, - - - 151 


Obituary : Professor Cesare Lombroso, - 158 
The Sixth International Congress of 

Psychology, 159 

Occasional Unexplained Ringing of 

House-Bells. By Sir Oliver Lodpe,- 160 




Correspondence: On Cros-Correpon- 


I. By Professor A. C Pigou, - 161 
II. By Sir Oliver Lodge, - 161 
Review: Professor D. B. Macdonald's 
"The Religious Attitude and Life 
in Islam." By the Rev. M. A. 
Bayfield, - - - 162 
Notice, 164 


A Private Meeting of the Society 




On MONDAY, DECEMBER i$th t 1909, at 4 /.;//. 


" The Detection of Hidden Objects 
by Dowsers ' : 



" Some Sittings with Carancini ' : 



f.B. No Tickets of Admission are issued for this Meeting. Members 
and Associates will be asked to sign their names on entering. 

150 Journal of Society for Psychical Research. Nov., it)09. 


Names of Members are printed in Black Type. 
Names of Associates are printed in SMALL CAPITALS. 

Carter, Mrs., c/o Messrs. H. S. King & Co., 9 Pall Mall, London, S.W. 
Edge, Selwyn Francis, 14 New Burlington Street, London, W. 
Klinckowstroem, Count Carl, 40 Elisabethstrasse, Munich, Bavaria. 
ALLEN, PROFESSOR H. J., The Presidency College, Madras. 
ASKEW, CLAUDE, 2h Portman Mansions, Gloucester Place, London, W. 

BARNES, THE REV. WALTER W., 92 Warwick Gardens, Kensington, 

London, W. 

BOWLEY, Miss S. M., 29 Croftdown Road, Highgate Road, London, N.W. 
CHILDERS, Miss S. R., 14 Embankment Gardens, Chelsea, London, S.W. 
GRAHAM, MRS. PERCEVAL GORE, Ghezireh, Cairo, Egypt. 
GREENE, MRS. BERTRAM, 2 Louisburg Square, Boston, Mass., U.S.A. 
GREEN-THOMPSON, MRS., Bridekirk, Cockermouth. 
HAMMOND, Miss WINIFRED B., 386 Catlin Avenue, Portland, Oregon, 


HANDCOCK, DR. CHARLES L., J.P., Ashburton, New Zealand. 
HAWARDEN, THE VISCOUNTESS, 18 Chelsea Court, London, S.W. 
HEATH, GEORGE H., 277 Brockley Road, London, S.E. 
HINTON, MRS. HOWARD, Tyson Villa, Tyson Road, Forest Hill, 

London, S.E. 
HUMPHREY, Miss OLA, 4c Oxford and Cambridge Mansions, Hyde 

Park, London, W. 

KIRKE, P. ST. G., M.A., 4 Trafalgar Square, London, W.C. 
LIVINGSTONE, THE REV. WILLIAM 0., Waverly, 111., U.S.A. 
M'ALPINE, MRS., Balclutha, Greenock, N.B. 
MARKS, MRS. CLAUDE, 7 Sloane Street, London, S.W. 
O'LEARY, Miss KATHERINE W., 44 Campden Hill Square, London, W. 
PATERSON, Miss MARY N., 3 Devonshire Terrace, Ventnor, I.W. 
PECKHAM, Miss ELLA, 246 Gano Street, Providence, R.I., U.S.A. 
PRICE, Miss ELIZABETH, 28 Nutford Place, Marble Arch, London, W. 
ROSE, MRS. GUY, Giverny par Vernon, Eure, France. 
SENATHI RAJA, E. S. W., The Grange, Trevandrum, South India. 

N..V., io9. New Members and Associates. 151 

THORBURN, THE REV. T. J., B.D., LL.D., The Bungalow, St. Helen's 

Down, Hastings. 

TOWNKSEND, MRS., Trevine, Boley Hill, Rochester, Kent. 
WATERLOW, SYDNEY, M.A., Hilly fields, Rye, Sussex. 


THE 99th Meeting of the Council was held at 20 Hanover 
Square, London, W., on Thursday, October 28th, 1909, at 
5.45 p.m., the President, Mrs. Henry Sidgwick, in the chair. 
The following Members of Council were present : Mr. W. W. 
Baggally, Professor W. F. Barrett, the Rev. A. T. Fryer, Sir 
Oliver Lodge, Mr. Sydney C. Scott, Mr. A. F. Shand, Mr. H. 
Arthur Smith, and Mrs. Verrall ; also Miss Alice Johnson, 
Research Officer, and Miss Isabel Newton, Secretary. 

The Minutes of the last Meeting of the Council were read 
and signed as correct. 

Three new Members and twenty-eight new Associates were 
elected. Their names and addresses are given above. 

The monthly accounts for June, and July, August and Sep- 
tember, 1909, were presented and taken as read. 


THE 29th Private Meeting of the Society for Members and 
Associates only was held in the large Hall at 20 Hanover 
Square, London, W., on Thursday, October 28th, 1909, at 4 p.m.; 
the PRESIDENT, MRS. HENRY SIDGWICK, in the chair. 

A paper by MR. J. G. PIDDJNGTON on " Some Classical Allusions 
in Mrs. Piper's Trance " was read by Miss VERRALL. This 
paper will, it is hoped, appear later in the Proceedings. 


THE following accounts by the Rev. H. E., received by us 
through Mr. F. C. Constable, relate to experiments similar to 
the three recorded in the Journal for November, 1908, but 
carried out with other hypnotic subjects. The first account was 
received by Mr. Constable on January 5th, 1908 : 

152 Journal of Society for Psychical Research. Nov.,1909. 

No. 4. 

May 22, 1904. F. B. entranced and told to multiply 5789 by 3 
at a signal, after being awaked. 

On waking and seeing me look at my watch, F. B. took up a 
pencil and wrote automatically : 


^Ll (A) 


F. B. always goes on doing (when possible) the suggested act, 
unless told he is only to do it once. As I forgot to mention this 
to him, he started the sum a second time, thus : 




As soon as I saw him start (A) I said: "Now begin counting 
backwards from 100." This he did. When he came to 56 he 
jumped to 45, and then began to laugh and talk about the mistake 
he had made. F. B. then went back to 55 and continued the 
counting. It was at 56 that he began the second sum (B) with 
other figures than those I gave him. In spite, however, of this 
change, the (B) sum is worked correctly, proving, it seems to me, 
that the reasoning is done with the waking mind, or else that the 
mind in hypnosis is still capable of reasoning. 

The writing was done without planchette, the pencil being simply 
held in the hand. The patient was quite unconscious, both of the 
order and of the fact that he was writing at all. F. B. was 
thoroughly occupied with the counting backwards, and with laughing 
at his mistakes. He writes without taking his pencil off the paper. 

When the pencil is taken off, one figure is put on top of 

another. He does the same with words. He cannot "space," as 
several others can. H. E. 

Mr. F. C. Constable comments on this case as follows : 
F. B. on counting backwards from 100 made a mistake at 56 
he jumped to 45, "and then began to laugh and talk about the 
mistake he had made." He was evidently counting with nwmal 
consciousness. And at the same time that he made the above error 
he also made an error in writing down 3589 instead of 5789. 

I hold the coincidence in time of these two errors is of great 
importance : I deny chance coincidence. There was operation of 

Nov., 1909. Reminiscent Crystal Visions. 153 

F. B.'s understanding both in counting and in writing: the one 
error is related to the other .... and both imported a form of 
conscious operation of the understanding. . . . 

It appears to me that the abnormality of the case lies only in 
this : that one and the same understanding was carrying on at the 
same time a double operation (that of counting and writing), whereas 
normally the understanding can carry on but one operation. Through 
the influence of hypnotism, the understanding of F. B. was doing 
more than it normally could do. 

If this be so, we must refer the double operation of counting- and 
multiplying .... not to two distinct forms (supraliminal and sub- 
liminal) of consciousness, but to one form : he was consciously 
carrying on two operations of his understanding just as Julius 
Caesar is said to have been able to read one subject and dictate 
another, or Lord Brougham to listen to a legal argument and 
write a treatise on mathematics at the same time 

Herein we find, as with H. E.'s previous experiments, evidence 
that hypnotism affected F. B.'s understanding in no way directly : 
it only so affected the environments of his understanding that he could 
do what ordinarily he could not do. There was already latent 
power in F. B. to count by words and multiply by his hand: hyp- 
notism rendered this latent power potent in action by freeing his 
understanding from those environments which normally prevented 
his carrying on the double operation. 

January 25th, 1909. 
No. 5. 

J. M., aged 21, carpenter, of good average ability. Good hypnotic 
subject, and good at crystal vision. 

Jan. 22, 1909, 11 o'clock a.m. Sees in crystal a man in white 
apron kicking a boy. Thinks boy is a grocer's assistant. Can't see 
faces plainly. Man takes boy by the arm and kicks him again. 
Says he does not know either boy or man. Thinks it is inside a 
shop, but is not sure. Vision fades. 

On questioning J. M. he cannot remember ever having seen this. 
I should state that I consider he has a bad ordinary memory, and 
a fairly bad memory when in the hypnotic trance, i.e. bad compared 
with the ordinary run of subjects in this state. On being hypnotised 
and asked where the scene took place, he replies at once that it was 
five years ago when he was working with another boy W. Q., 
under a carpenter named E. C. The boy and he had each made a 

154 Journal of Society for Psychical Research. Nov., 1909. 

wheelbarrow. The carpenter, E. C., found fault with W. Q,, "and 
he gave him cheek, so he put his boot into him, and kicked him 
over the barrow." Asked what made him see this picture, he 
answered : " I was pushing a barrow this morning." 

Further asked ' what this had to do with it,' he replied : " I 
thought of the new one I was making, as I was pushing the barrow." 

Awake. J. M. says he remembers clearly thinking of the new 
barrow he is making, and noticing the way the one was made that 
he was pushing, but feels sure he never thought of W. Q. or of the 
kicking affair. 

It seems to me fairly obvious that the barrow J. M. was pushing 
suggested the barrow he is making. His mind was idle probably, 
as he was going along the road, and the incident about W. Q. rose 
at least as far as his sub-conscious memory, being suggested by 

No. 6. 

J. M., date, time, etc., as above. 

Sees in crystal a man hanging from a beam in a room, by his 
neck small table upset on floor below him. Man about 70 years 
of age. Light tweed coat, dark trousers. Rope fastened to hook in 
old-fashioned whitewashed beam. Rope double. Face is to right. 
Vision fades. 

J. M. remembers this incident thorough^. It happened at S. in 
the Midlands, on Easter Monday 1907. He was called into the 
house, together with the man with whom he was lodging, to cut the 
man down. The house was opposite the one in which he lodged, 
where this took place. 

The question now was, what made him see this very unpleasant 
vision 1 ? There was no need to find out further details as to what 
the vision was, as he could naturally describe such an affair 

On being hypnotised, and the question being asked, he replied : 
" I saw them hanging up a pig [on Jan. 18th] that was just killed, 
a day or two ago." "Did you think of this man when you saw 
that ? " " No, not that I know of." " If you saw that, a day or two 
ago, why do you see it to-day in the crystal 1 " "I saw a postcard 
to-day with a pig on it." 

After waking, J. M. told me that while driving a cart with a 
horse that went very slowly through the village of 0. on Monday 
last, he saw a newly killed pig hung up to the roof of a shed that 

NOV., Reminiscent Crystal Visions. 155 

opened on to the road. He merely looked at it as the horse went 
slowly by. As far as he knows, he never thought of the suicide 
at all. 

This morning i.e. Jan. 22, about half an hour before these ex- 
periments he called at B.'s house, and was shown a postcard, sent 
for a joke, showing a pig without its head. Is quite sure he did 
not think of the pig he saw hung up at 0. 

The chain of memory is again obvious. The postcard pig suggests 
the dead pig at 0, and this in turn suggests the suicide at s. 

But these two cases seem to have a further interest. After J. M. 
had seen Vision 5, I took the crystal away and wrote the notes 
of the experiment. This took rather less than 10 minutes. I then 
handed J. M. the crystal again. He immediately saw the No. 6 
vision. Why does this one follow the other? The wheelbarrow in 
No. 6 that he was pushing he stopped outside B.'s house and 
went in. Here he took the postcard into his hands and examined 
it. After staying there a little while, he went back to the barrow 
and took it to its destination, and then came on to me for experi- 
ments. Again the chain is fairly obvious. H. E. 


L. 1178. Dream. 

THE following case was sent to Mrs. Sidgwick by a corre- 
spondent, Mrs. Arnold Shaw, who is acquainted with all the 
persons concerned. We are requested to print their initials 
only, but the full names and addresses have been given to us. 

The percipient, Miss G. writes : 

December 19 /A, 1908. 

I dreamt my married friend Mrs. L. came with her sister to me 
in my room, in motor costume, in great distress. The scene seemed 
to change to her morning room, and she and her sister were in 
a very distressed state of mind, because her husband and a friend 
had left her, or gone away that part was very vague but she 
was so upset, and it impressed me so much, and it was all so 
vivid. I telephoned first thing in the morning to see if anything 
was wrong, but did not hear anything, as she was not then up; 
in the afternoon I heard that her husband and a friend had gone 
out for an hour's run on the motor. It had broken down, and 
they had not returned till 2 a.m. in the morning, and could get 
to nowhere to communicate with the wife. She meanwhile was 

156 Journal of Society for Psychical Research. Nov., 1900. 

in an awful state of mind, and she has told me since that she 
thought several times of telephoning to me, only the lateness of the 
hour prevented her; and she longed for me to be there. 

G. G. 

The following are questions asked by Mrs. Sidgwick, to 
which Miss G.'s answers are appended : 

1. What was the date of the dream 1 ? 
Just before Xmas, 1907. 

2. Does the dreamer often have vivid dreams 1 
Not specially. 

3. Has she on any other occasion had a dream which has so im- 

pressed her that she has taken steps afterwards to find 
out if anything corresponding to the dream had happened '? 

4. Has she ever attached any significance to a dream before? 

5. Does she often dream of Mrs. L. 1 

Mrs. L.'s account, obtained independently of Miss G.'s, was 
received by Mrs. Sidgwick on January 9th, 1909, and is as 
follows : 

... On Sunday, December 22nd, 1907, my husband and I had intended 
having a quiet day at home, when in the afternoon my brother-in- 
law unexpectedly arrived with a light-powered car which he had 
bought not long before, and which he wanted my husband to try. 
Later on, though it was now dark, they decided to go for a run, 
and arranged to call at ... the home of my husband's sister, Mrs. 
B. A friend, H. N., went with them. 

My husband said he would be home by 8 o'clock, and as he keeps 
his word, I knew he would do his best to be back at that time. 
However, at 8 o'clock they did not return, and at a few minutes 
past, Mrs. B. telephoned to say that they were staying supper, 
but would leave 9 o'clock certain. She also said that the car had 
been running badly and that it would give the chauffeur time to 
put the engine in order. They would be home 10 o'clock by the 

I seldom feel nervous, but in this case I knew the car was 
not in really safe running order. When 11 o'clock, then 12 o'clock 
came, and still they did not return, I at last felt certain that 

NOV., I'.xj'.t. Case. \'n 

something serious must have happened. In spite of myself my 
mind was filled with accidents and horrors. I was quite alone, 
having sent the maids to bed long before, and every moment I 
felt more frightened and helpless. I knew that something ought 
to be done, that somebody ought to go after them. They might 
all be lying badly injured on the road. 

I did not dare to ring up Mrs. B. or my own people, who live 
some miles away. It would probably have been worse than useless. 
I began to long for some one to be there with me, and while won- 
dering to myself which of my friends I would rather have, my 
mind decided for me upon my friend G. G. As the time went on, 
m\ suspense became more and more unbearable, the silence of it all 
seemed dreadful. 

Between 12 and 1 o'clock, I several times almost decided to go 
over to the house of our own chauffeur (about ten minutes' walk away) 
wake him up, and tell him to get the car out for me to go and 
find them. Over and over again I felt that I must rush upstairs 
and put on a motoring veil and cap, and find my big coat. Then 
I was afraid that all the village street would hear the alarm if I 
went knocking loudly for the chauffeur. I also thought of calling 
up the maids to go to [the chauffeur's house]. However, soon after 
1.30 I was suddenly surprised to hear some one walking up the drive, 
and, on rushing to the door, I was overjoyed to see my husband 
and the rest safe and sound, but absolutely tired out. 

The engine had broken down miles away, and after trying for 
some time to mend it up temporarily, but without success, they had 
pushed the car inside somebody's drive gate for safety and had 
walked all the way home. 

Next morning between 9 and 10 o'clock, G. G. telephoned to me. 
She asked how I was, and my maid who answered the ring replied 
that I was " much better," merely thinking that G. G. was referring 
to a bad cold that I had been suffering from the week before. 

It was not until later in the day that G. G. met some of H. N.'s 
people and heard what had happened. 

Soon after that she told me her side of the experience, all about 
her painfully vivid dream, and I have no shadow of a doubt that 
she went through very anxious hours with me, and that her 

1 thoughts were parallel with mine all through the time of dreadful 
E. L. L. 

158 Journal of Society for Psychical Research. Nov., 1909. 

H. N.'s sister, Miss M. N., writes as follows : 

January 16th, 1909. 

Miss G. came to see us the Monday before Christmas, 1907, 
and told us about a dream she had had the night before. The details 
of the dream, as far as I can remember, were that Mrs. L. had come 
to her in great distress saying her husband had gone away and had 
not come back. She also said that my brother had had something to 
do with it. Miss G. also said that the dream so affected her, 
that as soon as she came down in the morning, she had telephoned 
to Mrs. L. to see if she was all right, but was not able to speak 
to her. 

We rather laughed at her taking any notice of a dream and 
thought no more about it until my brother (who had been away for 
the week-end), came in at mid-day and told us that on the Sunday 
afternoon, he, Mr. L., and others had started for a motor ride, 
Mr. L. telling his wife that he should not be away long; he 
expected to be back about 7 o'clock. All went well till they were 
coming back, when about twelve miles away from home something 
went wrong with the car, and after vainly trying to put it right, 
they started to walk home, and did not arrive till about 2 o'clock 
in the morning, finding Mrs. L. naturally in a great state of 
alarm. During Monday afternoon I happened to meet Miss G. 
and told her of the accident, and we remarked that it must account 
for her dream, as Mrs. L. must have been worrying just about 
the time she was dreaming of her. I heard later on that Mrs. 
L. was actually intending to telephone to Miss G. to ask her 
what to do, if they hadn't turned up when they did. This is, as 
near as I can remember, all that occurred. 

M. N. 



[WE regret to have to record the death of Professor Cesare 
Lombroso, for twenty years a Corresponding Member of our 
Society, who died of heart failure at Turin on October 19th, after 
a few days' illness. The following notice is quoted, with the 
permission of the Editor, from the British Medical Journal :] 

Professor Lombroso was born at Verona in 1835, studied medicine 
at Padua, and afterwards at Vienna, where he came especially under 
the influence of Skoda. He graduated at Padua in 1856. He served 

urn Obituary. 159 

a& a surgeon in the Austro-Italian war, which broke out in 1859. Some 
years later he was appointed Professor of Psychiatry in the University 
of Pavia. One of his earliest works was a volume of researches on 
cretinism, which was published in 1858. He made original observations 
on pellagra, the results of which were embodied in a monograph 
published in 1872. He followed this up with a memoir on the poisons 
of maize. 1 

Later he was appointed to the chair of psychiatry in the University 
of Turin. From the beginning of his teaching career he had been 
interested in the relations of nervous disease and crime, and he pursued 
his researches and observations at Turin. These were published in his 
well-known work, V Uomo Delinquente, which appeared in 1889. After- 
wards he applied himself to the study of genius, which he held to be a 
form of nervous disease. He became celebrated as the founder of a 
school of criminal anthropology, the doctrines of which were pushed by 
some of his disciples to extreme consequences that brought his teaching 
into undeserved derision. He was a shrewd observer, and a most 
industrious collector of facts from all sources; but his notions of 
evidence were very loose, and he lacked the power of presenting his 
views in logical order. But to him belongs the credit of being a pioneer 
in a new region of scientific thought, and though much of his work was 
fantastic and inaccurate, he gave a stimulus to other investigators, which 
will probably lead to fruitful results. Of him it might, we think, be 
said, as it was said of the old Spanish exploder of popular superstitions 
Feyjoo, that a statue should be raised to him, at the foot of which his 
own writings should be burnt. 


THE sixth International Congress of Psychology was held at 
Geneva from August 3rd to August 7th under the presidency of 
Professor Th. Flournoy. The number of members was very 
large, though but few came from this country. The number of 
papers read was small as compared with those of the foregoing 
Congress ; this was due to the adoption of the plan of keeping the 
members together in general session as much as possible. The 
papers and discussions maintained a high level of interest without 

1 It may be added that it was due to Professor Lombroso's strenuous and 
persistent efforts, extending over a number of years, that legislation affecting the 
causes of pellagra was promoted, which virtually put a stop to the disease. ED. 

160 Journal of Society for Psychical Research. Nov., 1909. 

minute specialisation ; and the many entertainments generously 
offered by the local organisation and members contributed to 
render the meeting very enjoyable. It was resolved that the 
next congress should be held in the United States in the year 
1913. From the point of view of the S.P.E. the most 
important feature of the Congress was perhaps the reading of 
a paper by Dr. Sidney Alrutz, in which he described experiments 
on the production of movements of a registering apparatus (some- 
what on the lines of Sir Win. Crookes's well-known experiments 
with Home) in mechanically inexplicable fashion. The experiments 
seem to have been successful with several private mediums. The 
paper was well received, and it was noticeable that the tone of 
the Congress seemed favourable to " psychical research." There 
was an important discussion on " subconsciousness," in the course 
of which Dr. Morton Prince gave some account of a new case 
similar to, but, if possible, even more interesting than the one he 
has made so widely known. W. M'D. 



AN observation sent me by Mr. Alexander Sinclair of 
Swansea, to the effect that during a thunderstorm drops of 
water leaking through the ceiling " assumed a pear shape and 
jumped 9 inches almost horizontally to the curtain rings 
above the window," suggests that house-bells of the ordinary 
non-electric type may occasionally be rung by this means. I 
picture the process as follows : The bell-wires collect atmos- 
pheric electricity, by induction or otherwise, which the walls 
are insufficiently conducting to carry off freely ; consequently 
the bells get charged, are attracted to a neighbouring wall or 
pipe and released suddenly by a spark. This little lateral 
jerk rings the bell. 

I put the simple suggestion on record because I sometimes 
hear of an inclination to attribute the phenomenon to less 
familiar causes. 

p._To this I add: 

Other normal causes have been suggested, such as the 
mechanical sticking of a wire and its sudden casual release. 

1 Reprinted from Nature. 

NOV., 1909. Correspondence. 101 




In the last issue of the Journal Sir Oliver Lodge prints a short 
comment on my criticism of cross-correspondences in the recent 
Proceedings. I should like to be allowed a few words of rejoinder 
or perhaps it would be better to say of explanation, because, if I 
could accept Sir Oliver Lodge's interpretation of my argument, I 
should also endorse his criticism. I did not maintain that "just 
as the former (i.e. the Verrall script) originated wholly in sub- 
liminal activities, so also the latter (Myers) script, must probably 
have originated so likewise." This, of course, would be invalid, 
for, as Sir Oliver Lodge rightly points out, the Verrall script did 
not originate in subliminal activities, but in Dr. Verrall's conscious 
purpose. The argument which I intended to state, and which, 
perhaps from an author's natural prejudice, I cannot help believing 
that I did state, was more complicated. From the Verrall script 
I inferred, not that a complementary correspondence, but that the com- 
plementary element in a complementary correspondence, can originate in 
subliminal activity. This seems to me to be correct, since it is 
clear that the complementary relation between Mrs. Verrall's different 
scripts formed no part of Dr. Verrall's intention. On the basis 
of this inference I argued that a complementary correspondence 
affords no more evidence of non-subliminal agency than is afforded 
by a simple correspondence. If this be so, the evidential value, not 
of complementary correspondences, but of the complementary element 
in complementary correspondences, is destroj'ed ; and we have 
merely to consider whether the appearance of simple correspondences 
makes probable the activity of dis-carnate intelligences. My negative 
answer to this second question was based, not on the Verrall script, 
but on the experiments of Miss Ramsden and Miss Miles discussed 
on p. 293 of my paper ; and it was supported by reference to Miss 
Johnson's opinion which I quote on the succeeding page. 



I am glad to understand more clearly the precise meaning of 
Professor Pigou, and I think that other readers of the Proceedings 
may be similarly assisted by his present communication. The 

162 Journal of Society for Psychical Research. Nov., 1909. 

advantage of these friendly discussions is that they tend to elucidate 
little intricacies in what is virtually a new kind of study. 

The Editor of the Journal has suggested to me that it is probably 
necessary to discriminate between " accidental fragments " and " com- 
plementary factors." The disjecta membra of a really good cross- 
correspondence are complementary rather than fragmentary, and 
their separation exhibits signs of purpose. At least that is what 
the evidence seems to point to, though that may be a matter for 
discussion. But the fragments of the " One horse dawn " episode 
are nothing more than fragmentary, and their separation, as Professor 
Pigou remarks, seems to be unavoidable rather than intended. The 
incident would probably have been given as a whole, had it been 
possible. There was no advantage in breaking it up, since it all 
came through one person. But in the case of a cross-correspondence 
between different automatists there is every advantage, from the 
evidential point of view, in breaking the communication up into 
complementary portions which are separately unintelligible. 

If it be true that the accidentally fragmentary and the purposive 
complementary can be discriminated ; and if the discrimination is 
applicable, as I have tentatively suggested, say to the " One horse 
dawn " case on the one hand, and the " Browning Hope and Star " 
case on the other; then there is a distinction (which, when answering 
Professor Pigou before, I confess I had not noticed) between the 
two cases to which he refers. 

If the distinction thus suggested is real, then the absence of 
intention in producing the " fragments " of the one case does not 
prove, and need not necessarily imply, the absence of intention in 
producing the "complements" in the other. 

The question can, however, only be settled by a careful study 
and analysis of the characteristics of a number of cases ; and further 
material for this will, I hope, be afforded before long by the later 
scripts of Mrs. Piper, Mrs. and Miss Verrall, and Mrs. Holland, 
reports on which are now being prepared for publication. 



The Religious Attitude and Life in Islam, being the Haskell Lectures on 
Comparative Religion, 1906. By D. B. MACDONALD, M.A., B.D. 
Chicago University Press, 1909. Post Svo, pp. 317. 

THESE lectures, ten in number, are, to quote the author's preface, 
" an attempt to outline the religious attitude and life of Muslims, 

NOV., 1909. Review. 163 

as opposed to the systematic theology of Islam." The authorities 
chiefly relied upon are Ibn Khaldun, " part statesman, part scholar, 
part lawyer," who died at Cairo in 1406, and al-Ghazzali, who died 
in 1111 ; and lengthy extracts from the works of these two writers 
form a considerable portion of the volume. 

Mr. Macdonald's book is primarily a study in comparative religion, 
and it is a valuable contribution to the literature on that subject ; 
but the reader soon discovers, not without surprise, that its contents 
are calculated to appeal to those interested in such matters as the 
S.P.K. exists to investigate, no less than to the student of religions. 
This will be seen at once from an enumeration of some of the 
subjects of Muslim belief discussed by the Arabic authors. The Muslim 
believes that the veil which separates him from the unseen world, 
in which dwells the Almighty, and which is peopled by angels and 
spirits (Jinn), good and evil, is of the very thinnest, and that it can 
be, and often is, pierced by man. All men may hold communion 
with God through prayer and meditation, but to some it is given 
to have intercourse with the spirit-world by other means also. The 
soul of the prophet passes through the veil in his trance, and 
receives the revelation of the divine will from messengers of the 
All-Holy. The Kahin, who is both poet and soothsayer (fates), 
receives his inspirations in a similar manner. Wizardry and magic 
(the phenomena of which include telekinesis), and 'scrying' with 
mirrors, bowls of water, and other media, are practised, and are 
features of the religious life. In these practices, as also in 
divination by dreams and through the insane ('possession' and 
'automatic speech') the Muslim believes the phenomena to be pro- 
duced, or at least their production assisted, by denizens of the 
spirit-world, some good, some evil, with whom he has brought him- 
self into touch. Such, among others, are the subjects dealt with at 
length by Ibn Khaldun and al-Ghazzali, and it is clear from their 
writings that they are part of the very marrow of the Muslim 
faith. Mr. Macdonald states an obvious truth, therefore, when he 
says, " It was necessary, in the search for interpretative analogies, to 
turn, not to our metaphysical systems or to our religious philosophy, 
but rather to what we call commonly, in jest or earnest, the 
occult. These analogies, therefore, had to be sought chiefly in the 
Proceedings of the Society for Psychical Research and similar publi- 
cations. The case of Muhammad himself, for example, can be 
indefinitely more completely illustrated and explained by the 
phenomena of so-called trance-mediumship than by any other 

164 Journal of Society for Psychical Research. Nov., 1909. 

hypothesis." He goes on to add, "And it is noteworthy, further, 
that the theory of veridical hallucinations worked out by Gurney 
and Myers is essentially that of al-Ghazzali and Ibn Khaldun." 

The following is a quotation from Ibn Khaldun ; he declares that 
he has seen "another body" influenced in the way he describes. 

"The philosophers distinguish between magic and talismans, but 
they lay it down that both together are due to an influence be- 
longiog to the human soul. They give as a proof of this influence 
how the soul affects the body apart from the ordinary operations 
of nature or physical causes nay, there are effects which arise 
from spiritual conditions, such as heat caused by joy, or from 
ideas, such as those which result from fear. One who is walking 
upon the edge of a wall, or upon a tight-rope, when fear of falling 
comes strongly upon him, will most certainly fall. Only by long 
practice can the fear of falling be removed, and then such walk 
safely. If, then, the soul has this influence upon its own body, 
without physical natural causes, it is probable that it can have a 
similar influence upon another body, since its relationship to 
bodies in this kind of influence is one ; for it is not enfolded in 
the body or shut up in it So it follows that it can exert an 
influence upon all material objects." 

Mr. Macdonald's comment is, "This, you will notice, is precisely 
the theory which lies behind the ' mental science ' and ' Christian 
science' of our own day. It is also practically involved in the 
infinitely more scientific ' metapsychical,' to use Dr. Maxwell's word, 1 
investigations which are now going on. There lies in it an indubit- 
able element of truth." 

Mr. Macdonald's work shows that he is thoroughly at home with 
his subject; his exposition is clear, and his comments lively and 
informing. He has produced a book which I venture to think will 
prove of interest to many members of the S.P.R. 



IN consequence of statements that have lately appeared in several 
newspapers about a club to be called the International Club for 
Psychical Research, a number of enquiries have reached us. We 
therefore desire to make it clear that contrary to the suggestion 
conveyed by some of the newspaper paragraphs the proposed Club 
has no connection of any kind with our Society. It has also been 
stated that Professor Barrett will be the first President of the Club, 
but Professor Barrett informs us that this statement is entirely 

1 The term "metapsychical" was introduced by Professor Richet and 
adopted by Dr. Maxwell and others. ED. 




Society for Psychical Research 



Additional Information about Case O. 283, IQQ 

The Koport on Eusapia 1'alladino 

I. By Frank Podmore, - 172 

II. By F. C. Constable, 176 

Review : Sir Oliver Lodge's "The Survival of Man." By H. Arthur Smith, - 178 

Notice, 180 


A Private Meeting of the Society 




On MONDAY, DECEMBER \ith t 1909, at 4 p.m. 


" The Detection of Hidden Objects 
by Dowsers " 




" Some Sittings with Carancini " 



N.B. No Tickets of Admission are issued for this Meeting. Members 
and Associates will be asked to sign their names on entering. 

166 Journal of Society for Psychical Research. DEC., 1909. 


THE Journal for May, 1908 (pp. 228-234), contains an 
account, which had previously been read by Professor Barrett 
at a private meeting of the Society held on March 30th, 
1908, of an apparition seen shortly after the death of the 
person represented by it. The percipient, Miss " Minnie 
Wilson," being at the time in a convent school in Belgium, 
stated that she saw on June 1st, 1907, an apparition of her 
godfather, " Captain Oldham," who informed her that he had 
taken his own life because a lady had refused to marry him. 
A few days later she heard from her mother that he had 
died suddenly on May 29th, 1907, and, on coming home on 
Aug. 6th, asked her mother if the information given her by 
the apparition was correct, and learnt that it was so. 

When the case was printed, Professor Barrett had had no 
opportunity of making enquiries at the Convent or of obtaining 
from there the corroborative evidence which was required to 
complete the case. Eecently an Associate of the Society, Miss 
F. M. Charlton, at Professor Barrett's request, kindly undertook 
to visit Belgium and carry out these enquiries, for which 
purpose he put all the documents into her hands. 

Miss Charlton spent several days in the neighbourhood of 
the Convent and found the nuns, whom she visited daily, ready 
and willing to give her all possible help in her enquiries even 
into the most minute details. Unfortunately, however, very 
little corroboration was obtainable, and some distinct inaccuracies 
in the details of Miss Wilson's account revealed themselves. 

(1) From some letters written by Mrs. Wilson in September, 
1907, it appears that her daughter told her she had been in 
the church with a nun named Mere Paule when she saw 
the apparition, and that she told Mere Paule about it in 
confidence, but did not tell her the subsequent news, received 
from her mother, of Captain Oldham's death. Writing on 
February 20th, 1908, Mrs. Wilson says that her daughter 
" only confided in old Mere Columba . . . and after my letter 
arrived, said : ' You see, Mere, he is dead.' " On the dis- 
crepancy being pointed out, Mrs. Wilson writes (March 15th, 
1908): "It was a clerical error on my part using Mere 

DEC., i09. Additional Infoi-mation about Case G. 283. 167 

Panic's nsinie instead of Mere Columba's," and Miss Wilson, 
in her own narrative (printed in the Journal for May, 1908, 
p. ^32), says that she was with Mere Columba in the church 
\\hen she saw the apparition, and that she told her about it. 

Miss Charlton has ascertained that Mere Columba could not 
havo been in the church, as she was bed-ridden at the tin 
it was probably Mere Paule who was there, she being the 
sacristan. Mere Paule, however, denies that Miss Wilson ever 
1 1 l(l her anything about the apparition (see statements below), 
and Mere Columba having died since, no confirmation can be 
obtained from her of Miss Wilson's statement that she told her 
of it. 

(2) The original account says that Miss Wilson first saw 
one of her school friends, whom she knew to be away at the 
time, coming towards her in nun's dress, and that this young 
nun led her in her vision through the Nuns' Refectory, where 
no one of the girls is allowed to go, and thence into their 
private chapel, where she saw the apparition of her godfather ; 
and that on her way through the refectory she saw a curious 
picture which she had never seen before. It appeared to have 
pieces of red tape hanging from a figure in it. She stated 
that it was the custom for the girls who got prizes to go 
into the refectory to receive them at the end of their last 
term at school, and that when she went there, two months 
after the vision, she recognised this picture the picture of a 
saint dripping with blood on the wall. 

. Miss Charlton has, however, found that the picture in ques- 
tion is not in the refectory, but in the nuns' Chapter-Room ; 
that the girls never under any circumstances go into the 
refectory, but some of the older girls are admitted once a 
year to the Chapter-Room to walk in a procession that takes 
place there on March 19th, and it appears that Miss Wilson 
had been there on March 19th, 1907, and therefore had 
had every opportunity of seeing the picture several weeks 
before the date of her vision. 

These somewhat serious vaguenesses and inaccuracies in 
Miss Wilson's account show that her memory is not altogether 

tbo be relied on, and it is the more unfortunate that no con- 
firmation is now obtainable of her having mentioned the vision 
*t the time of its occurrence and before Captain Oldham's 

168 Journal of Society for Psychical Research. DEc.,1909. 

death was known to her. We cannot, of course, doubt that 
she had some unusual experience, nor that the news of his 
death greatly affected her, nor that she saw visions of him. 
And that she spoke of her experience to Mere Columba seeins 
probable, both from her own recollection and from what Mere 
Columba's sister says (see below). But evidentially the important 
question is whether the first of the series of visions occurred 
before she had heard of the death ; and this is a point on 
which, during the weeks when the vision was recurring, her 
memory might easily have become confused. 

Even supposing, however, that no apparition was seen until 
after Miss Wilson had heard of the death, the important fact 
remains that, as testified to by Mrs. Wilson, she asked her 
mother on first coming home whether it was not true that 
her godfather had committed suicide because a lady had 
refused to marry him, which facts her mother had taken 
particular pains to conceal from her. 

Mrs. Wilson's first and most explicit statement on this 
point, in a letter dated September 4th, 1907, is: "It was 
my earnest desire that [Minnie] should never know the cir- 
cumstances under which her Uncle (as she always 

called him) met his death, so I never mentioned anything 
about him till the Tuesday following, in my usual weekly 
letter. My few words were : * I have very sad news for 

you ! Poor Uncle died suddenly on Wednesday and 

was buried on Saturday.' " 

In estimating the evidence it must not be overlooked that 
in some cases the very reticence as to the cause of death 
might lead to a correct inference; but whether this could have 
occurred in the present case, it is now impossible to say. 

In sending her report of the case, Miss Charlton writes : 

With every intention, evidently, of telling the truth, Minnie does 
not seem to have had a good memory, or even to have been very 
observant of facts at the time. She confounded Mere Paule with 
Mere Columba, and the Nuns' Eefectory with their Chapter Room. 
She did not even know the surname of one of her friends, and 
spoke of the elder girls receiving prizes in the Nuns' Refectory, 
when the incident referred to was really a procession in the Chapter 
Room. She said that the girls of different nationalities were kept 

DEC., 1909. Additional Information about Case 288. 169 

apart, whereas nothing separates them but the fact that at first 
the Flemish girls cannot understand the English language, and, 
as a matter of fact, it seems that one of the Belgian girls was 
the recipient of [Minnie's] confidences [on another subject] before 
she left. 

But the gravest inaccuracy in her account and that which most 
seriously affects the evidence is the statement that she had not seen 
the picture with the "red tape" before her vision, whereas it is 
certain that she had seen it beforehand. It is also disappointing 
that we have not been able to get an explanation of the fact that 
she first said that Mere Paule had been with her when she saw the 
apparition ; but after the case had begun to be investigated and 
Mere Columba had died, shifted her statement and said it was Mere 
Columba who had been with her, whereas Mere Columba, who was 
her class-mistress, had been bed-ridden and away from her class for 
five months, and had never been accustomed to dust the church at 
any time. 

I think that the notion that she had become acquainted with her 
godfather's suicide and the reason for it through the ordinary 
channels of knowledge, cannot be entertained for a moment. The 
girls never see any newspapers, and no one in the Convent seems 
to have known even of her friend's existence. 

The signed statements of the nuns, obtained by Miss 
Charlton, are as follows : 


April 29to> 1909. 

I recognize this photograph brought by Miss Charlton as being a 
likeness of [Minnie Wilson], whom I knew well when she was at 
school here. I am the Sacristan, and she frequently assisted me in 
dusting the statues in the Church, and very probably did so on the 
morning of June 1st, 1907, though I have nothing to mark the 
date in my mind, for I am positive that [Minnie] never confided 
the extraordinary experience in question to me. I should certainly 
have remembered it had she done so. 



I am own sister to the late Mere Columba. She was in the 
Infirmary from Dec. 25th, 1906, till Jan. 16th, 1908, when she died, 
aged 48. She came down about five times during the interval, but 

170 Journal of Society for Psychical Research. DEO., im 

only to be drawn in a bath-chair about the garden or to see the 
girls of her class-room, of which [Minnie Wilson] was one. [Minnie] 
liked Mere Columba, and was pretty intimate with her. I am con- 
vinced in my own mind, from certain indications, that [Minnie] did 
confide something mysterious to my sister. I knew [Minnie Wilson] 
very well myself. She was a very thoughtful girl, and used often 
to go of her own accord in the evening to the Nuns' Chapel to 
follow the Stations of the Cross by herself. 

I recognize the remarks which [Minnie] states Mere Columba 
made when she told her of her vision as being characteristic of 
my sister. 

With regard to the girl called " Marie" I have made careful 
inquiries, and find that none of [Minnie's] companions of that name 
who subsequently became Nuns left until Easter, 1907, when Marie 

left, returning in Sept., 1907, when she and two other 

"Maries" took the Postulant's cap and became Novices in Nov. 
They all knew [Minnie], but none of them connects her with any 

psychic experience. One of them, Marie , was an intimate 

friend of hers, and helped her to pack before she left. [Minnie] at 
that time told her how anxious she was to come back. . . . She was 
of course aware all along of her friend's intention to enter religion, 
and must certainly have known about the two other Maries as well. 



I am Head Mistress of the English, and as such have had a great 
deal to do with [Minnie Wilson] while she was an inmate of this 
Convent for two years. . . . [Minnie's] statement that before leaving 
school she was taken into the Nuns' Refectory for the first time, 
and there recognized the picture of her vision, is manifestly 
incorrect. She could never have been inside the Nuns' Refectory 
at any time, and moreover there is no picture there which at 
all corresponds to the one she describes ; but it is a very good 
impressionist description of an extremely badly painted attempt 
to represent St. Francis of Assisi receiving the stigmata, which 
hangs just inside the door of the Chapter-room. Into that room some 
of the older girls are admitted, as a reward for their good behaviour, 
once a year, to walk in a procession. This takes place at 7 o'clock 
on the evening of March 19 (the Feast of St. Joseph), and that is 
the only occasion when [Minnie] could have been inside that room, 
i.e. March 19, 1907, and she was certainly present on that occasion. 

DEC., urn Additional Information about Case 283. 171 

It may be worth while to mention a fact which was first recalled 
to rne by Mere Anastasie in Miss Charlton's presence, i.e. that on 
the evening of May 31, 1907 (the night before the vision), the 
Feast of St. Angela was celebrated by the girls acting in a play 
which was founded on her life, and that several of [Minnie's] 
school companions were acting in it dressed up as Nuns. 


In regard to these statements Miss Charlton adds: 

Mere Anastasie, who signs second, is teacher of Music and 
Arithmetic. She was in Johannesburg all through the Boer War, 
but her martial experiences have left her extremely gentle and 
uninsistent in her opinions, excepting where the question of truth 
is concerned, about which she is remarkably scrupulous. I had to 
write her statement over again, because she thought I had not 
given quite the proper shade of value to a quite unimportant 
matter. I never have known any one weigh her words so much, and 
this I think is important in view of her having said that she was 
convinced in her own mind that [Minnie] had spoken to her sister 
Mere Columba about the apparition. When we all five had made 
up our minds that [Minnie] must have been right when she said 
it was to Mere Columba to whom she had confided her secret, 
Mere Anastasie said: "That accounts for the curious expression that 
always came over my sister's face whenever I spoke to her of 
[Minnie Wilson] ! " . . . I questioned her afterwards about it, and she 
said with the utmost earnestness : " Yes, indeed, Miss Charlton, it 
is true. I always used to notice such an odd smile on Mere 
Columba's face whenever I talked to her about [Minnie], a kind 
of not exactly mocking, but a sceptical smile. I never could under- 
stand what it meant, but as soon as I heard this story it flashed 
upon me ; but I hope the Society won't imagine from this that 
my sister couldn't keep a secret, for her smile conveyed absolutely 
nothing to me until I heard all this, when I understood it." 

This I am confident is the exact truth, and I think we may feel 
quite satisfied that [Minnie] was correct when she said it was to 
Mere Columba she had confided her experience. 

Mere Ambroisine's final statement, that the evening before [Minnie] 
saw, in her trance condition, her former school companion, dressed as 
a Nun, she was looking on at or taking part in a play in which 
some of her school companions were dressed up as Nuns, seems to 
me of considerable importance. 

172 Journal of Society for Psychical Research. DEC., 1909. 

I was taken all over that part of the Convent represente 1 in the 
sketch, 1 and have traced with black ink the way that [Minnie] must 
have gone on March 19th, 1907, when she walked in a procession 
which formed up in the schools and terminated in the Chapter- 
room. The girls marched through the door, and deposited their 
banners against the opposite wail, when they would naturally face 
round and have the picture of St. Francis receiving the Stigmata 
right before them. This picture represents a small crucifix floating 
sideways in the air, with straight lines which look exactly like red 
tape proceeding from the hands, feet, and side, and striking the 
Saint, who is kneeling at some distance off. It is an extremely ill- 
painted and grotesque picture, and one that no one would be likely 
ever to forget. . . . FRANCES M. CHARLTON. 

Miss Charlton sends us a small water-colour copy of the oil 
painting referred to, which bears out precisely the description 
she has given. The red lines proceeding from the crucifix to the 
Saint are a very conspicuous feature in it. She adds that she 
has received a later letter from Mere Ambroisine, in which the 
latter mentioned a second occasion, namely, on May 1st, 1907, 
when Miss Wilson is known to have been inside the Chapter- 
room, where the picture hangs. 



I HAVE read with extreme interest the Keport of the Com- 
mittee appointed to investigate the phenomena presented by 
Eusapia Palladino. My first impression, some weeks back, 
after reading the Eeport and a great part of the evidence, was 
that now at last we had the issue fairly and squarely pre- 
sented that we had in fact, as the Committee themselves 
put it, to choose between the alternatives of a new force and 
collective hallucination. So strong was the impression produced 
on me that I wrote to Mr. Feilding (but the letter did not 
unfortunately reach him before his departure for the Congo) 
urging less cavalier treatment of the hypothesis of collective 

J A sketch of part of the Convent was included in Miss Charlton's report, 
but is not reproduced here. 

DKC., i'.K>.. The Report on En^i^'m /'////,/,/ 17:; 

A few days ago I had occasion to make a more careful 
study of the evidence, and in the course of my further reading 
snnir suspicious circumstances came to light, which led me to 
make a still closer analysis. To analyse with care the whole 
mass of evidence would be an extremely laborious under- 
taking. There are only five completely successful stances 
stances, that is, which include the whole range of phenomena, 
from tilts of the table to phantom heads viz. V., VI., VII., 
VIII., and XL But at stance VIII. and XL, except for an 
unproductive hour at the beginning of stance VIII., one side 
of Eusapia was under the control of a visitor. Seances V., 
VI., and VII. represent therefore at once the high- water mark 
of the phenomena and the best conditions of control. Through- 
out these three stances both Eusapia's hands and feet were 
under control of the members of the Committee Mr. Feilding, 
Mr. Baggally, and Mr. Carrington. My analysis has therefore 
been in the main confined to these three sittings. But from 
a cursory examination I see no -reason to doubt that the 
criticism made on these stances will apply mutatis mutandis 
to all the rest. 

Two conclusions at once emerged from this closer analysis. 
(1) That Eusapia is afraid of Mr. Carrington. Twice in the 
course of these seances he was, by Eusapia's request, displaced 
from the control of the right side ; so that, in fact, save for two 
brief and unproductive intervals at the beginning of stances 
V. and VII. respectively, he was not allowed, during these 
three stances, to sit at Eusapia's right. (2) That at these 
three seances, as a rule, she preferred* to make use of her 
right limbs. Whether this performance is characteristic of her 
stances generally I am unable to say ; but the Committee of 
the Institut G6n6ral Psychologique reported that Eusapia suffered 
from a painful corn on her right foot, which rendered her 
intolerant of the more effective control of that foot, viz. by 
placing it, under the foot of the controller. 

At any rate, setting aside the simpler and commoner phe- 
lomena levitation of tables, bulging of medium's dress, 
lovernents of curtains, thumps and raps which are so 
difficult to isolate as not in any case to afford a crucial test 
I challenge the Committee to point to a single phenomenon 
(grasp of the hand, transportation of object from cabinet, or 

174 Journal of Society for Psychical Research. DEC., 1909. 

appearance of head, hand, or other similar object) presented 
at these three seances which could not be explained on the 
assumption that Eusapia succeeded in freeing the right hand, 
or possibly, in some instances, the right foot. 

If this be admitted and the statement can easily be 
verified it is all important to know the exact condition of 
the control exercised on the right hand. 

(1) Throughout these three seances, whereas Eusapia's left 
hand is generally reported as lying in or being held or grasped 
by the hand of the controller on that side, the right hand as 
a rule is reported as resting on or lying on, or lying under, 
the other controller's left hand. The difference, in view of 
Eusapia's known propensities for cheating by substitution of 
.hands, is important. 

(2) It happens unfortunately that while the control of the 
left hand is generally stated precisely e.g. " left hand held in 
my right visibly on the table" that of the right is often 
stated in general terms, such as " Control perfect," or " Control 
as before." Frequently at the critical moment the statement 
is incomplete. Sometimes no statement at all is forthcoming. 

(3) On many occasions it is reported that the right-hand 
curtain has blown out over the controller on that side so as 
to cover his head, or his hand in contact with Eusapia's right. 
Thus at V. 10.57 the right-hand controller reports: "The 
curtain is blown over my head"; at 10.58 "The curtain 
is still over my hand." No further statement on the subject 
is made until 11.56, when Eusapia's right hand is reported 
as visible. In the meantime several phenomena had happened, 
and from certain indications it is probable that Eusapia's 
right hand was under the curtain during their progress (read 
carefully e.g. levitation of table at 11.26 p.m.). In seance 
VI. the right-hand curtain blows out over the arm of the 
controller on that side at 11.35. At 12.11 Eusapia places 
the curtain between her right hand and the controller's left. 
At 12.50 (or thereabouts) Eusapia's right hand is again under 
the curtain but it has not been there continuously, and 
we are not told when and how it got there again. At VII. 
11.17 the controller on the right reports: "Her right hand 
in my left hand is under the curtain." There it appears to 
.have remained throughout the transportation of the bell and the 

DEC., r..i'.. The Report on Eusapia PaUadino. 175 

next incidents and may have remained there until the close 
of the sitting, so far as we can gather from the controller's 
statements. The controllers on Eusapia's left side were not 
mice embarrassed in this manner by the curtain during their 
three stances. 

(4) Eusapia is reported as occasionally releasing one hand 
momentarily and replacing it. This procedure is not reserved 
exclusively for the right hand. In stance V., for instance 
(10.44J and 11.36 p.m.), her left hand is twice released. 
But her right hand is released more frequently and to more 
purpose (see e.g. VI. 12.4, 12.30; VII. 10.54). On each of 
these occasions after control is renewed it is found that both 
Eusapia's hands are on her knees, the right hand lying on 
the hand of the controller on that side, the left hand held by 
the other controller. These, of course, are Eusapia's usual 
preliminaries for substitution of hands. And on each of these 
three occasions the release of the hand was followed, in a few 
minutes, by the appearance of a " head " or nondescript object 
from between the curtains. At VI. 11.40 (about) the release of 
the right hand is followed as usual by a nondescript 
appearance from between the curtains, but the right hand 
is reported on the table, under the curtain. 

If the reader wishes to verify these statements let him 
study closely the sequence of events in stance VII. 10.54 
to end, and let him endeavour from the record to make out 
the exact nature of the control exercised on Eusapia's right 
hand at each point, its position, whether on the table or in 
her lap, and whether or not it was held under the curtain. 
The defects of control, it will be found, culminated in this 
stance. So did the phenomena. 

In the Committee's view the hypothesis of sense-deception 
compels us to assume a concurrent and concordant hallucination 
of sight and touch on the part of two or more witnesses. The 
above considerations suggest that, for the three most successful 
test stances at any rate, all that we need assume is the 
deception of a single person and a single sense and that the 
sense of touch. 

In conclusion, let me offer an apology to the Committee. 
I am very far from imputing negligence or incompetence to 
them. I am inclined to think that most of us would have 

176 Journal of Society for Psychical Research. DEC., 1909. 

failed more conspicuously. The Report is valuable primarily 
because it is a redudio ad absurdum of this method of investi- 
gation. It has been tried under the most favourable conditions 
with investigators second to none in their qualifications, whose 
practical experience is probably unrivalled, and it has failed. 
The investigators, in short, set themselves . a task which is 
almost beyond the limit of human faculties. 

Henceforth if Eusapia will have nothing to do with smoke- 
blackened letter scales, or commutator keys and manometers 
in securely closed boxes, we had better leave her severely alone. 


I MAY, perhaps, be permitted at the outset to express my admira- 
tion for the form of this minute and laborious report. The most 
insignificant details appear to be recorded, so that the reader has 
before him the fullest evidence possible on which to form an 

But certain doubts have arisen in my mind which may be worth 

(1) Why are the phenomena all of such a nature that fraud on 

the part of the medium might be an explanation 1 ? 

(2) If precautions might have been taken to prevent the 
possibility of fraud, why were these precautions not 
taken ? 

Under the particular circumstances which existed when the 
seances were held, it is, probably, impossible to suggest precau- 
tions more stringent against fraud than those which were taken. 
The observers were picked men, on the evidence of whose senses, 
I think, we may rely as fully as on those of our own, and the 
means taken at all times to control movements on the part of the 
medium were heroic in kind. 

But still the possibility of fraud appears to have always been 
present in the minds of the observers, and, as I read the report, 
their main reliance in believing that there was no fraud, is based on 
their conviction that their control was so stringent that fraud was 
impossible. That is, the phenomena themselves were not of such a 
nature that, in themselves, they removed the possibility of fraud ; 
it is to the certainty the observers felt that their control pre- 
vented fraud, that their belief in the abnormal nature of the 
phenomena is to be traced. 

DEC. 1909. The Report on Euaapia Palladino. 177 

Turning now to the question of precautions that might have been 
taken to prevent fraud, let us assume that Eusapia has all the 
abnormal powers which it is alleged she has. 

If this be so, then : (1) she can cause the levitation of a table 
without touching it ; (2) she can make objects at a distance from 
her move without physical contact ; (3) she can and this is the 
most important fact of all make objects move when a ma' 
curtain is interposed between her and the objects she causes to move. 

Why should she not be able to make manifest all the said 
phenomena when she is under no human control at a//, but simply 
placed at her ease in a cage of the same material as that of the 
curtain, the interposition of which between her and certain objects 
did not prevent her from causing them to move? 

The belief of Mr. Feilding, Mr. Baggally, and Mr. Hereward 
Carrington in the abnormality of these phenomena appears to be 
based on assurance that their control was perfect. If the experi- 
ment I suggest were carried out, the question of reliance on human 
control would be eliminated ; for we should have the material 
control of the cage. All that would be required would be the 
same careful observation. 

The suggestion for the material control of the medium which I 
make is not original : it was first formulated in Light. 1 And it 
may be there is some fundamental objection to its being carried 
out. But surely some form of material as opposed to human 
control is possible ? If not, it is to be feared we can never arrive 
at scientific proof of the objectivity of the phenomena in question; 
for so long as the control is human, the possibility must always 
exist that the normal senses of the observers have been deceived. 


1 A similar suggestion was made when Eusapia came to Cambridge in 1895. 
It was then proposed that a close-meshed network should be stretched across an 
open doorway, being fastened securely to the woodwork all the way round, and 
that Eusapia should be placed on one side of the net, the objects to be moved 
being on the other side. But Eusapia refused absolutely to submit to any such 
test. For its evidential value, it would, of course, be necessary that it should be 
carried out in a good light. This, on the evidence, ought to be no bar to success, 
for the Naples report states explicitly that " it was on the nights when . . . our 
precautions were most complete and the light the strongest that the phenomena 
were the most numerous" (Proceedings, Part LIX, p. 323). ED. 

178 Journal of Society for Psychical Research. DEC., 1909. 


The Survival of Man. By SIR OLIVER LODGE, F.R.S. Methuen & Co., 
London, 1909. Demy 8vo, pp. 344. 7s. 6d. net. 

THROUGHOUT the twenty-eight years of its existence our Society has 
been fortunate in having had placed at its disposal the voluntary 
services of a series of highly trained and expert investigators, and 
almost equally so in the fact that these volunteers have not only 
been gifted with great patience and astuteness in observation and 
experiment, but quite equally so in the faculty of lucid exposition of 
the results of their labours. The latest example of this combination 
of gifts not always found in association is before us in Sir Oliver 
Lodge's recent publication The Survival of Man. 

It is not easy within the limits of a necessarily brief notice to 
summarise the contents and characteristics of a work so compact as 
this; one, moreover, which touches questions of physics, physiology, 
and psychology, and which will be deemed by many to have an 
important bearing on theology and on some of the abstruse con- 
ceptions of metaphysics. The task is scarcely rendered easier by the 
fact that the reviewer finds himself in almost complete accord with 
the author in his methods and conclusions. 

Within the space of about 350 pages Sir Oliver Lodge presents 
to us an epitome of the evidence bearing on his subject matter which 
the Society has been diligently collecting for a quarter of a century, 
and which is scattered over thousands of pages of its Proceedings 
and Journals, together with other evidence not, so far as I am aware, 
before published. This in itself will be of incalculable value to the 
many amongst our members, who, however keen their interest, can 
scarcely find the time necessary to examine so great a mass of matter 
as appears in our publications. It is of special value to those newly 
entering upon a study of our Society's work, who, from want of 
previous knowledge of the subject, may at times be somewhat 
mystified by the contents of articles and papers which assume an 
acquaintance with the methods pursued, and with a terminology 
unfamiliar to those who have not closely followed our investigations 
in their development. But it would be doing scant justice to Sir 
Oliver's work to represent it as a mere epitome of evidence, however 
well selected and arranged. It is far more than this. A weak, 
irresolute judge will sometimes sum up the evidence in a case for 
the jury, throwing on them the entire responsibility of forming their 
own conclusions from a complicated mass of statements. A strong 
judge will go further and give to the jury such assistance as can be 
rendered by a trained mind and accumulated experience. Assistance 

DEO., 1909. Review. 1 79 

of this nature is given us in the work before us. There is a 
synthesis of evidence ; there is an abundance of highly suggestive 
illustration ; and there is, further, a clear presentation of the relation 
to each other of the collected facts ; and lastly a lucid exposition of 
the conclusion to which they seem to point. 

A glance at the Table of Contents will make this clear. Section I. 
briefly refers to the origin and practical work of the Society. 
Section II. sets before us admirably chosen illustrations of the early 
experiments in thought-transference and telepathy. .Section III. 
similarly deals with spontaneous telepathy, clairvoyance and prevision 
or precognition, adding some ingenious illustrations and suggestions 
as to the possible modus operandi. Telepathy being regarded as 
scientifically proved, Section IV. takes us on to the consideration of 
the phenomena of automatism and lucidity, dealing especially with 
automatic writing and trance speech, and containing an extended 
examination of the Piper experiences. The chapter bearing on the 
cross-correspondences which have figured so largely in our recent 
publications will be particularly useful to those newly entering upon 
a study of the subject, though, as the author points out, it is hope- 
less for any one to attempt to form an ' opinion on this large and 
complicated subject without patient study of the writings of Mr. 
Piddington, Mrs. Verrall, Miss Johnson and others, which have 
appeared in recent volumes of the Society's Proceedings. 

It would be futile to attempt within our limits of space to 
summarise the argument based on the evidence before us. Opinions 
will widely differ as to the conclusions which may be rightly drawn 
from it. Assuming telepathy or thought-transference to be proved 
as an operative power, the question rises as to what are the limits 
of its potentiality. On this point no one is yet in a position to 
form a very definite opinion. Most students of our publications will 
no doubt concur with Sir Oliver Lodge in regarding thought-trans- 
ference as experimentally proved to this extent namely, that there 
may often be produced "a hazy and difficult recognition by one 
person of objects kept as vividly as possible in the consciousness of 
another person." But such elementary thought-transference as this 
is utterly and hopelessly insufficient to account for such phenomena 
as are presented in the automatic writings of Mrs. Piper and others, 
and especially in the cross-correspondences. Is it then scientifically 
admissible to adduce as a true explanation of such phenomena 
hypothetical extensions of the faculty of thought-transference which 
have not been experimentally proved ? Materialists who are strongly 
biassed against the supposition of The Survival of Man will doubt- 
less be disposed to press any and every such hypothesis into their 

180 Journal of Society for Psychical Research. DEC., 1909. 

service. But some significance must be attributed to the fact that 
the intelligences or " controls " through which the phenomena under 
discussion reach us, uniformly claim to be discarnate survivals. 
As to the identification of such controls, it is obvious that no 
description of the experiments, however detailed, can be expected 
to produce the same convincing effect as that which may be 
experienced by a first-hand witness. After an exhaustive analysis 
of all the facts, our author says: "It rather feels as if we were 
at the beginning of what is practically a new branch of science ; 
and that to pretend to frame explanations except in the most 
tentative and elastic fashion for the purpose of threading the 
facts together and suggesting fresh fields for experiment, is as 
premature as it would have been for Galvani to have expounded 
the nature of electricity or Copernicus the laws of comets and 
meteors." And again, " Man's practical outlook upon the universe is 
entering upon a new phase . . . his power of reciprocal mental 
intercourse is in process of being enlarged ; for there are signs that 
it will some day be no longer limited to contemporary denizens of 
earth, but will permit a utilisation of knowledge and powers superior 
to his own, even to the extent of ultimately attaining trustworthy 
information concerning other conditions of existence." 

All psychical researchers will rejoice, rejoice perhaps with something 
of wonder, that Sir Oliver Lodge has found time, in the midst of 
a strenuous life, to render them such service as is rendered by the 
volume before us. They will eagerly look for the further help, 
promised in his Preface, to the study of what are known as the 
" Physical phenomena " of spiritualism. 

It only remains to say that the work is admirably got up in the 
style already familiar to readers of the author's previous work, Man 
and the Universe, and that it contains a copious Index. One 
suggestion, however, may perhaps be made; namely, that the limits 
of quotations should be more uniformly indicated by the use of 
inverted commas. Sometimes a change of type assists us ; but at 
other times, for example, in the quotation of Mrs. Verrall, commencing 
on p. 337, it is not very obvious at first sight where the quotation 
ends and comment begins. H ARTHUR SMITH. 


IN consequence of statements that appeared in several news- 
papers about a club to be called the International Club for 
Psychical Eesearch, a number of enquiries reached us. We 
therefore desire to make it clear that contrary to the suggestion 
conveyed by some of the newspaper paragraphs the proposed 
Club has no connection of any kind with our Society. It 
was also stated that Professor Barrett would be the first 
President of the Club, but Professor Barrett informed us that 
this statement was entirely groundless. 

N... CCLXV.-VoL. XIV. JANUARY, 1910. 



Society for Psychical Research. 



New Members and Associates, 182 

Meeting of the Council, 188 

Private Meeting for Members and Associates: 

I. The Detection of Hidden Objects by Dowsers. By Professor \V. F. Barrett, F.R.S., 188 

II. Some Sittings with Carancini. By W. W. Baggally, 13 

Donation received, 211 

Supplementary Library Catalogue, 211 


A General Meeting of the Society 


On MONDAY, JANUARY $\st, 1910, at 5 /.;//. 



Seeing without Eyes 



N.B. Members and Associates will be admitted on signing their names 
at the door. Visitors will be admitted on the production of 
an invitation card signed by a Member or Associate, Each 
Member or Associate is allowed to invite ONE friend. 

182 Journal of Society for Psychical Research. JAN., 1910. 


Names of Members are printed in Black Type. 
Names of Associates are printed in SMALL CAPITALS. 

Brooke, Lady, Colebrooke, Brookeborough, Co. Fermanagh, Ireland. 
Dale, J. Gilbert, 31 Warwick Gardens, Kensington, London, W. 
Leigh, Lord, Stoneleigh Abbey, Kenilworth, Warwickshire. 
Reckitt, Miss Juliet, 20 Dulwich Wood Park, Upper Norwood, 

London, S.E. 
Smith, The Rev. Richard, The Manse, Melrose Gardens, West 

Kensington Park, London, W. 

ABBOTT, EDWARD J. W., 28 Avenue Malakoff, Paris, France. 
BAILEY, THE HON. MABEL, Hay Castle, Hay, Hereford. 
BENSON, ARTHUR C., The Old Lodge, Magdalene College, Cambridge. 
BISHOP, EDWARD THOMAS, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada. 
BLANE, Miss EDITH H., Winkfield Cottage, Haywards Heath, Sussex. 
BRAMLY, MRS. JENNINGS, Castel di Poggio, Fiesole, Italy. 
CARLISLE, MRS., 12 Hyde Park Place, London, W. 
CHUBB, MRS. C. A., Oldh'eld, Parkside Avenue, Wimbledon Common, 

London, S.W. 

DEVITT, MRS. JAMES A., Oskaloosa, Iowa, U.S.A. 
DREW, EINGROSE C., Hermitage, Rushbrook, Co. Cork, Ireland. 
FRY, T. HALLETT, 3 King's Bench Walk, North, Temple, London, 


GREW, MRS. JOSEPH CLARK, Matthiaskirchstrasse 6, Berlin, Germany. 
HAMILTON-HOARE, Miss SYBIL H., 96 Ebury Street, London, S.W. 
HOTCHKIN, MRS., The Dower House, Woodhall Spa, Lincolnshire. 
INGHAM, PERCY B., Great Missenden, Bucks. 
LATHAM, Miss EDITH, 3 Avenue Bugeaud, Paris, France. 
LIBRARIAN, Harvard College Library, Cambridge, Mass., U.S.A. 
LIBRARIAN, Minneapolis Athenaeum, Minneapolis, Minn., U.S.A. 
MARTIN, THOMAS BEECHAM, Wanstead College, South Woodford, 

London, N.E. 

RITCHIE, MRS., 33 Cadogan Place, London, S.W. 
RYAN, MRS., 39 Clarence Gate Gardens, Regent's Park, London, N.W, 
SCHOFIELD, MRS., 1 Phillimore Gardens, Kensington, London, W. 
SIDGWIGK, Miss ROSE, University House, Edgbaston Park Road, 


JAN., luio. Members and Associates. 

SIEGEL, Louis, c/o Leon Goldsmith, 163 Westminster Road, Rochester, 

N.Y., U.S.A. 
\\. \LKER-MuNRo, MRS. L., Rhinefield, Brockenhurst, Hampshire. 


THE 100th Meeting of the Council was held at 20 Hanover 
Square, London, W., on Monday, December 13th, 1909, at 
6 p.m., the President, Mrs. Henry Sidgwick, in the chair. 
The following Members of Council were present : Mr. W. W. 
lineally, the Rt. Hon. Gerald W. Balfour, Professor W. F. 
Barrett, the Rev. A. T. Fryer, Dr. F. C. S. Schiller, Mr. 
Sydney C. Scott, Mr. H. Arthur Smith, and Mrs. Verrall \ 
also Miss Alice Johnson, Research Officer, and Miss Isabel 
Newton, Secretary. 

The Minutes of the last Meeting of the Council were read 
and signed as correct. 

Five new Members and twenty-five new Associates were 
elected. Their names and addresses are given above. 

The monthly accounts for October and November, 1909, 
were presented and taken as read. 

Dr. T. W. Mitchell was co-opted as a Member of the 


'HE 30th Private Meeting of the Society for Members and 
iiates only was held in the large Hall at 20 Hanover 
[uare, London, W., on Monday, December 13th, 1909, at 
p.m.; the PRESIDENT, MRS. HENRY SIDGWICK, in the chair. 
The following papers were read : 



JLTHOUGH our Society has of late devoted so much of its 
time to the critical investigation of automatic writing and 
)ther evidence which points to the existence of life and 

184 Journal of Society for Psychical Research. JAN., 1910. 

intelligence in the Unseen, it must not be forgotten that there 
are many other branches of psychical research which need 
fuller enquiry and more abundant evidence than we possess 
at present. We still need more evidence on telepathy before 
it can be generally accepted by orthodox science, but its 
credentials are, by most, now considered higher than those on 
behalf of clairvoyance. And yet this should not be the case, 
for it would not be difficult to gain the additional evidence 
we desire if the members of our Society would co-operate in 
this matter. One object I have in bringing this paper before 
you is to urge this co-operation, to show how you can set about 
it, and to indicate the kind of results you might obtain. 

The term clairvoyance is frequently used to mean perceiving 
spirits : of that I know nothing ; it may or may not be true, 
but you will first have to convince science that spirits demon- 
strably exist, before you can hope science to believe they can 
be seen by certain persons. In the present paper I restrict 
the term clairvoyance to the perception of some hidden object 
without the aid of ordinary vision, or of any of the recognized 
organs of sense. Such perception may be a conscious act, 
but it is more frequently sub-conscious, revealing itself by 
some involuntary muscular action, such as the twisting of a 
forked twig, held in neutral or in unstable equilibrium, or by 
automatic writing, or occasionally by an epigastric or emotional 
spasm. It is an ideo-motor stimulus, albeit the idea is usually 
a sub-conscious one. 

The term coined by Mr. Myers, telcesthesia, sensation at a 
distance, better expresses this than clairvoyance, and I hope 
this term may come into more general use. It is true that, 
verbally, telepathy and telsesthesia have much the same mean- 
ing. Mr. Myers has however defined the latter as a " knowledge 
of things terrene which surpasses the limits of ordinary per- 
ception " in distinction to telepathy, which he defines as 
" fellow-feeling at a distance." What we need is a word 
expressing supernormal-matter-perception, as distinct from tele- 
pathy, which is supernormal-mind-perception. 

Dowsing for water and mineral lodes, is, as I have shown in the 
reports published in Vols. XIII. and XV. of our Proceedings, the 
best evidence we possess of this faculty of telcesthesia or super- 
normal-matter-perception. A good dowser can find indifferently 

JAN., I9io. Detection of Hidden Objects by Dowsers. 185 

mineral lodes, underground water, buried coins or any other 
object, the appearance of which is known to him, and which 
he definitely sets forth to find. In regions where mineral oil 
is found, a dowser is sometimes employed, and with remarkable 
success, to locate the underground oil-spring. In both my 
Reports on the dowsing rod, several striking instances of the 
discovery of hidden coins by different dowsers were given. I 
will only refer to two of these : one is on the evidence of a 
Wiltshire country gentleman, Mr. W. J. Brown, and published 
by him in the Bath Natural History and Field Club Proceedings 
for 1889. Mr. Brown had employed the famous dowser, John 
Mullins, to locate the site for a well, which turned out* a great 
success, and incidentally tested Mullins' power of finding hidden 
coins. Mr. Brown writes : 

In Mullins' absence we took ten stones off a wall, and, having 
placed them on the road, we put a sovereign under three of the 
stones. [When Mullins returned] he passed his rod over the stones, 
and without the slightest hesitation told us at once under which 
stone the sovereigns were. When he came to a stone under which 
there was no sovereign he at once said, "Nothing here, master," 
but when he came to the others he remarked, "All right, master, 
thankee," turned the stone over and put the sovereign in his 

A more stringent test is the following : Mr. Bruce, of 
Norton Hall, Gloucester, who also employed John Mullins 
successfully to find water, writes to me as follows : 

Mullins also found a half-sovereign I had buried in a walk we 
were then making. I would have lost the half-sovereign if it had 
not been for Mullins, as I was so careful not to put any mark 
[where it was hidden] that I was not able to find the place myself, 
and when Mullins stopped and said it was under his foot, I 
thought he was wrong, but there it was ! 

Miss Miles, to whom, with Miss Eamsden, we are so much 
indebted for their painstaking and successful experiments on 
telepathy across great distances, is also a singularly successful 
dowser, and many cases of her success in dowsing I have 
investigated ; some are published and others await publication. 
Here I will only cite one case in which, whilst locating the 
site for a well, she also discovered a buried and long lost 

186 Journal of Society for Psychical Research. JAN., 1910. 

cistern. Here is the account sent by Mrs. Batson, of Hoe 
Benham, Newbury, for whom the experiments were made : 


15 Sep., 1905. 

I was anxious this summer, 1905, to lay on a small supply of 
water to a part of our flower garden which suffered much from 
drought, and Miss Miles very kindly consented to seek for a 
source that would suffice for our wants. I wished also to locate 
the site of the spring from which pipes were laid on for the 
supply of our house some fourteen years since. All record of this 
site had been lost, even the plumber who had laid on the water 
being uncertain about its exact position and unable to indicate it. 
Miss Miles very quickly assured us of the whereabouts of this 
supply cistern, and a post was driven into the earth at the place 
suggested by her. She also indicated another spot at which, as 
she asserted, water sufficient for our [flower] borders would be 
discovered within a few feet of the surface. Here also the place 
was carefully marked. The following morning the ground was 
dug out, and a spring of water was found within about six feet 
from the surface at the spot where Miss Miles had advised us to 
dig for our supply. The crown of the lost cistern also appeared 
to sight at the expected place. I must confess to some previous 
scepticism, but in both these instances we have had undoubted 
evidence as to Miss Miles' gift in divining the existence of water, 
and I am now as completely convinced as before I was incredulous 
about it. H. M. BATSON. 

Miss Miles informs me that directly she came near the spot 
she " saw the tank unmistakeably, it appeared large with a 
rounded top and something branching away from it." 

In connection with this supernormal vision, Miss Miles has 
kindly submitted to rigorous tests both in London and in Ireland. 
As is the case with all other psychics, her lucidity varies, from 
causes of which we know nothing. Once in London during Miss 
Miles' absence from the room, I concealed a sovereign under one 
of several rugs in a drawing room. On her return I asked if 
she could find it, and turned away from her, lest any unconscious 
guidance from me might assist ; she closed her eyes and said, 
" I see it under the corner of that rug." This was correct. 
Again I hid the coin in her absence and again she found it 

JAN., 1910. Detection of Hidden Objects by Dowsers. 187 

correctly, and the third time she was more doubtful, but it was 
fairly right. Telepathy may here be possible, though I doubt 
it, but in the case of the tank and in water-finding it is 

Last May I was invited to witness some experiments at 
Caxton Hall, London, where several dowsers were present in 
order to test whether they were sensitive to the presence of con- 
cealed radium. These experiments were arranged by a consulting 
geologist, Mr. Beeby Thompson, F.G.S., who sent me an account 
of his preliminary trials at Sanderstead, which are given in 
Appendix C to this paper. Mr. Thompson was convinced that 
the dowsers detected underground water chiefly when radio-active 
emanations came from the water or rocks below. 

At Caxton Hall there were present several geologists and 
engineers besides Mr. Beeby Thompson, and three dowsers, Mr. 
Ede of Arundel, Mr. Farndell of Littlehampton, and Mr. J. F. 
Young, formerly one of our hon. associates, whom I had invited to 
attend. Fifteen milligrams of radium (worth a very large sum) 
were kindly lent by Mr. Glew of Claphain, who was also present. 
By means of a rough electroscope, consisting of two silk ribbons 
excited to wide divergence by friction, the activity of the 
radium was tested. It caused the instant collapse of the 
ribbons at a distance of 5 or 6 feet. The radium bromide 
was as usual enclosed in a lead box with a lead lid, and when 
it was covered, not the slightest effect was produced on the 
electroscope even when brought up as close as possible, show- 
ing the impermeability of the lead to the rays affecting the 

The dowsers were sent out of the room, and the radium, 
with the lid off, was then hidden in different places ; but the 
results were quite valueless, as is shown in the report which 
appeared in the Annals of Psychical Science for July-September 
last, p. 507. The dowsers, Ede and Farndell, brought a bundle 
of strong forked sticks, and the extraordinary violence with 
which these twisted, one limb being constantly wrenched into 
two (especially with the dowser Farndell), showed that these 
dowsers possessed strong motor automatism. This, however, 
does not necessarily indicate, as professional dowsers believe it 
(iocs, any corresponding clairvoyant or tekesthetic faculty. It 
was, in fact, amusing to notice how powerfully suggestion 

188 Journal of Society for Psychical Research. JAN., 1910. 

operated on them. Movement of the uncovered radium down 
their back caused the most violent twisting and even breaking 
of their forked rods ; whilst when the radium was covered not 
the slightest motion occurred. They knew, however, whether the 
radium was open or enclosed and were aware it was inert in the 
latter case, as they watched the previous tests with the electro- 
scope. Many present seemed convinced the radium powerfully 
affected the dowsers until I made the following experiments : 

Showing the dowser under trial the open radium, I stood 
behind him and secretly covered the box, then slowly moved 
it down the back of the dowser ; the rod twisted violently and 
broke. Then I told the dowser (Ede) I was going to cover the 
radium and showed him the closed box ; standing behind him 
I secretly uncovered the box and moved it down his back as 
before. Not the slightest motion of the rod occurred : this 
experiment was repeated two or three times with exactly 
similar results. This conclusively demonstrated three things ; 
first, that radio-activity had nothing to do with the motion of 
the rod ; next, that telepathy had no action, for both I and 
Mr. Curnock, the Daily Mail representative, who was present, 
knew the real state of affairs ; and, lastly, that auto-suggestion 
on the dowser's part is the true explanation of these experiments. 

I was, however, anxious to try Mr. J. F. Young's power of 
clairvoyance or telsesthesia when auto-suggestion and other 
sources of error were excluded. Those who have read the 
Appendix to my second report on the dowsing rod (Vol. XV. 
p. 361) will remember I had previously tested Mr. J. F. Young 
and found he possessed this faculty ; moreover, he had auto- 
matically and correctly written the words contained in two 
opaque and carefully sealed envelopes I had sent to him, 
which it was impossible to read by eyesight, nor could the 
envelopes be tampered with without discovery ; they were sent 
back to me intact. Accordingly at Caxton Hall, having shut 
the dowsers in an adjoining room, I covered the seats of 
46 chairs in the large Council Eoom with hats, coats, and 
books, and unseen by any one present, I placed a sovereign 
beneath the covering on one chair. Mr. Young was then sent 
for and told to try all the chairs in succession whilst I 
looked out of the window. At a certain chair he stopped 
and said that was the one ; and when it was uncovered, 

JAN., 1910. Detection of Hidden Objects by Dowsers. 189 

the sovereign was found below. The odds were 45 to 1 
;t^;iinst success by chance coincidence. Again he was sent 
out of the room and watched by a sceptical friend who 
was present, whilst I secretly hid the sovereign under a 
hat on another chair. All the others present were requested 
to look out of the window (as I did) when Mr. Young was 
recalled. Again he correctly found the sovereign without 
hesitation. The probability of two successes running being due 
to chance coincidence was now over 2000 to 1. A third 
experiment was made with Mr. Young, and this time a 
sceptical gentleman who was present asked leave to hide 
the sovereign, the dowsers of course being absent, and all 
others present looking out of the window whilst he did so. 
The gentleman who hid the sovereign then left the room 
and the dowser came in and fixed upon a certain chair. 
This was wrong; but, on the return of the hider of the sove- 
reign, he said he had first put it there under a bag and 
then removed it to another chair. Without any information 
being given to the dowser he was asked again to try and find it, 
which he then did correctly. A fourth experiment was made in 
a similar way, the sovereign being hidden by another gentleman, 
and its position accurately found by Mr. Young, who was 
again tried. Finally a sceptical geologist who was present 
wished to hide the sovereign, and great precautions were 
taken by him to avoid any possible collusion, or knowledge 
>y any one present of where he had hidden it. In this case 
the dowser Mr. Ede was tried, and when he was recalled the 
hider left the room. Mr. Ede fixed on a certain chair, and 
upon removing the covering the sovereign was not there. The 
dowser declared, however, that was the spot, and the geologist 
who hid the sovereign, upon being recalled, said it was quite 
right, for he had put the sovereign under one of the legs of 
that very chair, where it was found. 

The law of probabilities shows that chance coincidence could 
not be the explanation after the four successes running by 
Mr. J. F. Young, nor can I find any other explanation recog- 
nized by science. The foregoing evidence, taken in conjunc- 
tion with the amazing success which attended good dowsers 
like John Mullins, W. Stone, and the charity boy BJ^qi^ jn 
France in the eighteenth century in finding undergroi%J wj 



190 Journal of Society for Psychical Research. JAN., 1910. 

when other means had failed, goes far to establish the 
existence of telaesthesia, i.e. a supernormal-matter-perceptive- 
power in certain persons commonly called dowsers. 

If telaesthesia be really an extension of human faculty 
in certain persons, its existence affords an explanation of 
many curious statements which are to be found in the works 
of some learned writers more than 350 years ago. Thus a 
Spanish writer, Alphonsus of Vera Cruz, published a folio 
work called Physica Speculatio, in 1557, in which he states 
that there are certain people called " Zahoris," or clear-seeing 
folk, who have the power of vision through opaque bodies. 
A little later the learned and famous Jesuit of Louvain, Martin 
Delrio, in his great work on Magic, states that there are 
certain men in Spain known as Zahoris, one of whom he saw 
in Madrid in 1575, and that these people " can see things 
hidden in the inward bowels of the earth, veins of water, 
and treasures of metals and also corpses within sarcophagi. 
This thing," he remarks, " is most fully received and well 
known." 1 

P.S. I asked Mr. Curnock if he could let me have a copy 
of the shorthand notes he took of the experiments in the 
Caxton Hall. His reply is given in Appendix A. 

Prof. Wertheimer, a confident novice at psychical research, 
made some experiments a few years ago with the finding of 
coins by dowsers, but they were quite inconclusive, as shown 
in Appendix B. 


October 19th, 1909. 

Dear Professor Barrett, I am afraid the notes I made of the 
dowsing experiments are mislaid, but I sent a memorandum to 
Mr. Dudley Wright at the time and will ask him to look for that, 
which may be of some use to you. 

1 Delrio, Disquisitionum Magicarum, Vol. I. ch. iii. pp. 11 and 12. A fuller 
translated extract is given in my Report in Proc. S.P.R., Vol. XV. p. 369, 
where I have also given a translation and reference to Alphonsus' work. 

JAN., 1910. Detection of Hidden Objects by Dowsers. 191 

I was particularly interested in three things : 

(1) The facility with which the old man [Mr. J. F. Young] and 
the young man [Mr. Ede] found the hidden coins, especially the 
case in which one of the dowsers indicated the right chair when the 
coin was hidden under its foot. You will remember that we were 
convinced he was wrong, made him try again, and then were set 
right by the hider of the coin, who came into the room and lifting 
the chair showed the coin on the carpet. 

(2) The curious manner in which one dowser indicated the 
chair under which the coin was first hid, showing the first 
intent of the hider and his subsequent change of intention. 

(3) The manner in which the young man responded to suggestion 
when he was tried for sensitiveness to radium. You will remember 
that he "found" or "felt" radium when the box was closed (being 
then told it was open) and was insensitive to the radium when 
the box was open (being then told it was closed). 

Yours faithfully, 



In a paper on "Some Experiments with Water Finders" Professor 
Wertheimer of Bristol four years ago tried a professional dowser, 
named Mr. Chennels, of Northamptonshire, with coins concealed 
beneath saucers. I have never heard of Chennels as a dowser, and 
Professor Wertheimer seemed unable to obtain the co-operation of 
a really successful dowser. However, the summary of the experi- 
ments on hidden coins tried with Chennels is as follows : 

"Experiment 1. 12 saucers used, coins under same; dowser right 
in 7 cases, wrong in 5. 

Experiment 2. 7 saucers used; dowser right in 4 cases, wrong 
in 3. 

Experiment 3. 9 saucers used; dowser right in 7 cases, wrong 
in 2 : a distinct success. 

Experiment 4. Place of experiment changed to open air. 12 
saucers used ; dowser right in 2 cases, wrong in 10, a distinct 

Experiment 5. 5 saucers used, coin under one saucer only, 
correctly found; so that the result of these five sets of experiments 
was that distinct success was attained in two cases only, distinct 
failure in one, and very little better than chance coincidence in 
two cases. The results therefore were inconclusive." 

192 Journal of Society for Psychical Research. JAN., 1910. 


APRIL lOrn, 1909. 


Messrs. Duke and Ockenden recommended Mr. Arthur Ede of 
Arundel, aged 27, as one who they believed had the power 
of "Divining," as the term is usually understood, that is to say, he 
was affected in some mysterious way by running water. 

In the experiments detailed a sample of 10 milligrammes of pure 
Eadium Bromide was used, obtained from Mr. Glew of Clapham 

The experiments commenced about mid-day in a garden at Sander- 
stead and extended to near five o'clock, and Mr. Ede used ordinary 
forked twigs which he had cut himself, but they were rather thicker 
than he preferred. 

Experiment 1. Ede located certain spots in the garden, which, 
pegged out, made a nearly straight, diagonal line, and this line he 
predicted was that of a spring. There was no means of proving 
this. The garden is on Chalk (with possibly a capping of gravel), 
and it is rather improbable that there is any spring within a 
moderate distance underground, as the garden is on a slope and 
no springs come out on the hill-side. 

Experiment 2. The garden, mostly grass, was more thoroughly 
gone over, and the same spots were again indicated; but although 
Ede walked right over the spot where the Eadium was buried a 
few inches underground in a cardboard box, he did not detect it. 

An interval of 15 minutes or more was allowed between successive 
experiments, and Mr. Ede never knew at any time what the experi- 
ments were for. Radium was never mentioned. 

Experiment 3. Set tap running in house, and caused Ede to 
walk over a considerable length of ground by side of house, where 
the waste water was running only a few inches below ground, but 
nothing happened. 

Experiment 4. Put Ede beside a water-pipe which led to the 
bath-room, etc., on the floor above, and tested him in various ways 
by turning the water on and off. On the whole this was very 
satisfactory. When the tap was turned on and off quickly the 
response was quick, although Ede and Mr. Maurice Ockenden, who 
was with him, said they could not hear the water running from 
the tap. When the tap was turned on very gently, as much as 
two minutes elapsed before the movement of water was detected. 

JAN., 1910. Detection of Hidden Objects by Dowsers. 193 

Experiment 5. Hid the Radium in a slipper standing on the 
floor of a room. Ede failed to detect it, and at only one point 
in the room was there a rather doubtful movement of the twig. 

Experiment 6. Hid two sovereigns in a small cup standing on 
a table, and the Radium in a cloth bag hanging by the fire-place. 
The coins were not detected, but the Radium was accurately 

Experiment 7. After an interval repeated the last experiment; 
coins not detected. Radium located just as before. Ede said he 
seemed drawn to this spot, he had never felt anything like it 

Experiment 8. After another interval, during which the Radium 
had been removed from the bag and placed under a cushion on a 
couch, Ede found that he seemed drawn both to the bag and to 
the couch, although the bag was empty. 

Experiment 9. Further trials led Ede to remark that he couldn't 
make it out, he seemed to be getting affected all over the room, 
although when he first began the trials there was little effect on 



A SERIES of articles have recently appeared in Italian newspapers, 
in L'Echo du Merveilleux, in the Annales des Sciences Psychiques, 
and in the Annals of Psychical Science, referring to physical 
phenomena which it was alleged took place in the presence of a 
new medium, Francesco Carancini. The stances at which these 
phenomena occurred were held in the residence of Baron von 
Erhardt, a gentleman who has resided in Rome for some time 
and who has been instrumental in bringing the alleged super- 
normal powers of Carancini before the notice of several scientific 
men. The phenomena said to occur in connection with this 
medium appear, prima facie, to be very similar to those produced 
by Eusapia Palladino, such as the transportation and levitation 
of objects, impressions on clay, and luminous appearances; but 
there are others which it is asserted take place with Carancini 
and which, so far as my reading and experience go, are dissimilar 
to Eusapia's. I refer to the writing on lamp black in Latin, 

194 Journal of Society for Psychical Research. JAN., 1910. 

modern and ancient Greek, and in an unknown language, the 
passing of objects into closed wire cages, and the taking off of 
the medium's jacket while his hands are presumably securely 
held by the controllers. 

The article that appeared in the April, 1909, number of the 
Annals of Psychical Science is illustrated by flashlight photographs 
which purport to show the phenomena at the actual moment of 
their occurrence. Musical instruments are seen apparently 
floating in the air, and larger objects, such as tables, appear to 
have been raised from the floor and placed upon the medium's 
shoulders. In one photograph Carancini is seen levitated. I 
shall have occasion to refer to these photographs later on. 

Dr. Lancellotti communicated the above mentioned article 
to the Annals of Psychical Science. He states therein that 
" Carancini seems to have discovered his mediumship one 
evening when he was present at a seance at which Politi was 
the medium." A few days afterwards another seance took place 
at which Carancini was persuaded to try his powers as a 
medium, and these were, according to Dr. Lancellotti, almost 
at once shown to be even stronger than those of Politi himself. 
Carancini, for some time, continued to officiate as medium in 
spiritistic circles only. It was not until the beginning of last 
year that a series of more carefully controlled experiments 
could be carried out. These took place, as I have already 
stated, in the residence of Baron von Erhardt in Eome. During 
the course of a conversation with Professors Bottazzi and 
Galeotti (two gentlemen who were present at some of our 
recent stances with Eusapia Palladino) Mr. Feilding and I were 
told of the existence of Carancini. 

Owing to the short time that I had at my disposal between 
the termination of the Eusapia seances and Christmas day I 
was obliged to hurry back to England, but Mr. Feilding while 
passing through Kome in December, 1908, had an opportunity 
of assisting at two sittings with this medium. Dr. Schiller 
happening to be in Kome also assisted at these sittings, and 
subsequently attended other stances, and Mr. Feilding and he 
were sufficiently interested in what they observed to recommend 
the Council to engage in a more systematic study of the case. 

Signer Carancini was accordingly invited to England, and 
during the months of July and August, 1909, gave a series of 

JAN., 1910. Sittings with Carancini. 195 

thirteen sdances. Nine of these took place in Mr. Feilding's 
house in John Street, Mayf'air, and four in the country residence 
of a mutual friend of Mr. Feilding and myself. At these last 
;i lady was present who was believed to be a physical medium. 
It was thought advisable to try some experiments in the presence 
of this lady and Carancini. 

I was asked to undertake the general conduct of the sittings 
and to look after the comfort of the medium. Carancini does 
not speak English. I spent with him the greater part of his 
stay in this country. I understand Italian and was consequently 
of service to him. 

Mr. Feilding was present at twelve of the sittings, Mr. Sydney 
Scott at eight, Sir William Crookes at four, Lady Crookes at 
three, Sir Lawrence Jones at four, Dr. Wm. MacDougall at two, 
Mr. Sidgwick and Miss Isabel Newton at one, and I at all the 
thirteen. Various other friends of Mr. Feilding and myself were 
also invited to several of the sittings in order to make a larger 
circle in accordance with the medium's request. Carancini is 
accustomed to sit outside the cabinet with his back to it. An 
oblong table, such as a small kitchen table, is placed in front 
of him, upon which he places his hands. These are con- 
trolled by the sitters on either side by holding his hands or 
by Carancini placing his hands on theirs. His feet are also 
controlled by the feet of the same sitters. At our seances the 
controllers took their boots off to enable them better to feel 
the medium's feet. 

With Eusapia Palladino the musical instruments and other 
objects used in the transportations are generally placed inside 
the cabinet, but with Carancini they are placed, as a rule, 
outside on shelves or small tables at his side and at a short 
distance from him. 

I have already made mention of the writing in foreign 
languages on smoked glass and of the passage of objects into 
a closed wire case. In the hope that these phenomena would 
take place with us I had a case made like two picture frames 
put together, with a glass front and a glass back to them. The 
inner surface of one of the glass plates was smoked, and could 
be seen through the other plate, but the smoked surface could 
not be tampered with without separating the two picture frames. 
These were securely sealed together. I also procured a wire 

1 96 Journal of Society for Psychical Research. JAN., 1910. 

cage, the door and wires of which were strongly soldered. It 
was impossible for an object of a larger bulk than the space 
between the wires to enter the cage, except by breaking it, 
unless supernormally. The smoked frame and the wire cage 
were examined by Mr. Feilding and myself, at the commence- 
ment of each sitting, to verify that no writing was then on 
the smoked glass and that no object had been introduced into 
the cage. Besides these test apparatus Sir William Crookes 
supplied two rings cut out of a piece of parchment. The 
threading of these rings together without either being damaged 
would have conclusively proved the possibility of the passage 
of matter through matter. Other objects, such as a tambourine, 
a toy trumpet, a bell, a zither, an indiarubber ball, etc., were 
also placed on the table on the right of the medium and on 
the tray stand and the steps of a ladder on his left. At the 
third stance, and at subsequent ones, a chair was put inside 
the cabinet with one or two objects on it. An electrical 
apparatus with white and red globes hung from the ceiling 
over the stance table. The intensity of the light could be 
regulated (from light sufficiently strong for the reading of 
small print to a mere glimmer) by means of a commutator 
which rested on the stenographer's table. This was always 
done in accordance with the medium's request. In other 
respects he willingly submitted to any precautions that 
were from time to time suggested. A three-leaved clothes 
horse, 6 feet in height, upon which a fine mesh hammock net 
had been tightly stretched and nailed, was placed behind him, 
with the two outer leaves one on each side of him, at the John 
Street stances, so as to prevent contact with any of the objects 
placed according to his wont for transportation. I had some 
pieces of cardboard painted with luminous paint sewn to his 
coat sleeves close to his wrists. 

The general procedure at Carancini's stances is as follows : 
After the sitters have taken their places round the stance 
table and formed the chain, i.e. taken hold of each other's hands, 
and the control of the medium has been established, he requests 
them to keep silence for a short time and then asks them to 
talk. While they are doing so Carancini goes into what pur- 
ports to be a state of trance. An alleged spirit guide named 
Giuseppe then controls him and produces the principal mani 

JAN., 1910. Sittings with Carancini. 197 

festations. Questions asked are now answered by Giuseppe 
through the medium or by means of raps. 

I will now describe the phenomena that took place at our 
sittings, giving extracts from the stenographic notes taken at 
the time. 

Stance L July 3Qth, 1909. 

Mrs. Sidgwick controlling on the left of medium. 
Mr. Baggally on the right. 
In very dim light. 

Mrs. Sidgwick reports : Raps on my chair. I was touched behind 
at the back just above the seat of my chair, as if it came through 
the back of the chair. It was not a definable touch, only a feeling 
of something. 

Sir William Crookes controlling on left. 
Dr. Wm. MacDougall on right. 
Complete darkness. 

The small tray-stand on left of medium, behind the net screen 
and close to Sir William Crookes, is heard to fall over. 

Sir William immediately says : I had my hand holding his between 
my fingers and the palm of my hand. He was grasping my fingers 
between his thumb and the first and second fingers and so tightly that 
it became almost painful. The foot control was perfect. On the 
white light being turned up the tray-stand and the various objects 
upon it are found upset on the floor. 

Stance II. 
Controllers Sir Wm. Crookes on left. 

Lady Crookes on right. 

Notes taken in the dark. Raps, apparently on the floor behind 
medium, follow raps made by ourselves on the table. Both con- 
trollers report that his feet are under control, and his hands are 
quite still on the table. Scratches are heard on the woodwork of 
the net screen. The medium said he was going to try and produce 
one more phenomenon. He then raised his two hands, held on each 
side by Sir William and Lady Crookes, made a great effort and a 
noise was heard. Giuseppe then said that he had lifted the screen 
10 centimetres and it had then fallen back. When the white light was 
turned up the screen is found changed in position and partly pushed 
into the opening of the cabinet. 

198 Journal of Society for Psychical Research. JAN., 1910. 

Seance III. 
Controllers Sir Wm. Crookes on left. 

Mr. Scott on right. 
Light diminished to the last point. 

Three raps are heard, position indeterminable, sort of dull thuds 
low down. Then series of raps apparently inside cabinet. Feet of 
medium stated to be immovable by both controllers. Hands motion- 
less on table. The medium asks the controllers to hold his legs 
well and to place them so that they can feel them all the way down 
from the knee. Medium asks that somebody should knock on the 
table. Feilding raps four rhythmical knocks ; they are answered like 
an echo, apparently in the cabinet. Feilding does it again and an 
extremely bad imitation follows, all wrong. 

Sir William puts his hand between the back of the medium's chair 
and curtain. Feilding then asked that raps should be made inside 
cabinet. Raps are heard of a different quality of sound and Sir 
William said that they sounded near where his hand was. Sir 
William says : The medium was moving my hand, and whenever 
he moved my hand backwards a rap sounded on the floor. 

Seance IV. 

Controllers Sir Lawrence Jones on right. 
Sir William Crookes on left. 

Bright red light. Raps that cannot be localized, apparently 
down on floor behind Sir William Crookes. Both hands visibl< 
and held on the table motionless. Feet held as before motionless. 

Light diminished to No. 3. He moves Sir William's hand, an< 
synchronously with the movements raps are heard low down behim 
him. He does the same with his right hand with Sir Lawrence Jones 
hand with the same result. 

Medium asks for paper and pencil and writes something. Th< 
writing, when the light was turned up, contained the words, "Noi 
sono Giuseppe sono Zurucruft," (I am not Joseph, I am Zurucruft,; 
.and then follow a few lines of what looks like Tamil. Speaking 
he says that he was an Indian who died 4000 years ago. 

Feilding says : I have asked Giuseppe who it was who answei 
saying he was an Indian who died 4000 years ago. Giusep] 
replied that "HE" did, as the other entity cannot speak. He say* 
they cannot communicate. He only knows by intuition what h< 
wants. When asked how he knew he was an Indian who di( 

JAN., 1910. Sittings with Carancini. 199 

4000 years ago, he said that he has been told by high spirits. He 
says that Zurucruft often turns up at seances, and that it is quite 
possible that Padre Ludovico da Castelfino may turn up and address 
a few words of theological exhortation. He was a theologian of 
the Bishop of Torraeini, who died 25 or 26 years ago. 

Stance V. 

Controllers Sir Lawrence Jones on right. 
Mr. Scott on left. 

Bright red light. The medium stretches his right hand, clasping 
Sir Lawrence Jones' hand, three times towards net screen, and the 
movements are followed by three raps apparently on the floor. The 
medium rapped Sir Lawrence's knuckles on the table twice, which 
is followed by raps somewhere behind the medium's chair. He does 
the same with his left hand with Mr. Scott's knuckles, and the 
knocks are followed by raps somewhere behind the medium's chair. 

The medium enters the cabinet. The screen with net work is 
placed rouud him. 

Medium takes his coat off with the luminous patches on. 

Complete darkness. 

A small single light of a bluish colour is seen rather high up. 
Another light lower down. All the time medium was gasping a 
good deal. Another light towards the middle of the curtain. Another 
light from the right side of the cabinet curtain. Two more lights 
which appear to be separating. A light quite near the left wall 
appeared. A larger and stronger light low down about three feet 
from the ground. It is seen by all again. Giuseppe asks us to 
awaken the medium. Mr. Scott and Mr. Baggally went into the 
cabinet immediately afterwards and did not perceive any smell of 

After seance Mr. Baggally examined the medium all over in order 
to see if there were any hidden mechanism or electric batteries or 
anything that would produce the lights, but found nothing except a 
box of safety matches. 

Stance VI. 

Controllers Sir Lawrence Jones on left. 
Mr. Feilding on right. 

Red light lowered to No. 4. 

Medium makes gestures with Feilding's hand in the air. Raps 
are heard down apparently on the floor to medium's left. Quite 

200 Journal of Society for Psychical Research. JAN., 1910. 

unevidential. Feilding asks him what he did when he wanted to 
produce a phenomenon. He said, "I send out fluid." Feilding 
asked, did he mean muscular contraction? He said, yes. 

Stance VII. 

Controllers Dr. Wm. MacDougall on left. 
Mr. Haselton on right. 

Complete darkness. 

Medium raps on table and a rap is heard apparently behind him 
on the floor. Feilding thereupon gives three raps on the table, and 
three raps answer apparently on the same place as before. The 
medium holds his hands up and raps are heard behind him. Con- 
trollers report feet quite still. Medium writes. When writing is 
examined after white light was turned up, it proved to be some 
more of that apparently oriental writing. 

Medium makes a convulsive effort. MacDougall feels a touch on 
the elbow then Giuseppe says, You must stop at once ; wake the 
medium instantly. 


Controllers Mr. Scott on left. 
Mr. C. on right. 

Red light lowered to lowest point. 

Medium holds his right hand holding C.'s hand out to screen. 
His hand trembles. Kaps are heard. 

Thumps are heard. The medium asks the controllers to ascertain 
that the chair legs are on the carpet. Medium raps twice on table. 
Raps are heard in reply. 

Controllers are changed. 

Mr. Haselton is now on the right. 

Mr. Claude Askew on the left. 

Complete darkness. 

Mrs. Askew, who is seated next to Mr. Haselton, says : I feel a 
touch; it touched my shoulder four times lightly. 

Mr. Askew says : I am tapped on left shoulder. The controllers 
report hands of medium held; position of his head unknown. 

Haselton now says : The left hand back of my chair was touched. 
I wondered what it was, and I was tapped three times by a distinct 
hand. ,It was a hand ; that I am certain of. Medium's hands reported 
to be on table and held separately. 

JAN., 1910. Sittings with Carancini. 201 

Stance XIII. 

Controllers Mr. C. on the right. 

Mr. Baggally on the left. 

Complete darkness. 

Mrs. Lowry reports: I was touched behind. There is some one 
behind my chair. My name has been called twice. 

Before referring to the four other sittings which were held 
at the country residence of a mutual friend of Mr. Feilding 
and myself, and at which sittings the lady who was believed 
to possess supernormal physical powers was present, I will 
comment on the phenomena that I have just described. The 
first thing that strikes a reader of ( the above stenographic 
notes is the paucity in number of the phenomena and the 
unsatisfactory conditions under which they were obtained. 
With the exception of some of the raps which occurred in 
light, more or less strong, all the other phenomena took 

ce in complete darkness. 

Carancini appeared to be willing to submit to any precautions, 

t somehow no manifestations occurred, with the exception of 
.he raps, until after the light had been completely extinguished 
at the request of the alleged control Giuseppe. The phenomena 
were therefore quite unlike those that Mr. Feilding, Mr. 
Carrington, and I witnessed with Eusapia Palladino and to 
which we attach great importance on account of their occur- 
rence in good light. 

It will be noted that, with the exception of the raps on 
Mrs. Sidgwick's chair at the first stance, all the raps were 
heard to sound behind the medium, apparently on the floor 
or in the cabinet behind his chair. 

The fact that the raps were heard in that locality and in 
close proximity to the medium suggests the probability that 
they were produced by his tipping the chair on which he sat 
and striking the floor with the back legs. Mr. Scott, when 
he was controlling, noticed a suspicious movement of the 
medium's body when he heard some of the raps, and Mr. 
C. at seance VIII. just after the note in stenographer's 
report which reads, " Thumps are heard. The medium asks 
the controllers to ascertain that the chair legs are on the 
carpet," makes the following observation, " I should like to 

202 Journal of Society for Psychical Research. JAN., 1910. 

correct that as I was looking round to see if the legs were 
on the carpet, as I thought, I saw the legs of the chair moving." 
The raps at the first stances, though not loud, were sharp and 
distinct, but after a carpet had been placed under Carancini's 
chair they changed in sound, being then more like thuds. 
The controller's statements that when the raps were heard 
the medium's hands and feet were immovable do not prove 
that he might not have been tipping his chair at those times. 
His hands and feet could have been perfectly still and yet 
his body could have tipped the light chair upon which he sat. 
I have stated that at the first sitting Mrs. Sidgwick heard 
a few faint raps on her chair. They were inaudible to 
me. I sat on the other side of Carancini controlling him. 
These and the raps at the second seance, after the medium 
had asked the controllers to hold his legs well and place them 
so that they could feel them all the way down from the knee, 
were the most evidential. 

Taking into consideration the difficulty of localizing sound, 
the possibility of raps being produced by the cracking of a 
joint (I have met individuals who made raps in this manner) 
and the above stated suspicious circumstance of the medium's 
chair having been seen to move and also of the change in 
the character of the sounds when a carpet was placed under 
Carancini's chair, there seems strong evidence that the raps 
were produced normally. 

I attach no importance to the scratches heard on the wood- 
work of the screen nor to the change of position of the screen 
at seance II. The back of the medium's chair was in close 
proximity to the framework, and Carancini's convulsive move- 
ments could have produced these phenomena by the rubbing 
and pushing of his chair against the framework. 

The writing by the medium in apparently oriental characters 
is of no evidential value whatever. Even if it had been 
really in an oriental language this would not have precluded 
the possibility of his having learnt to form the characters 
previously in his normal condition. This hypothesis is supported 
by the fact that some of these characters written by the medium 
in our own presence resembled others that are shown in one 
of the photographs in the Annals of Psychical Science. These 
last were alleged to have been produced by an independent 

JAN., 1910. Sittings with Carancini. 203 

entity, not by the medium. The name of the Indian who 
died 4000 years ago, " Zurucruft," has a German sound about 
it, as if it were intended to represent the past participle of 
zuruckntfen, to call back. 

When considering the evidential value of a phenomenon it 
should be borne in mind that if the conditions under which 
it occurs are such that it could have been brought about by 
normal means, then a normal explanation should be accepted, 
as this would be in accordance with our ordinary principles of 

I apply this rule to the consideration of the other phenomena 
which took place at our sittings in total darkness. 

The falling over of the tray-stand behind the net when one 
of the medium's hands controlled by Sir William Crookes was 
brought in close proximity to it, although he did not touch 
the stand, might have been caused by pushing the net against 
it. Sir William Crookes' hand was pressed against the net 
and the net yielded a few inches. The tray-stand stood at 
ic time quite close behind the net. 

The lights seen at seance V., within or close to the cabinet, 
ippeared after Carancini entered the cabinet by himself and 
msequently when he was uncontrolled. He sat on a chair inside 
the cabinet with the clothes horse surrounding him ; but this 
precaution, which had been suggested by himself, would not have 
prevented him from standing on the chair, as there was no netting 
on the top of the clothes horse. A suspicious noise was heard as 
if the medium were getting on his chair just before the lights 
appeared high up towards the ceiling. One of the sitters, Mrs. 
Paton, made the remark at the time " It sounds as if he were 
getting on the chair." The medium took his jacket off with the 
luminous patches on it before he sat in the cabinet. This was 
a very suspicious action on his part. It suggested that he did 
not wish the position of his hands to be known at the time 
that the lights were seen. 

When the stance was over I searched the medium and 
found in his pocket a box of safety matches, and amongst 
them a few phosphorus matches. I took one of these, and 
after the medium had retired I produced, in the dark, with 
the phosphorus match that I had taken, before Mr. Scott 
and Miss Saunders the stenographer, lights which were in 

204 Journal of Society for Psychical Research. JAN., 1910. 

all appearances identical with those that had been seen at 
the stance. 

The phenomena of the touches remains to be dealt with. 
Before I refer to these I will relate our experiences at the 
country residence of our friend. Some of these experiences 
have a bearing on the methods that in my opinion could 
have been used for the production of the touches. The results 
obtained at Mr. Feilding's house up to the eighth sitting 
had proved almost wholly negative. There were, it is true, 
a certain number of phenomena besides the raps, but these 
phenomena had occurred in complete darkness and were of 
such a nature that the possibility of their having been produced 
by normal means could not be excluded. Both Mr. Feilding 
and I were greatly disappointed at these results. We had 
hoped that the members of our Council and other sitters who 
attended the sittings would have witnessed phenomena similar 
to, and under as good test conditions as, those that we had 
obtained with Eusapia Palladino at Naples. We did not, how- 
ever, abandon all hope, but decided to continue the investigation 
in a different environment and in the presence of fresh sitters. 

The boisterous manifestations that we obtained at the first 
sitting in the residence of our friend, seemed fully to justify 
us in the course that we took. 

Miss X., the lady to whom I have referred, who was believed 
to be a physical medium, sat as controller on Carancini's right, 
and our host in a like capacity on his left. 

Mr. Feilding graphically describes what took place at this 
seance in a letter to Miss Johnson. These are his words : 

August 12th, 1909. 

We had a seance last night. The results were sensational to a 
degree, also exasperating. Unfortunately we had not got our luminous 
patches nor the network screen ; nor were Baggally and I controlling, 
also it was exceedingly dark. I had every reason to believe that 
the control was well carried out. The controllers constantly reported 
that they had the hand firmly by the thumb and their legs were 
right round the medium's legs. In these conditions we had a large 
number of pinches and touches and transportations of objects. Some 
of the manifestations were rather violent and the ladies screamed. 

[Our hostess], who sat number two from the medium, had the 
shoulder of her dress pulled right down, a handkerchief was wiped 

,j.\.v, 1910. Sittings with Carancini. 205 

all over her face, thrust down the front of her dress inside, and then 
pulled out again right across her husband, who was controlling. 

Miss X., who was controlling on the right (and although very 
nervous appears to have frozen on like grim death), was seized by 
the leg and nearly pulled out of her chair, and subsided in shrieks 
upon the floor, still grasping the medium's hand when the light was 
turned up. Objects at a distance of more than a foot from my 
extended hand, when sitting in the medium's position, were moved, 
one of them being transported to a second table, added at the 
further end of the medium's table, in order to accommodate the large 
circle. A hand felt about all over Miss X. and Miss W., who was 
holding her in her arms to give her courage. 

Further, a dinner bell placed on a chair in the cabinet fell 
to the ground with a loud crash. 

At last, thought we, the phenomena are genuine. Mr. Feilding 
and I therefore decided to use extra precautions and to control 
the medium ourselves. We did so the following evening, Mr. 
Feilding controlling on the right and I on the left. 

At this sitting Miss X. occupied a seat next to me on my left. 

Shortly after the light was extinguished the usual raps were 
heard, apparently on the floor behind the medium, but what 
surprised me was that they were accompanied by loud raps 
under Miss X.'s chair. I very gradually lowered my left hand, 
which I had free, and placed it under the chair of this lady, 
till I could feel the heels of her feet. I then detected Miss X. 
striking the floor with the point of one of her boots, thus pro- 
ducing the loud raps that were heard under her. 

This discovery immediately gave rise in my mind to the 
suspicion that some of the phenomena of the previous seance 
had been produced by her. I also could no longer feel sure 
that she had continuously held the medium's hand while she 
was controlling him. The evidence for the genuineness of the 
manifestation was further vitiated by Mr. Feilding and my 
detecting the medium, shortly after, in the fraudulent pro- 
duction of phenomena by means of his right hand, which he 
had liberated after resorting to the trick of substitution of 
hands. Owing to the luminous patches on his sleeves the 
first substitution was immediately detected. After this the 
control of his hands was conducted with deliberate carelessness 
and the substitution was repeated four or five times. It was 

206 Journal of Society for Psychical Research. JAN., 1910. 

carried out with extreme caution. We could see the medium's 
right hand being retired, at a snail's pace, from contact with 
Mr. Feilding's hand while he substituted his left hand for it. 
After this Carancini passed his free hand under the table, 
touched us, and pulled our coats. It should be noted that at 
the time of the substitutions the medium purported to be in 
a state of trance and under control of Giuseppe. I am unable 
to say whether this was really the case. If it was, Giuseppe 
must have been the guilty party who perpetrated the frauds, 
and he must have practised them for a long time previously 
to this series of sittings. I sometimes think that, with physical 
mediums, the alleged control serves as a very convenient 
scapegoat, ever ready to hand to bear the blame which other- 
wise would have attached to the mediums when they are 
found out in trickery. 

Only three phenomena now remain to be described, i.e. the 
movement of a pencil, the touches on the shoulders of two 
sitters at the third sitting at our friend's house, and the 
luminous appearances at the fourth sitting. A pencil and 
paper had been placed on the seance table at a distance of 
about 3 feet in front of the medium. This pencil was heard, 
in total darkness, to move apparently independently two or 
three times. I must observe that previous to the first move- 
ment Carancini had leaned his head on his outstretched arms 
on the table. By this action his hands, which were tied to 
the hands of our host and myself, were brought close to the 
pencil, and it was not impossible for him to have taken hold 
of it with the tips of two of his fingers and, after he sat back 
in his chair and raised his hands, to have let the pencil drop 
on the table and thus produce the sound. When the pencil 
was heard to move a second time ' Giuseppe ' said, " I did not 
do that." I have a strong suspicion that Miss X., who was 
seated opposite to where the pencil was, produced this pheno- 
menon. I permit myself to say this as Miss X. has since 
admitted to our host her offences in respect to these sittings. 

Carancini at this stance not only had his hands held by the 
controllers but his wrists were tied to theirs. It was not 
possible for him to effect a substitution of hands, nevertheless 
our host and I, who were controlling, felt light touches on 
our shoulders on the sides next to the medium. When I 

IAN., lyio. Xittinr/8 with Carancini. - () 7 

received a touch I previously felt a movement of the medium's 
arm which gave me the impression that he was leaning his 
body towards me. The touch felt as if he were pressing my 
shoulder gently with his nose. 

The only manifestation at the last stance, held in our friend's 
house, was the appearance of a few lights, one at a time, in 
or near the cabinet, after Carancini had entered it by himself 
uncontrolled. Each light resembled a phosphorus match head 
when rubbed between the fingers. After the sitting was over 
the medium was insistent about my searching him. He possibly 
may have had in his mind the fact that I had found a box 
of matches on him on a previous occasion. I searched him, 
but found no matches this time. A single phosphorus match, 
however, would have sufficed for the production of the lights, 
for it is so small an object that it could have been easily con- 
cealed about his person after the lights were seen. 

I have said enough to show that all the phenomena that we 
obtained with Carancini were of an unsatisfactory nature. With 
the exception of the raps they all took place in absolute darkness. 

The medium, or 'Giuseppe,' was detected several times carrying 
out the trick of substitution of hands, after which the sitters 
got touches. When he was not able to effect a substitution, 
owing to his hands being tied, there were indications that he 
then made use of his head to touch the sitters. 

It is by the above methods that he, in my opinion, produced 
the touches which were felt at the John Street sittings. 

The only touch that could not have been produced by either 
of the above methods was the one felt, in the dim light, by Mrs. 
Sidgwick at the first stance. I understood Mrs. Sidgwick to 
say, however, just after she reported the touch, that she came 
to the conclusion that she was mistaken in the cause of her 
sensation, which she found was really due to the pressure of 
the bottom bar of her chair against her back. 

Great importance is attached, by believers in Carancini's 
phenomena, to the flash-light photographs which were taken at 
his seances. Let us, for a moment, consider what their value 
is for evidential purposes. Being instantaneous photographs, 
they can, by their very nature, only show the levitated object 
for a moment They do not show the events that cause the 
object to be in the position in which it is seen. 

208 Journal of Society for Psychical Research. JAN., 1910. 

We read in Dr. Lancellotti's paper that Carancini's control, 
' Giuseppe/ indicates the exact moment the photographs can be 
taken by calling out the word "Fuoco." 

Now, what is to prevent a fraudulent medium, just at the 
moment that he throws a small object into the air, or after he 
has pinned or hooked it to the cabinet curtain, or after he 
has placed a heavier object on his shoulders, or on another 
point of support, from calling out the word " Fuoco," or any 
other word as a signal for the photograph to be taken at that 
convenient moment ? It will be noted that in the photographs 
only small objects appear to be floating in the air. All the 
heavier ones have a point of support. Carancini himself at 
the moment of his alleged levitation, appears to be standing 
on his own chair. 

It may be said that the medium could not have pro- 
duced the phenomena fraudulently, as the photographs show 
that his hands were controlled at the time. To this I reply 
that although both Carancini's hands were in contact with 
those of the controllers at the instant that the photographs 
were taken, yet it was quite possible that one of his hands 
was free just before he called out the word " Fuoco." I have 
ample grounds for making this assertion. These grounds are 
based on the careful observations that Mr. Feilding and I were 
able to make of the process that Carancini or ' Giuseppe ' resorted 
to when he carried out the substitutions of hands at the time 
that we were controlling him. It was very interesting to watch 
the rapidity with which he replaced his right hand on Mr. 
Fellding's immediately after he had brought about a phenomenon. 
He would touch us or pull our coats with his free right hand 
and immediately afterwards lift his left hand from the back 
of Mr. Feilding's and replace it by his right hand, the action 
being accompanied by a strong convulsive movement of his body, 
by his then violently pulling our hands, in contact with his 
own, up into the air, and by the uttering of a loud groan. 

Flash-light photographs do not prove the genuineness of a 
phenomenon. They merely give us a picture of what is actually 
happening at any one time without showing us the preceding 
actions of the medium leading up to the event. 

In regard to the substitution of hands that was detected at 
one of our sittings when the medium professed to be in a trance, 

JAN., UMO. Sittings with Carancini. 209 

if it be asserted that this may have been an action for which the 
medium was not responsible, I may repeat that it was performed 
at the time with great deliberation and apparent care to avoid 
detection, and also that such a trick, to be carried out with 
success, requires previous training, which it is difficult to suppose 
could have been effected in a trance state. 

In conclusion, I would point out that the phenomena obtained 
At these stances differed fundamentally from those we witnessed 
with Eusapia Palladino at Naples, not only in that Carancini's 
phenomena (with the exception of the raps) occurred in com- 
plete darkness, whereas with Eusapia Palladino many of the 
phenomena took place in light when her hands and her whole 
body were in full view, a condition which is of course essential 
for any good evidence for supernormality ; but also in that there 
was definite positive evidence of fraud in Carancini's case. 

DURING the discussion that followed Mr. Baggally's paper, 
MR. SYDNEY C. SCOTT, who had been present at all the sittings 
held with Carancini in London, said : 

The arrangements of the room in which the sittings were 
held had been very carefully made by Mr. Feilding and Mr. 
Baggally, and the device of the patches of luminous paint on 
the medium's sleeves was an excellent one, enabling the move- 
ments of his arms to be seen, even when there was least light. 

The manifestations which took place at the sittings when 
I was present were of four kinds, viz.: (1) Raps or taps, 
(2) upsetting a small table, (3) the production of moving lights, 
and (4) the writing of some strange characters. 

The table at which we sat was a small light deal table, 
at one end of which Carancini was placed, flanked closely on 
each side by the controllers, who held his hands firmly and 
also his legs by wrapping theirs round his. 

The raps which took place were faint in the extreme and 
could only be detected by listening intently. We all agreed 
that the sounds proceeded from the region of the floor and 
in the rear of the medium's chair. By sitting on the extreme 
front edge of a chair it is quite easy with scarcely any per- 
ceptible muscular movement to make the chair tilt forward 
and in this way to produce faint taps on the floor. I satisfied 

210 Journal of Society for Psychical Research. JAN.,I ( JIO.. 

myself when acting as one of the controllers that this was the 
way the taps were produced, as I could feel slight movements 
in the medium's leg, produced by extension and contraction of 
the muscles which synchronised with the sounds. 

With the view of testing this further, I asked Mr. Feilding 
to put the medium's chair at a subsequent meeting on a carpet 
instead of on the parquet flooring. This was done, and, as we 
anticipated, the taps were then of the muffled kind which, 
might be expected when the legs of the chair struck the floor 
covered with carpet. 

The upsetting of the small table only occurred once. Sir 
William Crookes was then acting as one of the controllers, andi 
it was agreed that the occurrence possessed no evidential value,, 
as the medium's movements were very convulsive at the 
moment, and although his hands were not released and he 
was enclosed by the netting cage, yet it seemed quite possible 
that he could have tilted the table over with his elbow. The 
table was standing near the netting, which had a certain amount 
of slack or elasticity and yielded to pressure. On subsequent 
occasions the table was put further away from the medium 
and never fell over again. 

The appearance of the lights also only occurred at one- 
sitting. On this occasion the medium had asked to be put 
inside the cabinet or alcove and a chair was placed there for 
him to sit on. After an interval a small spot of light appeared 
high up and apparently at the top of the curtain, about the 
height the medium could reach easily by standing on his chair. 
This light was repeated several times and was occasionally 
duplicated. It alternated with the appearance of luminous, 
patches rather lower down. 

At the close of the sitting Mr. Baggally asked Carancini 
to allow himself to be searched before leaving the room, a 
request to which he readily acceded, and Mr. Baggally and 
I accordingly examined him and went through his pockets.. 
The contents were found to comprise a few unsuspicious articles 
and a small box of matches. Without expressing any suspicion 
of these, Mr. Baggally with the dexterity of a practised conjuror 
possessed himself of a few of the matches, unknown, I think, 
to Carancini, who then left the room. As soon as he had 
gone Mr. Baggally switched off the electric light and then* 

JAN., i '.MO Sittings with Carancini. -11 

produced the identical effects of the moving spots of light 
which we had witnessed during the sitting. 

The writing of strange characters happened twice, the writing 
on the first occasion being much more regular than on the 
second. A marked feature about the first writing was the 
speed with which it was produced and its regularity. 

The characters, or some of them, bore a resemblance to 
certain Greek and Kussian characters, but we were told by 
Giuseppe, Carancini's alleged control, that they embodied a 
message from an individual who lived some 4000 years ago,, 
though, as the interpretation was not vouchsafed, we were not 
much the wiser. It was obvious that the production of these 
complex characters at such a rate of speed in the dark would 
certainly require a large amount of practice beforehand, except 
on the hypothesis, which seemed untenable, of their being 
produced genuinely by external control. 

In view of all these experiences, I had arrived at a definite 
opinion adverse to the genuineness of all the phenomena which 
had occurred during the ten sittings at which I was present. 
In regard to these sittings I was satisfied not only that 
Carancini had cheated, but that he had cheated all the time 
and whenever he could. Thus the results were disappointing,, 
not only because of the total absence of anything in the 
nature of genuine phenomena, but also because of the presence 
of fraudulent tricks perpetrated by the medium. 


We wish most gratefully to acknowledge the receipt, on 
December 20th, 1909, of two 5 notes which were sent 
anonymously to the Secretary as a contribution to the funds 
of the Society. The gift is appreciated not only in itself 
but also as evidence of the donor's sympathy with our work. 


Books added to the Library since the last List, JOURNAL for Febniary, 1909. 

* Armstrong (0. W.), The Mystery of Existence. London, 1909. 

Arnold (Sir Edwin), Death -and Afterwards. London, 1907. 

Bergson (Professor Henri), Essai sur les Bounces immediates de la 

Conscience. Paris, 1908. 

- Matiere et Memoire. Paris, 1908. 

- L'E volution Creatrice. Paris, 1909. 

212 Jour-nal of Society for Psychical Research. JAN., 1910. 

*Bormann (Dr. Walter), Die Nornen : Forschungen uber Fernsehen in 
Raum and Zeit. Leipzig, 1909. 

Braid (James, M.R.C.S., etc.), Magic, Witchcraft, Animal Magnetism, 
Hypnotism, etc. London, 1852. 

*Bramwell (J. Milne, M.B., C.M.), Hypnotism and Treatment by Sug- 
gestion. London, New York, etc., 1909. 
Carpenter (W. B., M.D., F.R.S.), Nature and Man: Essays Scientific 
and Philosophical, London, 1888. 
*Carrington (Hereward), The Coming Science. London, 1909. 
* - Eusapia Palladino and her Phenomena. 

New York, 1909. 

Hindu Magic. London, 1909. 

**Cuthbert (A. A.), The Life and World- Work of Thomas Lake Harris. 

Glasgow, 1908. 
Davis (Andrew Jackson), Memoranda of Persons, Places and Events. 

Boston, 1868. 

Delacroix (Professor Henri), Etudes d'histoire et de psychologic du 
Mysticisme. Paris, 1908. 

*Delanne (Gabriel), Le Phenomene Spirite. Paris, 1897. 

**Dickinson (Gr. Lowes), Is Immortality Desirable? 

Boston and New York, 1909. 

Farrer (J. A.), Literary Forgeries. London, 1907. 

Flammarion (Camille), L'Inconnu et les Problemes psychiques. 

Paris, 1900. 

- Les Forces Natnrelles Inconnues. Paris, 1907. 

tHartmann (Franz, M.D.)> Occult Science in Medicine. London, 1893. 
**Hayes (Rev. J. W.), Tennyson and Scientific Theology. London, 1909. 
Kardec (Allan), Le Livre des Mediums. Paris, n.d. 

Lang (Andrew), Magic and Keligion. London, 1901. 

*Lodge (Sir Oliver), The Survival of Man. London, 1909. 

*Lombroso (Professor Cesare), After Death What ? London, 1909. 

Macdonald (Duncan Black, M.A.), The Eeligious Attitude and Life in 
Islam. Chicago, 1909. 

*Mathers (S. Liddell Macgregor), The Key of Solomon the King : 
translated and edited from ancient MSS. in the British Museum. 

London, 1909. 

Morgan (Rev. J. Vyrnwy, D.D.), The Welsh Religious Eevival. 

London, 1909. 

*Miinsterberg (Hugo, M.D., etc.), Psychotherapy. London, 1909. 

Myers (F. W. H.), Essays, Modern. London, 1902. 

*Podmore (Frank), Mesmerism and Christian Science. London, 1909. 

** - Telepathic Hallucinations. London, 1909. 

*Resurrectio Christi. (Anonymous.) London, 1909. 

*Robbins (Miss A. M.), Both Sides of the Veil. Boston, 1909. 

ttTeachings. London, 1909. 

Wentz (W. Yeeling Evans), The Fairy- Faith in Celtic Countries : its 
Psychical Origin and Nature. Rennes, 1909. 

* Presented by the Publisher. ** Presented by the Author. 

t Presented by Miss Dodge. ft Presented by Sir Lawrence Jones. 

N... CCLXVI. VOL. XIV. TARY, 1910. 



Society for Psychical Research. 



Discussion of the Naples Report on Eusapia Palladino : 

I. By W. W. Baggally, - - -.'13 

II. liy Count Porovsky-Petrovo-Solovovo, 228 

III. By F. Melian Stawell, - 231 




MR. PODMORE in his paper (Journal S.P.R., Dec. 1909) on the 
above Report limits his analysis to three seances, V., VI., VII., 
and to a certain class of phenomena depending for their evidential 
value on the sense of touch alone and to the phenomena at which 
one member of the Committee (B.) controlled on the right. 

For a normal explanation of the phenomena at these three 
seances, he says : " All that we need assume is the deception of a 
single person (B.) and a single sense and that the sense of 
touch." 2 

From this limited analysis he desires his readers to draw the 
conclusion that the phenomena, of whatever nature, at all the 
seances, including those at which B. was not present, were of a 
non-evidential nature. 3 

I would say that I entertain the greatest . admiration for Mr. 

'See Proceedings S.P.R. Vol. XXIII. pp. 306-569. 

2 Mr. Podmore limits the words "the deception of a single person" to B., as 
he, says in his paper that the intervals during which C. controlled on the 
right of Eusapia were unproductive [of phenomena], therefore C. could not 
have been deceived. 

"When dealing with the report as a whole Mr. Podmore definitely states 
that the Committee's method of investigation failed. He also says, " I see no 
reason to doubt that the criticism made [by me] on these seances will apply 
mutatis mutandis to all the rest." 

214 Journal of Society for Psychical Research. FEB., 1910. 

Podmore's analytical and logical powers, but he will pardon me 
for saying that in this case his argument appears to me to lack 
logical consistency. 

The following propositions : 

(1) Because on the assumption that a single person was 

deceived in his sense of touch, certain phenomena were 
non-evidential, therefore the other phenomena which 
occurred at other seances, at which B. was not present, 
were also non-evidential: 

(2) Because certain phenomena, depending for their evidential 

value on a single person's sense of touch, were not 
evidential, therefore other phenomena witnessed by the 
members of the Committee not depending for their 
evidential value on their sense of touch alone were also 
non-evidential ; 
appear to me to be illogical. 

Mr. Podmore begins by setting aside certain phenomena, such 
as levitations of the table, etc., as by their nature inconclusive. 
The distinction he draws appears to me an arbitrary one, and I am 
unable to see any justification for it. 1 Further he limits himself 
for the details of his criticism to the phenomena of the three 
seances V., VI., VII., but includes in his conclusion the phenomena 
of all the other seances. The words that he uses, " this method 
of investigation .... has failed," can but mean that no pheno- 
mena Whatever were of any evidential value. 

I think that this sweeping condemnation of all the phenomena 
no matter of what nature justifies me in bringing forward 
any incident from any seance in answer to his criticisms, and in 
what follows I propose to use this liberty. 
Mr. Podmore says : 

To analyse with care the whole mass of evidence would be an 
extremely laborious undertaking. There are only h've completely 

^he reason he gives is "difficulty of isolation," but surely Mr. Podmore 
does not mean to imply that in every case the phenomena thus set aside 

(1) were so mixed up and entangled with others of a different character,- or 

(2) that they always occurred in contact with Eusapia's physical organism, so 
that it is impossible to find in the Report a clear cut statement of the isolated 
occurrence of any one. If Mr. Podmore attaches either of the above meanings 
to the word 'isolation' the first is at once refuted by the report of seance 
IX., 10.13 to 10.23, to give only one example, and the second by the report 
of seance XI. 10.18, to give also only one example. 

FKI; ., i ( .t 10. The Naples Report cm Eusapia Pcdladino. 21"> 

successful stances seances, that is, which include the whole range of 
phenomena, from tilts of the table to phantom heads viz., V., VI., 
VII., VIII., and XI. But at seance VIII. and XI., except for an 
unproductive hour at the beginning of seance VIII., one side of Eusapia 
was under the control of a visitor. 

Mr. Podmore uses here the words " unproductive hour " in an 
arbitrary sense, for during this very hour, amongst other pheno- 
mena, the following are reported. 1 

Stance VIII. , 10.15. F. The table tilts towards medium and then a 
complete levitation of it. 

F. Her hands on the table holding and above C.'s and my hands. 

Her left foot on mine. 
C. Her right foot was just touching my left foot. My left knee 

pressing against her right knee. 

10.18. Two complete levitations of the table closely following one 
upon the other. 

F. She had asked all except the controllers to take their hands 

ioff the table, and they had accordingly sat back. My 
right hand across both her knees. Her left foot un- 
doubtedly on mine. Both her hands on the table and 
Her right foot pressing against my left foot. My left knee 
pressing against her right knee. I passed my hand 
between her body and the table several times [showing 
that there was no hook or attachment. C., Dec. 11/08]. 
I do not bring forward the above phenomena for evidential 
purposes, as visitors sat at the table (of whose honour, however, 
I do not entertain the slightest doubt), but to show that, 
contrary to his statement, this hour was not unproductive. 

This may appear captious criticism on my part, but as Mr. 
Podmore requires absolute completeness in the description of the 
control by the members of the Committee, so should he be 
absolutely complete in his criticism and not exclude certain kinds 
of phenomena. 

I continue to quote from his paper : 

Seances V., VI., and VII., represent therefore at once the high 
water mark of the phenomena and the best conditions of control. 

a l give the description of the control in detail in order to save the reader 
the trouble of having to refer to the report. 

216 Journal of Society for Psychical Research. FEB., 1910. 

This is misleading, as the best conditions of control did not 
take place only at these seances. (See amongst others seance IX., 
10.14, 10.16, 10.17. Complete levitation of seance table when 
strongest light was on and Eusapia's hands were visible and also 
her body down to her feet. Seance IX., 12.38 C. grasped by a 
complete hand through curtain, Eusapia's hands controlled and 
visible on the table and feet controlled.) 

Mr. Podmore says : 

Two conclusions at once emerge from this closer analysis. 

(1) That Eusapia is afraid of Mr. Carrington. Twice in the course 
of these seances he was, by Eusapia's request, displaced from the 
control of the right side ; so that in fact save for two brief and 
unproductive intervals at the beginning of seances V. and VII. 
respectively, he was not allowed, during these three seances, to sit at 
Eusapia's right. 

Although it is not stated in the Eeport, it is a fact that Mr. 
Carrington was ill and was compelled to keep his bed for some 
time during the course of these seances, and when Eusapia asked 
him to retire from his control at seances V., VII., she said that 
she did so because his vitality was very low. 

I cannot of course either substantiate or contradict Mr. Pod- 
more's conclusion that Eusapia was afraid of Mr. Carrington, but 
I would ask, if she was afraid, why she allowed him to control 
her on the right during the whole of seance IX., when many 
phenomena occurred on his side, and she did not ask him to 

I continue to quote from the same portion of Mr. Podmore's 
paper : 

So that, in fact, save for two brief and unproductive intervals 
at the beginning of seances V. and VII. respectively, 

The word " unproductive " is here again used arbitrarily, for 
in the interval at the beginning of seance V., when C. was 
controlling on the right and F. on the left, amongst other 
phenomena, the following is reported 

10.13. Partial levitation on the two legs away from medium. 

F. Both [E.'s] hands were off the table at the time the table 

went up and were clenched at a distance of about three 

or four inches from the table, slightly below it. The 

1910. The Naples Report on Eusapia Palladino. 217 

table remained up and then fell back. My right hand 
was on both her knees. I was perfectly certain of her 
left foot. 

C. I have my left foot on her right clearly. My left knee 
pressing against her right. 

And in the interval at the beginning of stance VII., 9.47, 
when C. was controlling on the right and F. on the left, occurred 
that most remarkable phenomenon, the bulging of Eusapia's 
dress, which took place in full light when her hands were 
visible to all, and she showed us that the controllers were 
holding different feet and that there was no mechanism under 
her dress (see C.'s description of foot control and B.'s note 
to stance VII.). Therefore Mr. Podmore has clearly omitted 
to notice that these intervals were not unproductive. 

Mr. Podmore concludes further : 

(2) That at these three seances at a rule she preferred to make 
use of her right limbs. 


The words " as a rule " would imply that sometimes she made 
of her left limbs. There is an inconsistency here with 
is assertion at the end of his criticism. 

For the three most successful test seances [V., VI., VII.] all 
that we need assume is the deception of a single person [i.e. B., 
who controlled Eusapia's right limbs] and a single sense and that 
the sense of touch. 1 

Referring to the same portion of his criticism, I read : 

(2) That at these three seances, as a rule, she preferred to 
make use of her right limbs. Whether this performance is character- 
istic of her seances generally I am unable to say ; but the Committee 
of the Institut General Psychologique reported that Eusapia suffered 
from a painful corn on her right foot, which rendered her intolerant 
of the more effective control of that foot, viz. by placing it under 
the foot of the controller. 

I do not know what object Mr. Podmore had in making 
use of this sentence unless it is that he wishes his readers to 
infer that Eusapia was intolerant of her right foot being 

a See my previous foot-note regarding Mr. Podmore's limitation of the words 
" the deception of a single person " to B. 

218 Journal of Society for Psychical Research. FEB., mo. 

controlled in this manner at these three seances. I have just 
quoted above C.'s report of his control of Eusapia's foot 
(Seance V., 10.13) in which he makes use of these words, 
" I have my left foot on her right clearly." This shows that 
the inference of her intolerance in this respect, at these three 
seances, is incorrect. 

For another occasion on which the medium's right foot 
was under the controller's left foot, see seance I., 11.44 (F. My 
left foot was pressing strongly on hers). 

Mr. Podmore goes on to say : 

Setting aside the simpler and commoner phenomena levitation 
of tables, bulging of medium's dress, movements of curtains, thumps 
and raps which are so difficult to isolate as not in any case to 
afford a crucial test I challenge the Committee to point to a single 
phenomenon (grasp of hand, transportation of object from cabinet, 
or appearance of head, hand, or other similar object) presented at 
these three seances [V., VI., VII.] which could not be explained 
on the assumption that Eusapia succeeded in freeing the right hand, 
or possibly, in some instances, the right foot. 

As there was no difficulty in isolating the phenomena of 
levitation of tables, bulgings of medium's dress, etc., at our 
seances, Mr. Podmore's setting aside of these as stated above 
on this ground does not appear justified. Inasmuch as some 
of these occurred under the most crucial test conditions, I 
cannot set them aside when considering his challenge. 

There appears to be an implication in the challenge ; it is 
this : All the phenomena of the nature which Mr. Podmore 
instances (grasp of hand, etc., etc.) were carried out by the 
right hand or right foot of Eusapia. This implication is for- 
tified by the sentence at the end of his criticism, in which 
he says " For the three most successful test seances at any 
rate, all that we need assume is the deception of a single 
person [who was controlling the right limbs of the medium] 
and a single sense, and that the sense of touch." 

Now, if it can be shown that phenomena of the nature 
mentioned in Mr. Podmore's challenge occurred at these three 
seances, which could be explained on the assumption that 
Eusapia succeeded in freeing her left hand or possibly her left 
foot, the implication falls to the ground. 

FEB., 1910. The Naples Report on Eusapia Palladino. 219 

I proceed to bring forward some of these phenomena : 
Seance V., 11.38. 

C. I hold it [my hand] about two feet above her [medium's] 
head. . . . 

C. Now I feel a hand pushing against my right hand. 

F. Her left foot on my right. My left hand on her knees. 

C. Again a hand pushes my right hand; again a hand pushes 

strongly. I felt resistance as I pressed the curtain 


B. Her right hand in my left hand on the table. . . . 
F. Her two hands are at least two feet apart. 

Note. (F. had previously reported that he had hold of her 
left hand, but it was not stated that her left hand was visible 
nor where it was.) 

Seance VI. after 12.6 a.m. F. stands to the left of C. [who controls 
on left of medium] and leans over with his left hand outstretched 
about 2J feet above and to the left of the medium's head. Immedi- 
ately after 

F. I am touched by something coming straight on the points of 

my fingers. 
12.11 a.m. 

F. I am touched again, I am taken hold of by fingers and I 
can feel the nails quite plainly. 

C. Her head pressing against my head. I am absolutely holding 1 

her left hand on the table. 

B. I am absolutely certain that her right hand is on my left 

hand on her right knee. 

Note. Her left hand not stated to be visible. 

Seance VI., 12.17. F., C. and B. see a white thing over 
Eusapia's head and immediately after a hand pulls B. 


C. At that time I had hold of her left hand in my right on 

my corner of the table and I could feel her arm up as 
far as the elbow . . . 

1 Should Mr. Podmore say that Eusapia could not have had her left hand 
free, as C. reported that he was holding it, I would reply that Eusapia could 
not have had her right hand free whenever B. reported that he was holding it. 

220 Journal of Society for Psychical Research. FEB., 1910. 

B. Her right hand was resting on my left hand on the table 
and I was holding her thumb. 

Note. Her left arm and hand not stated to be visible. 

From the above considerations it will be seen that Mr. 
Podmore's implication that all the phenomena at these three 
stances were carried out by Eusapia's right hand, or right foot, 
is an incorrect one. He should have challenged the Committee 
to point to a single phenomenon (grasp of hand, etc., etc.) pre- 
sented at these three seances which could not be explained on 
the assumption that Eusapia succeeded in freeing her right or 
left hand or, possibly in some instances, her right or left foot. 

I now proceed to consider the challenge. Mr. Podmore excludes 
levitations of the table, bulgings of medium's dress, bulgings of 
curtains, thumps and raps, and also other phenomena, e.g. move- 
ments of objects in the cabinet. The challenge to have been 
a complete one should have included these, as they occurred at 
these three stances, and they are as much phenomena as those 
to which he wishes the challenge to be restricted, and they 
should be taken into consideration when endeavouring to arrive 
at a correct conclusion as to whether phenomena of the nature 
that he mentions, and other phenomena, could have been 
explained on the assumption that Eusapia succeeded in freeing 
the right hand or the right foot. 

I will enumerate some phenomena which will meet the 
challenge in the restricted form and also in the complete form 
which should have been adopted by Mr. Podmore. 

Seance V., 11.51. Transportation of small table from cabinet 
between the left of medium and F. 

Note. Eusapia was visible and motionless while this was 
going on. Her legs under the seance table. Her back towards 
the cabinet. The back of her chair between her and the cabinet. 
No possibility of substitution of hands or feet. I reported at 
the time that her right was in my left resting on the table and 
her right foot on my left, and that I felt her knee against my 
knee. Assuming that her right .hand, or right foot, was free, 
it was a physical impossibility to effect the transportation with 
her right hand, or right foot, on the left side of the medium in 
the manner that it took place. 

. i)io. The Naples Report on Eusapia Palladino. __l 

nice VII., 10.30. 

1 . She squeezes my hand and the curtain comes out and covers 
my chair. 

1 . Her hand was about 2J feet from the curtain and her foot 

on mine as before. 
i;. Same control as before [i.e. her right hand was on the table 

on my corner and visible. My left hand on her two 

knees and her right foot on the toes of my left foot]. 

Her back was at least a foot from the curtain. 

Note. The medium sat motionless, her legs under the s-' 
table. Both her hands were visible at the time, therefore her 
right hand was not employed in the production of this pheno- 
menon, and it was a physical impossibility for her to make the 
left-hand curtain come out and cover F.'s chair with her right 
foot even if it were free. The stance table being turned broad 
ways towards the medium, F.'s chair was not in close proximity 

her (see diagram, p. 468 of our report). 
After 10.30, about 10.33. 
Immediately after she held my hand out away from her 
towards the small stool, which is somewhere (under the 
curtains), I do not know where, and it jumped. 
F. Both her hands are free but quite visible. Her left foot is 

on mine. 

B. I also see both her hands, free, and both her knees, which 
are under the table, and her right foot is on my left 

Note. Not only were her hands visible but her knees also, 
'hey were under the table between its narrow legs. Eusapia 
,t with her back to the cabinet. If her right loot had been 
Tee it would have been impossible for her to use it (her legs 
being under the table in front of her) to make the stool 
jump behind her inside the cabinet. She did not use her 
right hand as it was visible. 

To a reader of our report who does not approach the con- 
sideration of the phenomena under the assumption that the 
Members of the Committee were continuously hallucinated or 
that they had lost their sense of touch, during the whole 
course of the sittings, the phenomena (which for their fraudulent 


222 Journal of Society for Psychical Research. FEB.,1910. 

production would have necessitated the use of one of Eusapia's 
hands), at the seances V., VI., VII., when B. reported that 
her right hand was in his left or that he was holding or 
feeling her right thumb, would have offered evidence that 
Eusapia did not use her right hand for their production. 

See amongst others, e.g. : 
Seance V., 11.38. JZusapia's right hand in B.'s. A hand 

pushes C.'s hand through curtain. 
Seance V., 11.51. Eusapia s right hand in B.'s. Small table 

transported from cabinet between F. (who controls on 

the left) and medium. 
Seance VI., 12.17 to 12.19. B. holding medium's right thumb. 

A white thing appears over medium's head and a 

hand from cabinet pulls B.'s sleeve. 
Seance VI., 12.26. B. feeling medium's right thumb. C. (who 

is on left of medium) pulled by the hair of his head 

by a complete hand through the curtain ; 

but to a reader who approaches the consideration of the 
phenomena under the contrary assumption evidence of this 
kind will be useless. The argument between him and the Members 
of the Committee would narrow itself to an assertion on his 
part (he- not having been present at the seances) that they 
were constantly hallucinated, or deceived, and on their part 
(they having been present) to an assertion that they were not. 
Figuratively speaking, it would be arguing along two parallel 
lines which can never meet. 

I now leave Mr. Podmore's challenge and proceed to comment 
on his statements as to the conditions of control. 

It will be noticed on perusing these statements that Mr. 
Podmore is very particular, as to the precise wording of the 
various controls, and he places great importance on the difference 
(not in the nature only, but in the wording also) of the 
control of the left and the right hand of Eusapia. As he is 
so hypercritical in this last respect I am reluctantly compelled 
to imitate him and to be equally hypercritical with regard to 
the words which he alleges were used in the description of 
some of the controls. 

His first statement is to the following effect : 
Throughout these three seances, whereas Eusapia's left hand is 
generally reported as lying in or being held or grasped by the hand 

HMO. The Naples Report on Eusapia Palladino. 

of the controller on that side, the right hand as a rule is reported as 
resting on or lying on, or lying under, the other controller's left hand. 
The difference, in view of Eusapia's known propensities for cheating 
by substitution of hands, is important. 

Note. Not once is it stated, during the whole course of 
these three stances, that Eusapia's left hand is lying in the 
hand of the controller on the left. Not once is the statement 
made that her left hand is grasped Tyy the controller on that 

Only nine times (not as a rule) is it stated that her right 
hand was resting on the other controller's left hand. Not once 
is it mentioned that her right hand was lying on the con- 
troller's left hand. Not once is it reported that her right 
hand was lying under the controller's left hand. 

Mr. Podmore's next statement reads : 

It happens unfortunately that while the control of the left hand 
generally stated precisely e.g. " left hand held in my right visibly 
the table" that of the right is often stated in general terms, 
as " Control perfect," or " Control as before." Frequently at the 
critical moment the statement is incomplete. Sometimes no state- 
ment at all is forthcoming. 

Note. Only six times (not generally) is it stated that the 
mediums left hand is held in controller's right visibly on the table. 

0nly four times (not often) did B. use the words Control 

feet. The controller on the left used the words " my control 
is quite complete." The definite words " Control as before " were 
used 16 times by B., but Mr. Podmore omits to say that the 
controller on the left made use of the same words 12 times. 
The statement was made incompletely by B. 17 times, but 
Mr. Podmore omits to notice that it was made incompletely 
by the left controller also 17 times. As regards no state- 
ment at all being forthcoming, I would observe that this 
occurred about an equal number of times on the left and on 
the right. 

The phenomena followed each other sometimes so rapidly 
that there was not time to dictate the control, and when the 
controllers were able to do so, they were more intent on the 
security of the control than on the precise words that they 
should use in describing it. 

224 Journal of Society for Psychical Research. FEB., 1910. 

As Mr. Podmore excluded from his challenge certain pheno- 
mena which offered good evidence for a supernormal force 
being at work, so in the above statements has he excluded from 
his consideration B.'s descriptions of his best conditions of 
control at seances V., VI., VII., when he reported that Eusapia's 
right hand was visible, that both her hands were visible, that 
her right hand was in his left visibly, that he was holding her 
thumb, that he was feeling her thumb, that he was holding 
her right hand in his left. Mr. Podrnore's criticism consequently 
is defective and gives his readers a wrong impression as to 
the severity actually exercised by B. in his control of Eusapia's 
right hand. 

Eegarding his next statement, No. 3, which begins with the 
words : 

(3) On many occasions it is reported that the right hand curtain 
has blown out over the controller on that side so as to cover his 
head, or his hand in contact with Eusapia's right. 

I will say that I agree with Mr. Podmore's observations on 
the imperfection of the report in recording some of the times 
that the curtain was blown over, or remained on, or was 
removed from the hand of the controller on the right ; but I 
would observe that at the time that it covered my hand I was 
most rigorous, assuring myself continually that it was the 
medium's right hand by feeling her thumb, equally when her 
hand was on mine as when mine was on hers, also assuring 
myself that it was a living hand by its warmth, movement 
and responses to my pressure. 

On the one occasion (not on the many occasions, as Mr. 
Podmore says) that the curtain was blown over my head I 
immediately removed it from that position (see V., 10.5710.58 
p.m.), and on the only occasion that it was placed between 
the medium's and my hand, I at once took it from between our 
hands, felt her bare flesh, and squeezed her thumb (see seance 
VI., about 12.16 a.m.). 

If all the phenomena at all the seances had taken place 
with one of the controllers' hands under the curtain, then (on 
the assumption that they had lost their sense of touch) Mr. 
Podmore's implied assertion that Eusapia had one of her hands 
free would have weight ; but the majority of the phenomena 

MMO. The Naples Report on Eusapia PaUadino. 225 

occurred when the curtain was not covering one of their hands ; 
nevertheless Mr. Pud more condemns all the phenomena as non- 
evidential, even those which took place in full light, when 
liuth the medium's hands were clearly seen and at the same 
time her body was in view down to her feet, while the con- 
trollers were assured by tactual examination or by their sense 
of sight that no mechanism was being brought into play and 
when it was certain that there was no accomplice. On these 
last phenomena he has not a word to say (see my final note in 
the lieport for examples of these). 

I pass on to Mr. Podmore's next statement : 

(4) Eusapia is reported as occasionally releasing one hand 
momentarily and replacing it. This procedure is not reserved 
exclusively for the right hand. In seance V., for instance, (10.44J 
and 11.36 p.m.) her left hand is twice released. But her right hand 
is released more frequently and to more purpose (see e.g. VI., 12.4, 
12.30; VII., 10.54). On each of these occasions after control is 
lewed it is found that both Eusapia's hands are on her knees, the 
ight hand lying oil the hand of the controller on that side, the left 
ind held by the other controller. These of course are Eusapia's 
sual preliminaries for substitution of hands. And on each of these 
tree occasions the release of the hand was followed in a few 
linutes by the appearance of a " head " or nondescript object from 
jtween the curtains. At VI., 11.40 (about), the release of the right 
land is followed as usual by a nondescript appearance from between 
the curtains, but the right hand is reported on the table under the 
curtain [and her left hand visible on the left controller's hand on 
the table]. 

The letters "e.g." in the parenthesis (see e.g. VI, 12.4, 12.30 ; 

II., 10.54) would imply that there were several other occasions 
>n which, after renewal of control of Eusapia's right hand, the 

ledium's and controllers' hands were in the positions that he 

There was only one other occasion, VII., 10.59. I must 

)int out that at seance VII., 10.54, it is not stated that 
Eusapia's right hand was released ; therefore Mr. Podmore should 
not have included this occasion in his parenthesis, and conse- 
quently the appearance of a nondescript object at VII., 
10.5710.58 cannot be taken into account when referring to 
a release of Eusapia's right hand. The words used in the 

226 Journal of Society for Psychical Research. FEB.,i9io. 

Eeport are : " Medium asked if she could touch the curtain 
for a moment, but she did not attach anything to it." It 
should be noted that Mr. Podmore makes no mention (with the 
exception of VI., 11.40 about) of the occasions on which a head 
or nondescript object appeared from between the curtains when 
there was no possibility of a substitution, as both the medium's 
hands were controlled apart, or separately, on the table, or 
one hand was controlled on the table and the other on her 
lap (see seances VI., 11.47 (about) 12.17 to 12.1912.40; 
VII., 11.30). All that Mr. Podmore's statement really amounts 
to is to show that on two occasions, at seance VI., 12.4 and 
12.30, when a head and nondescript object appeared (after 
renewal of control of Eusapia's right hand), her hands and 
those of the controllers were in a position that might have 
enabled her to carry out a substitution. That she did so he 
does not prove. 

Mr. Podmore proceeds to say : 

If the reader wishes to verify these statements, let him closely 
study the sequence of events in stance VIL, 10.54 to end, and let 
him endeavour from the record to make out the exact nature of the 
control exercised on Eusapia's right hand at each point, its position, 
whether on the table or in her lap, and whether or not it was held 
under the curtain. The defects of control, it will be found, culminated 
in this stance. So did the phenomena. 

Mr. Podmore is justified in pointing out the defectiveness 
of the report as regards its recording whether or not Eusapia's 
hand remained under the curtain at stance VII. (not from 
10.54 but from 11.17; see his statement No. 3 and my 
comments on that statement), to end of this seance. 

But his words : 

Let him [the reader] endeavour from the record to make out the 
exact nature of the control exercised on Eusapia's right hand at 
each point, its position, whether on the table or in her lap, 

are misleading, for any reader who refers to the Keport will find 
that all B.'s descriptions of his control of Eusapia's right hand, 
with the exception of ten, were quite definite. I think he will 
also conclude that the control was adequate. Thus : 

Seance VII. 10.54. [No phenomena, therefore no description of 
control dictated by B.] 

FEB., 1910. The Naples Report on Eusapia Pcdladino. 227 

10.57. 13. Her right hand, which I am absolutely sure is her right 

hand, as I feel the fingers, rests on my left hand, both 

resting on her right lap. 

10. "j.s. Her right hand on my left hand, both on my knee. 
11.2. During the levitation I held her right hand in my left hand, 

resting on her lap. 
11.13. She had her right hand on my left hand, always resting on 

her knee. 
11.17. She has her right hand in my left hand resting on the 

11.20. During the whole of this phenomenon her right hand was 

resting on my left hand on the table. 

11.30. My control of foot and hand is exactly the same as before. 
12.25. She holds my left hand with her right hand. She squeezes 

my hand while this levitation takes place. My hand was 

also on her knee in her hand. 

One word on Mr. Podmore's last statement in his paper : 

The above considerations suggest that, for the three most successful 
test seances at any rate, all that we need assume is the deception 
)f a single person and a single sense and that the sense of touch. 

I would point out the inconsistency of using the words " a 
single person," as, if Mr. Podmore's theory holds, obviously not 
a single person but two people were deceived. Not only B. but 
also C. sat on Eusapia's right at seances V. and VII., and 
phenomena took place at both stances at the time that C. 

Mr. Podmore's conclusion as to the non-evidential value of 
the phenomena of all our seances is based on an assumption, 
viz., that each of the members of the Committee was con- 
tinually hallucinated or deceived. This hypothesis has been 
dealt with, in anticipation, on pp. 341 to 344 of our Report. 

Mr. Podmore's paper is an admirable example of special 
pleading. He limits his analysis to three seances, confines his 
criticism to phenomena depending for their evidential value on 
the sense of touch of a single individual (B.), and passes over 

I in silence not only the phenomena depending evidentially on the 
same sense of the other members of the Committee, but also 
the other phenomena of all the seances which did not depend 
on that sense alone for their evidential value, but also on the 

228 Journal of Society -for Psychical Research. FEB., 1910. 

sense of sight. For there were many cases in which Eusapia's 
hands as well as the whole of her body down to her feet were 
seen, and also cases when the hands were both seen and felt. 

Mr. Podmore's method of criticism as applied to our Eeport 1 
has failed, as it does not take account of these last phenomena. 2 



MR. F. C. CONSTABLE'S letter in the Journal for December, 
1909, on the recent experiments with Eusapia deserves atten- 
tion. It would certainly be very satisfactory if some fundamental 
change in the conditions of the supposed "manifestations" could 
be effected which should make their authenticity or otherwise 
depend no longer on "human" but on "material" control. But 
while striving to attain this aim, we should not leave out of 
account several circumstances which may have a decisive import- 
ance. And first of all, we ought not to lay down a priori rules, 
but to try and elicit them, (i.e. the rules which regulate the sup- 
posed "phenomena"), from apparently well-established facts. For 
instance, it would be, I think, rash and anti-scientific to start from 
the assumption that, if genuine, the "phenomena" must occur in a 
tolerably good light. For after all we know nothing about it, 
theoretically speaking. What we are entitled to in this connection 
will be only this : we have a right to try to ascertain from the 
evidence in our possession how many well-attested instances of 
"phenomena" occurring in the light we have on record already. 
And I believe the results of such an enquiry would be chiefly 
negative. For what do we know, strictly speaking, of the amount 
of "light," e.g., at D. D. Home's seances? We certainly have 
evidence that it was very poor in a good many cases, and, generally 
speaking, we have but little precise information on this point. And 
as I had occasion to point out elsewhere I do not consider an 
ordinary "light" seance of Eusapia's with the curtain to be much 
superior evidentially to a totally dark seance. There may of course 
be exceptions and the recent Naples sittings may belong to that 
category but they will be rarae caves. 

l l remind the reader of Mr. Podmore's words : "I see no reason to doubt that 
the criticism made [by me] of these seances [V., VI., VII.], will apply mutatis 
mutandis to all the rest." 

2 For the relative importance that I attach to these last phenomena for 
evidential purposes, as compared with other phenomena, see my final note in 
the Report. 

lino. T/tfi Naples Report on Euaapia /'"//"'//no. 229 

So much for the Editor's remark as to the desirability of a "good 
li^ht." As to Mr. Constable's suggestion that in future experiments 
Kusupia should be placed "in a cage of the same material as that 
of the curtain," the objects to be moved remaining outside the 
"cage" why I think the idea is a very good one, and ought to be 
trinl at the next opportunity. And perhaps E. P. will not always 
decline to submit to some such test, as she unfortunately did 
at ( 'ambridge. 

This being so, 1 must still point out : 

(1) That we have no proof n'en lUplaise to Mr. Constable that 
E. P. can affect objects through the curtain or rather curtains, for 
there were two of them, leaving an opening in the middle. Most of 
the things seem to have happened as if the medium bad one hand 
free to produce them, and I see little or no evidence of direct 
supernormal action through any material obstacle which was interposed. 

(2) And here another remark. If they are genuine, I am inclined 
to believe that some day we shall find that these strange " manifes- 

Itations" are produced not so much by "psychic force" whatever 
that may mean as by ephemeral, enigmatic protuberances projected 
momentarily from the medium's body; protuberances of various 
degrees of density from " fluid " to " hand " which spring into- 
existence and vanish in the twinkling of an eye. 
If so, we can easily understand : 

(a) That light may have a deteriorating influence on those 
ephemeral organisms (of course, just as it may not : one hypothesis 
being as probable as the other). 

(6) That material obstacles screens, etc. may present to such 
" pseudo-limbs " almost insuperable difficulties. For acting through 
them would almost involve "passage of matter through matter" a 
phenomenon for which we have no good evidence (just as we 
have practically none for "apports"). 

(c) That the phenomena would invariably occur in close proximity 
to the medium. 

I do not believe the existence of such "pseudo-limbs" to be 
already established. I seriously doubt them to be "facts in nature." 
But still I do see some evidence which makes me pause in my 
icpticism and suspend my judgment. 

But, I repeat, if such things exist, the three circumstances I 
have just pointed out, suspicious as they may be in themselves, 
become easily intelligible and lend themselves to a rational inter- 

230 Journal of Society for Psychical Research. FEB., 1910. 

We should therefore be careful not to lay down the standard to 
which the phenomena should, in our opinion, conform, but rather 
endeavour to find out a modus vivendi in which should be united at 
the same time (a) the conditions apparently necessary for the 
production of the supposed "manifestations," and (b) precautions 
sufficiently stringent to make deception impossible. 

I see some grounds for believing such a compromise practicable, 
though probably not very easy to achieve at once. 

Some people will perhaps think the laws which regulate such 
phenomena very unsatisfactory. So do I. I should much prefer 
them to be altogether different. But many of the natural laws in 
force on the surface of our planet are similarly unsatisfactory and 
even distinctly bad at first sight. Many of us feel we could do 
better; and yet we have to submit to these laws, and our protests 
are of no avail. " Metapsychical " laws may perhaps be of the same 

In conclusion, may I say a few words about the report of the 
Naples sittings printed in Proceedings, Part LIX. 1 

I think this report very remarkable. It is certainly one of the 
best, if not the best, that has ever appeared on the subject. No 
more competent investigators than Messrs. Feilding, Baggally and 
Carrington could be desired; the report is as full as it could be 
made ; the precautions adopted seem to have been in many cases 
excellent; some of the " supernormal" incidents appear beyond the 
possibility of cavil ; and finally, the " collective hallucination " 
hypothesis is treated as it should be. 

The only really serious objection that can be made is in my 
opinion the following : the foot-control seems to have been not quite 
adequate in some cases. 

Is it not a pity, for instance, that it was not more thorough in 
the incidents described on pp. 553 and 564 1 Mr. Baggally, we are 
told, was holding loth the hands of the medium and yet experiencing 
a series of touches and pulls through the curtain. I wish we had 
positive evidence this could not have been done by the medium's 
foot. Mr. Baggally gives us his grounds for believing that this 
could not have been the case (p. 565) but his reasons do not appeal 
to my mind as being quite irrefutable. I should prefer something 
else and this " something else " in the present instance is missing. 
And so the best case of the series (so far as " spirit-hands " are 
concerned) is spoiled. There are, it is true, other instances, but 
none perhaps so striking. 

FEB., 1910. The Naples Report on Eusapia Palladino. 231 

The account of the stance in question (the eleventh one of the 
series) has reminded me of one I had with Sambor in March, 1899. 
Here also a curtain was used, the medium sitting in the opening. 
The room was lighted by a small lamp, shaded with books and 
turned very low (it was placed in a corner of the room on the floor). 
Under these conditions, the medium's hands being grasped and 
visible almost the whole time, his head being also visible in short 
the hand and head control leaving almost 1 nothing to be desired 
not only were two objects (a small album and a small log) brought 
upon the seance-table (the latter visibly coming down upon it 
almost under my eyes, for an appreciable period of time, though, 
it is true, a very short one) but Sambor's left-hand neighbour 
experienced a series of pulls and contacts which must have resembled 
those described by Mr. Baggally. And yet, I confess, I was not 
particularly impressed by these incidents. It has always seemed to 
me possible that the medium's foot may have had something to do 
with them; and here also, as in Mr. Baggally's case, lack of precise 
information as to the foot-control has been a most serious draw- 

I will add that after reading the Naples report, coming as it 
does on the top of the far less satisfactory Paris report and a series 
of isolated observations I feel that there is at last one of Eusapia's 
"phenomena" which, to my mind, is proved: I refer to her most 
remarkable table-levitations. I consider that after all these investi- 
gations the onus probandi in this respect now devolves upon those 
who maintain these levitations to be spurious not upon those who 
believe them to be authentic. This is already something. 



THE following pages are written in agreement with Mr. Podmore's 
view that the Report shows how unsatisfactory such an investigation 
must be, however good the investigators, under the conditions imposed by 
the medium. For these are such as in no case to preclude the 
possibility of fraud, which may be undetected even by skilful con- 
jurers. It therefore becomes in order for an outsider to ask whether 
the cogency of the evidence here presented on Eusapia's side is 
sufficient to outweigh the many suspicious circumstances so frankly 
stated by the Committee, including obvious attempts at trickery 

almost" refers to the personality of the controllers themselves. P. -P. -S. 

232 Journal of Society for Psychical Research. FEB., 1910. 

(e.g. pp. 338, 383, 400, 543). It is a great thing to possess the 
shorthand report taken at the time, with its wealth of impartial 
detail, and a comparison of this report with later accounts shows, 
incidentally, how impossible it is to remember afterwards exactly 
what took place at the moment. For example, I do not see how 
to make consistent with the shorthand report F.'s .later notes about 
the substitution of hands and the seizing of Mrs. H.'s wrist at 
Seance XL (10.30 and 12.11.) 

(p. 540) Shorthand report : " F. Substitution of hands ! 

MRS. H. / thought that I still had hold of the medium's left hand" 1 , 

Later note : 

"I asked Mrs. H. if she held the medium's left. She said, 'No,. 
she has made a substitution.' F." 

(p. 549) Shorthand report: 

" F. Mrs. H.'s left hand was seized by the wrist by a hand and 
dragged across the table." (The only contemporaneous record.) 

Later note : 

" I was looking at Mrs. H.'s left hand when it suddenly made a 
movement across the table. / did not see any hand holding it. F." 

Again, there appear certain discrepancies between the report and 
the account given by Mr. Carrington (C.) in M'Clure's Magazine 
(October, 1909). See below on the levitations of the table, the 
cold breeze, and the movements of the milking-stool. 

In the report itself nothing strikes a careful reader more than 
the incessant changes in the position of Eusapia's hands, feet, and 
legs, (e.g. Seance V., 11.13-11.18, apparently four changes in five 
minutes; or ibid. 11.28-11.30, three changes in two). And it is- 
just the moments of change, whether announced by Eusapia or not, 
that might provide the opportunity for the phenomena, fleeting as 
these are. For example we have this entry at Seance VI.., 12.30 : 

" F. She saw me holding my hand up against the cabinet waiting 
to be touched. She therefore let go of B.'s hand, saying that she 
was going to do so, put her hand inside the curtain and took hold 
of mine through the curtain, saying 'This is my hand,' and she 
then resumed hold of B.'s hand. 

C. I saw a head come out from the curtains slowly and within 
six inches of my head, and it stayed out about two seconds and 
then went back." 

Now between the moment when Eusapia took hold of F.'s hand 
inside the curtain and her resumption of B.'s, an appreciable time 
1 Italics mine throughout. 

FEB., 1'Jio. The Naples Report on Eusapia Palktdino. 

must have elapsed. Would it not have been quite long enough 
for the fugitive phenomenon observed by C. ? 

Again in the remarks on Seance V. (p. 420) we read : 

"From 10.52 onwards there were a series of movements of the 
small table and of other objects behind the curtain, culminating at 
11.8 by the small table striking B. on the shoulder and upset 
completely, the medium being rigorously held, visible and motionless." 

The inference might be drawn that this condition endured through 
the sixteen minutes in question. But in the shorthand report we 
find (pp. 428, 429): " 10.58. B. The curtain is still over my hand," 
evidently, from the report at 10.57, the hand which had been 
held by the medium, so that one of hers would also be hidden and 
not visible then. Moreover, from the reports at 10.54, 10.55, 11.0, 
and 11.4, it is clear that both her legs were incessantly in motion, 
e.g. one taken down off F.'s knees, then the two enclosing F.'s leg, 
then the left " kicking backwards and forwards," the right " making 
a rhythmic movement," and so on. It is after the little table has 
struck B. at 11.8 that the medium appears to become motionless. 

But the important point to note is what she was doing just before, 
when she was anything but that. 

The holding at its best consisted of her feet being on their feet, 
her right hand being in B.'s left, under the curtain, and her left hand 

jing held, not continuously, by F.'s right (cf. F. 11.0 with F. 11.5)., 

It is hard to understand how, under the circumstances, the Com- 
mittee can be "absolutely certain" which of Eusapia's feet is 
touching theirs, except at the moments when they feel them with 
their hands. And this they cannot do continuously. When a woman 
is prepared to trick, as we know Eusapia is, it is surely impossible 
ilways to tell merely by the pressure of her foot on yours, or yours 
>n hers, which one you have got. Moreover, it cannot but be felt 
suspicious that the ladies, when searching Eusapia, found that her 
boots "were only buttoned by the top button" (p. 505). This certainly 
suggests preparation for slipping her feet in and out, leaving the 
boots to keep their place meanwhile in contact with the controllers' 
feet. If this were skilfully done it would be almost impossible for 
a controller to detect, except by feeling with his hands or free foot, 
since if he moved the foot that had been placed in contact with 
Eusapia's he would run the risk of losing control. She might, 
in short, under certain circumstances, practically imprison a con- 
troller's foot by her empty boot. 

Eusapia's incessant motion helps, among other considerations, to 

234 Journal of Society for Psychical Research. FEB., 1910. 

make it seem likely that, as Mr. Podmore appears to suggest, she 
substituted a dummy hand for her right during Seances V., VI., 
and VII., when she got the curtain over the table, obscuring her 
right arm and B.'s left. The Committee note (p. 326) how skilfully 
she can perform her ordinary substitution and how hard it is to 
detect by touch alone. It is curious, too, when the curtain is thus 
over the table to read in the report (Seance V.): "11.14. F. I 
have got both hands of the medium," and immediately afterwards, 
".11.18. B. My right hand control was perfect." 

Various other questions suggest themselves about the phenomena 
that most impressed the Committee (see pp. 331-340). 

These questions are put with the reserve incumbent on any critic 
not present at the stances : they are intended chiefly to fix attention 
on the inevitable, and important, gaps in the evidence available. 

Raps, p. 334 (4). 

On one occasion it looks as though she might have employed & 
confederate, and that is when the raps were made at the end of the 
last Seance (XL), on a closed door into B.'s room (p. 554), " the only 
really evidential raps obtained throughout the whole series " (p. 537), 


(a) There was no member of the Committee in B.'s room at the 

- (b) From the plan facing p. 345 (Fig. III.) it appears that there 
was another door from B.'s room leading out into the hall ; and 
that this door was not locked. (Even if it had been, it could have 
been opened with a skeleton key.) 

(c) As the door from the seance room into B.'s, the door on, 
which the raps were heard was "permanently locked and secured 
with tape " (p. 345), it would not have been possible to detect the 
confederate by suddenly opening it. 

(d) The incident occurred at the very last of the seances, by 
which time Eusapia and her friends could have become thoroughly 
acquainted with the arrangement of the rooms and doors. 

(e) The close of the seance was plainly marked by the lights- 
being turned up and three of the company going into the room on 
the other side (C.'s room). Apparently, however, Signer Zingaropoli,, 
Eusapia's friend, (p. 536) remained in the seance room. 

Now might not Eusapia have arranged with little risk for a 
confederate to slip into B.'s room at the end of the stance, and,, 
at some preconcerted signal, produce the noises she required? 

pro., MI 10. The Naples Report on Eusapia Palladino. 235 

It may be significant that when Eusapia was asked by F. to 
i-peat the raps she appears to have failed, at least partially. But 
the shorthand report ceases before this, and the notes of F. and 
Mrs. H. are conflicting. F. says (December 20th), "She made three 
or four gestures and no raps followed. Then she made a final 
gesture and a loud rap followed." 

Mrs. H. writes (December 24th), to the effect that at first Eusapia 
" failed to produce them " (the raps) " again," and then, after 
seizing the curtain, "made the usual gestures and produced the raps, 
thuH.fh feebly" (p. 554). 

Levitations, p. 331 (1). 

Is there a single undeniable case of table levitation with no con- 
tact at all, and with the table remaining long enough in the air 
to preclude the possibility of its being tossed up or pulled up, and 
then let go ? I will take the three cases quoted by C. in M'Clure, 
presumably the strongest. In the first (Seance I. 11.44, M'Clure, 
p. 670), it is obvious that there was a change of control when least 
iesirable. The quotation varies from the full S.P.R. report; but 

>rding to either there was a change. 

According to the S.P.R. report, the medium must have removed 
, ; s right hand from her knees at the critical moment; according to 

quotation she must have released her own right from F. 
S.P.B. Repoi't. 

I. "11.44. Complete levitation of the table. 

F. My hand was on the table. Medium's right hand on top of 
line and not touching the table. 
C. . . . My right hand was across both her knees , . . 

tC. The medium's left hand grasped my right hand firmly and was 
er mine, mine being between hers and the table." 
The quotation in M'Clure reads : " The medium's right hand 
grasped my left hand firmly." 

In the second instance quoted (Seance II., 11.1), the control of 
feet seems most unsatisfactory, for they were not even felt as 
the controllers' feet, but only as touching them (11.0). (In 
l Clure there is, probably by mistake, " F. My right hand was 
both her knees," instead of the reading in the S.P.R. "My 
eft hand," etc. If this is not a mistake there was an important 
inge of control between 11.0 and 11.1. See the full report.) 
In the third instance (IX. 10.23), when F. was on the floor 
tolding both Eusapia's ankles, her two hands appear to have been 

236 Journal of Society for Psychical Research. FEB., 1910. 

in contact with the table all the time, see 10.17, 10.20, and the 
note of F. to 10.17. 

According to p. 332 of the Report the maximum levitation of 
the table lasted "two or three seconds," and there is a valuable 
note of F.'s to Seance V., 12.6 (p. 436). The shorthand report 
states that Eusapia's hands were "just touching the rim" of the 
table when it went up. F. adds (the next day): "The table had 
tilted over a long way ... It then made a sudden jump with all 
four legs off the ground. Experiment shows that if her knees were 
against both legs, a strong pull with both hands on the rim could 
produce this effect." 

It may be added that the table is both small and light (p. 345), 
and that Eusapia is an exceedingly powerful woman. 1 

Objects emerging from the cabinet, pp. 337-339 (12), (13), (14). 

Might not the "white hands" and "black heads" be produced by 
Eusapia's own hand, either bare, or wrapped in her handkerchief, 
or in the curtain 1 ? 2 The Committee themselves call attention to 
the suspicious appearance of some of the "black heads" (p. 338, 
483), and Mrs. H.'s description of one is very significant (Seance XL, 

" The black object was decidedly covered with the curtain (not 
black muslin). It (the curtain) came out on my side close to me, 
and it was tightly stretched over the object in which I distinguished 
the same elongated hand seen at 10.54 p.m. The fingers seemed to 
imitate a profile like an ombre chinoise, the middle finger crooked 
like a Roman nose, the folded thumb forming a chin. This is a 
manifestation which has never failed to appear at any of Eusapia's 
seances at which I have been present." 

It is noteworthy that this manifestation appeared to F. " like a 
large black head with clearly marked features more than life size, 
as though made of stiff black muslin " (p. 546). 

The transportation of the clay on the board, p. 336 (9). Seance VIII. , 


If Eusapia once got her left hand free, could she not have thrust 
it into the cabinet, taken the board, and pushed it out between the 

1 See the experiments with the dynamometer recorded during the sittings 
at the ile Roubaud, Journal S.P.R., Vol. VI. pp. 326-7. 

2 A "yellowish" effect might be given by a thin handkerchief stretched 
tightly over the flesh (p. 463). 

FKK, uno. The Napl>* /.'</,</,/ an Eusapia J'<>//>"/>no. 237 

left curtain and the window, over K.'s shoulder, whi-iv in fact it 
appeared ? 

The chief objection that C. brings against this idea (p. 503) is 
that he himself, standing at the opposite side of the table, and on 
the medium's right, would have seen the curtain moved by her l-ft 
arm, and he did not see it. Hut, 

(n) Skilful handling would have reduced the movement of the 
curtain to a minimum. 

(b) It seems as though it must have been very hard to detect a 
slight movement of the black curtain in that dim light (Light III.), 
and from the angle where he was standing (see plan, p. 503). 

(c) Were not his eyes fixed on the passage of the clay outside the 
rurtain at the time ? 

That Eusapia really could have got her left hand free is strongly 
suggested by the shorthand report. The four hands her two, one 
of K.'s and one of F.'s were at first all together on the table; 
one curtain was right over the table (11.55), and one at least of 
her hands was moving about. (" 12.22. K. Her left hand wa* 
stroking my wrist.") Is it not quite possible that what R. thought 
was her left hand was part of her right? 


c ; 

The cold breeze and the curtain Inlying, etc., p. 340 (18), p. 332 (2). 

C. (Note to Seance VI, p. 457) states "it is almost impossible 
conceive the elaborate apparatus that would be necessary to 
produce all the effects observed by us." But the outsider has to 
judge by the written record, and is forced to press the question 
whether that evidence necessitates for the remaining phenomena 
anything more elaborate than the following : 

(1) A dummy hand which could be made collapsible, and slipped 
between Eusapia's skin and her combinations, or between her stays 
and her shift. 

(2) A short indiarubber tube with a bulb at one end, and pos- 
sibly wired at the other. If this were hidden in her hair, she 
might, one ventures to suggest, produce the famous " breeze " from 

scar under her tresses, by squeezing the bulb either with her 
land or against the back of her chair (pp. 340, 421, 458, 
eances V. and VI.). This breeze is generally known as "the 
cold breeze," and C. in M'Clure says, " when tested by a thermometer 
it has caused a fall of 3 or 4 degrees " (p. 669). But in the S.P.R. 
report the Committee note (p. 458) that "a thermometer, held to 
her head, failed to record any lowering of the temperature." The 

238 Journal of Society for Psychical Research. FEB., 1910. 

experiments referred to in M'Clure cannot, therefore, be taken as 
conclusive. At the end of the same article C. gives an account of 
the remarkable effects he could produce with a similar tube. The 
appearance of innocent astonishment on Eusapia's part when he 
showed her his skill is exactly what we might expect on the 
hypothesis that she is a cunning trickster, and used a tool of the 
same kind herself. 

Since the above was written, Miss Johnson has told me that a 
similar suggestion had been made to her independently by Mr. W. 
S. Davis, 1 Secretary of the Metropolitan Psychical Society in New 
York. He writes (New York Times, Oct. 17, 1909) that this effect 
can be produced by the bulb being "concealed under the dress close 
to the armpit, while the hose runs up the back under the dress, 
thence into the hair to the temple." Of course Eusapia could hide 
the tube at some seances in one place, and at others in another. 

(3) A thin bladder made to fit the mouth-end of the same tube, 
and such that it could either be left to lie flat, or inflated by 
squeezing the bulb (or possibly a second tube, with bulb and bladder 
complete). There appear to be many possible modifications of this 
device, from the ordinary " Mysterious Plate-Lifter " (which can be 
got at a conjurer's shop), to more elaborate kinds, e.g. those used 
for spraying scent, which have an arrangement of valves allowing 
fresh air to be drawn in through the bulb. By some such means 
a thin bladder could be dilated to a considerable size, while, when 
not distended, it could easily be tucked away. The descriptions of 
the dress-swelling and curtain-bulging 2 seem exactly to suit the 
effect that might be produced by such a bladder, dilated at will. 
The curtain is stated to " balloon out in a round bulge " as though 
pushed out from behind. " If we made a sudden grab at the bulge, 
no resistance was encountered, and the bulge subsided as though 

1 Mr. Davis has for many years made a study of the methods used by 
fraudulent mediums, and is himself an adept in reproducing them. See an 
article by Dr. Hodgson in Proceedings S.P.R., Vol. VIII. pp. 295-6, and 

2 Mr. Davis, writing to Miss Johnson later (January 2nd, 1910), suggests 
that "the blowing out of the curtains may be explained by the use of a very 
thin rubber hose, about the thickness of a lead pencil, and painted black so 
as to be invisible, which is attached to a bulb, or possibly a small steel flask 
containing compressed air, under considerable pressure. The curtains are very 
thin, and it wouldn't take much air in motion to move them. It would be 
exceedingly difficult to detect this sort of trickery, for if the curtains were 
suddenly parted nothing would be noticeable." 

j KII., r.iio. The Naples Report <m Eusapia Palladii 239 

one had pricked the surface of a balloon" (p. 333). The usual 
position observed for the bulge, not far from Eusapia's head, and 
"about 4 ft. from the floor" (pp. 380, 381) would appear to 
coincide with the position required if the tube came from her back 
hair and was slipped through the opening of the curtains. 

If the bladder were made detachable, it seems probable that the 
curtain-bulging might have been produced by the same tube 
employed afterwards for the breeze. For it is noticeable that this 
latter phenomenon occurred at the close of the seances when Eusapia 
had no further use for the bladder. 

The dummy hand and the tubes and bladder (possibly only one 
tube) appear to be all that she needed during Seance V. (when 
she offered to be searched) or during Seances VI. and VIII., the 
only two seances at which a search was made. And on neither 
occasion was it possible to make the search complete. For even at 
the ladies' examination (p. 505) Eusapia was not entirely undressed, 
nor was her hair undone. She remained clothed in "a pair of 
grey, woolly, divided combinations; that is to say, body and 
drawers." A good deal could be hidden there. Moreover, she was 
allowed to undress herself: so that she had abundant opportunity as 
she took off each of her numerous outer wrappings for slipping 
anything from one layer to the next beneath it. 

For certain of the other seances she may have needed two other 
appliances, but, so far as I can see, only two, and those of a simple 
character, viz. : 

(4) A thin, dark, wire rod, about the thickness of a hairpin, 
ked at one end, so that it could pull or push a light object 

ch as the little table or the milking-stool (Seances II., IX., and 
I., i.e. the seance before the third member of the Committee arrived, 
id the seances after the searchings were over). 

(5) Some phosphorus for the two Seances VII. and XL, when the 
ights were produced, p. 339 (17). 

At Seance VII. (11.36-11.46) the lights appear after the medium 
puts her head behind the curtain and makes a sudden dive to 
;e right": at Seance XL (10.55-11.1) after "the left curtain came 
right over the table" (10.54) and Mrs. H. had observed "an 
elongated hand " over which " the curtain was tightly stretched." 

It is true that for Seance VII. (11.46) we find the note "There 
are no indications of the smell of phosphorus." But we have 
evidence from the able report on Carancini by Mr. Baggally (B.) 
that the absence of the smell is no proof that phosphorus was not 

240 Journal of Society for Psychical Research. FEB., iuio. 

used. See Journal S.P.R., Jan. 1910, p. 199. During Seance V., 
when the lights appeared, we have this entry : " Mr. Scott and 
Mr. Baggally went into the cabinet immediately afterwards and did 
not perceive any smell of phosphorus." But at the close of the 
seance B. searched Carancini (p. 203), and " found in his pocket 
a box of safety matches, and amongst them a few phosphorus 
matches." One of these he dexterously abstracted and produced 
with it "lights which were in all appearances identical with those 
that had been seen at the seance." 

Dress-swelling, p. 333 (3). 

The best example of this was at the beginning of Seance VII. in 
the brightest light, " the only seance at which we had an oppor- 
tunity of careful observation of it" (p. 334). If Eusapia had the 
india-rubber tube on this occasion tied round her waist by a string, 
might she not, when she sat down, have arranged it through her 
placket-hole so that the bulb was between the back of her chair 
and her thigh, while the bladder lay among her petticoats ? Then 
might not a slight pressure with her thigh have done the rest ? 
When she prepares to lift her dress and petticoats for inspection, 
she could hitch up the tube and sit on it, and she would, in the 
hands of English gentlemen, be quite safe from detection. 

Movements of the little table, p. 335 (8). 

Most of these can be explained on the quite possible supposition 
that Eusapia got one hand or foot free, but there remains one case 
where this seems unlikely, viz. Seance II., 11.55 ff., when it retired 
from her in " a series of little jumps." Now, is it impossible for her 
to have produced these motions undetected, by means of a wire 
rod on the floor ? The movements were continued in Light I., but 
they began in Light IV., very dim, and were preceded by a request 
that her feet should be untied, which would constitute a serious 
diversion. That the phenomenon should take place in the best 
light cuts against the argument that darkness is really bad for the 
supernormal force. On the other hand, that it should be preceded 
by a period of great dimness strongly suggests trickery, for the 
moment of arranging the connection between herself and the table 
would be the moment most dangerous for discovery. C. (p. 371) 
saw that "there was no contact between the medium's foot and the 
table," but apparently he did not feel along the floor between it 
and her to discover if there was any oilier connection. Nor can he 

KKI:., 1910. The Naples Report on Eusajti" Palladino, -41 

be blamed for not doing so, since he would have had to lose control 
of her for the time (only F. and C. being present at this seance). 
This illustrates what is frequently illustrated throughout the fact 
that under the conditions imposed by the medium the controllers 
must often be as much hampered by her as she by them. 

Twanging of the guitar, p. 335 (7). 

First Case. Stance II., about 12.3. Is it out of the question for 
her to have plucked the string with the hooked wire already used 
for the little table? (See the last paragraph on II., 11.55.) C. says, 
p. 373, that her feet were controlled, but on p. 372 we find (as noted 
by himself and F.) that "the foot-control is omitted" in the report. 
It is true they add "owing to the excellence of the light, however, 
we could clearly see that her feet were not employed." But, 

(1) The light, though their best, could not be called brilliant, 
for it was shaded and contrasted (p. 361 fin.) with the "bright 
light " in the next room. 

(2) Eusapia's " knees and feet were towards the seance table," and 
therefore, presumably, in its shadow, or even under it. 

(3) Both F. and C. were looking attentively into the dark cabinet 
ihind her (p. 371 fin.), and therefore it is hard to understand how 
ley could see what she was doing with her feet at the critical 


There was a good opportunity for her to secrete the rod imme- 
liately afterwards, for we read (p. 372, just before 12.5): 

"F. The medium says that she wants to touch the small table 
the cabinet. She raises it from the floor and puts it upside 

>wn and closes the curtains." 

Second Case. Seance VI. (p. 457. Note by C.) 

This occurred : 

(1) After the shorthand report ends. 

(2) When they thought the seance was over, and therefore could 
not have been controlling her so carefully. 

(3) When B. and M. were talking. 

(4) When Eusapia might have imitated the slight sound of the 
twanging that they heard. That she does imitate sounds is the almost 
inevitable inference from the "kiss" episode, see Seance VII., 12 p.m. 

Movements of the curtains, p. 332 (2). 

The bulging has already been discussed, and it is not suggested 
it anything else was produced by the device of the bladder, 
hit the other movements seem susceptible of other explanations. 

242 Journal of Society for Psychical Research. FEB., 1010. 

For instance, she might have pulled the curtain with her own 
hand, as B. actually caught her doing with the very hand that 
F. was controlling at the time (Seance VIIL, 12.43, Note by B.). 
Or she might whisk it out with the help of the rod on the floor, 
a method suggested by the account of the curtain movements at 
the beginning of Seance XL, considered by F. to be the most 
evidential he had seen. These occurred in the best light; and 
at 10.11, F., seated on the medium's right, had made a clear 
space of about 12 in. between her foot and the right curtain. But 
since then ; 

(1) There had been some moments of less light (10.18). 

(2) Eusapia had made a request for the little stool, which would 
cause some diversion. 

(3) The only control mentioned for hands or feet is that F. held 
one of her hands, and that one foot, presumably her right, was 
on his. 

(4) Her dress had bulged out towards the curtain between her 
chair and F. 

It seems possible, therefore, that she might have got the wire rod 
laid aslant on the floor, at her other side, where F. could not see 
it, one end being under her left foot, and the other slipped in 
through the opening behind the edge of the right curtain. A jerk 
with her left foot might then have produced the effect he observed, 
when "the whole of the left edge of the right curtain rushed out 
and completely enveloped her right side." 

Movements of the little stool, p. 339 (16). 

I take the strongest cases. 

(a) Seance IX., after 11.45 (pp. 514 if.) when it moved along 
the floor, in a poorish light, (the second Light II. = the original 
Light III.)' 

Here, again, we must ask what security we have that there was 
no connection between the medium and the stool when it was 
moving ? " Examination for an attachment of some kind was made 
in the intervals between movements of this kind" (p. 339). But that 
is not enough ; since it is conceivable that Eusapia could jerk the 
connection away when she saw the investigator preparing to examine. 
The examination by M., the stenographer, was made (p. 514) 

1 This light is called "very good" ad loc., but see pp. 419, 355. In the first 
Light II., which ivas brighter, the room was so dark that the reflection on a 
patent leather shoe looked like a mysterious light on the floor, (p. 355.) 

FKH., 1'Jio. The Naples Report oi> A'</>"/na Palladii 243 

when the stool "had finished." M. was sitting at another table 
(plan, p. 508), and had to leave his place for the purpose. And 
no doubt Eusapia would say that any interposition durin 
movements would impede "her fluid." According to the Report, 
it was only M. who examined the stool at this Seance, and in this 
inconclusive fashion (cp. also XL, 10.23). There were previous motions 
of the little stool outside the cabinet, IX. 10.30-10.40, but in a still 
poorer light, (Light III.), and this when the foot control was 
obviously weak, (see B. 10.30 and C. 10.33), and when C. notes 
the day after, "I was dissatisfied at the time with the sensation of 
the hand control (10.34)." On the other hand, at the beginning 
of Stance VII., when the conditions were more exacting, when the 
light had not yet been lowered, and when F. could report, " I have 
felt several times between her and the stool right along the 
floor, . . . and since I have passed my hand between her and the 
stool she has not touched the curtain in any way," then we find 
that "nothing happened, except the bulging of her dress." " The stool 
not move. F. December 8th, 1908." Later on (VII., 10.30) the 
1 did move, but meanwhile there had been a "relaxation of 
ntrol " when " the seance table was being turned round," and 
e stool was now invisible "under the curtains" (F. 10.33). 
(b) Seance XL, 12.26, when the stool climbed up the curtain. 
The control here is not given in full, (see 11.49, p. 548), so 
that the whole episode might be dismissed as non-evidential. But, 
taking the report as it stands, there appears a strong presumption 
t the stool was hoisted by Eusapia's left hand, working inside 
he curtain at the point where the stool touched it. I should 
judge from experiments I have made that this would be quite a 
possible feat, if part of the bottom of the curtain were held taut 
at a certain angle. Now it is very rash to suppose that Eusapia 
could not have got at least one hand and foot free, because : 

(1) Only Z. (her friend) and Mrs. H. were controlling her at the 

(2) The curtain had just been over the table (12.15). 

(3) The light was very dim (Light IV. shaded), so dim that M., 
standing between the medium and Mrs. H., had to feel their arms 
and hands to make sure of their position. When M. felt the medium's 
left hand later it was too late to be conclusive, because by that time 
the stool must have been over Mrs. H.'s shoulder. Even so, Eusapia 
was evidently annoyed at M.'s attempt. 

(4) No foot control is mentioned at all after 11.49. 



244 Journal of Society for Psychical Research. FEB., 1910. 

M. felt on either side of the stool as it was climbing up, "but 
not between the stool and the curtain, as I ivas afraid of interfering with 
the movements" (which no doubt he would have done). He then 
adds, "there was nothing tangible behind it." But as it was too 
dark for him to see, and as he would not feel, it is not easy for 
an outsider to accept this inference. 

The touches on H.'s back outside the curtain, p. 336 (10). 

Seance X., 12.11-12.20, and Notes by F. and B., pp. 533 535. 

These touches occurred in the total darkness, a darkness that corre- 
sponded suspiciously with the presence of a photographer. At 12.11 
F. caught Eusapia's hands in the "substitution position." F., in the 
kindness of his heart, is inclined to attribute this to " weariness or 
carelessness" on her part, because she showed him "the position of 
her left hand, which was under B.'s right. B. stated that it had 
been there all the time." But the last time B. stated his control 
(11.42), her left hand was in his left, and his right was on the back 
of her neck. Even if there was no substitution, might not the 
touches have been produced by the wire hooked on to some part of 
Eusapia's person* 

The touches on B. during Seance XL, 12.51 and later (pp. 552, 564. 
See also (11), p. 337). 

Now, (1) These occurred after the control was no longer to be 
given in full (11.49). 

(2) The light (No. IV. shaded) from 10.58 onwards was so dim 
that F. when sitting next to the medium could not see the individual 
fingers of her hands. 

B. thought he could see both hands at 12.51, but he was not 
touching both, and in that dimness would it be possible to distinguish 
by sight alone a dummy hand from a real one? 

(3) B. did not hold both Eusapia's hands until after 12.56, when the 
curtain was blown over the table. Then he only held her thumbs, so 
that her fingers were free. After that, it is scarcely surprising that 
a hand from inside the curtain played with B. 1 


1 For several of the points in this paper I am indebted to Miss Johnson. 
The responsibility, however, is mine throughout, and the bulk of the paper 
was written before it had the advantage of her criticism. 




Society for Psychical Research. 



New Members and Associates, 246 

Annual General Meeting of Members, - - -.'47 

Meeting of the Council, 247 

General Meeting, ... - 

Report of the Council for the year I '.'00, 249 

Account of Receipts and Expenditure for 1009, 250 

Endowment Fund for Psychical Research, Account for I'.KW, 251 

Edmund Gurney Library Fund, Account for 1909, 251 

The Education of an Observer. By Sir Oliver Lodge, 253 

Note on the above Paper. By Alice Johnson, 259 


Private Meeting of the Society 




On TUESDAY, MARCH i$th, 1910, at 4 p.m. 


;c A Study in Hysteria and Double Personality, 
with Report of a Case," 



f.B. No Tickets of Admission are issued for this Meeting. Members 
and Associates will be asked to sign their names on entering. 

246 Journal of Society for Psychical Research. MAH., 1910. 


Names of Members are printed in Black Type. 
Names of Associates are printed in SMALL CAPITALS. 

Batchelor, E., I.C.S., c/o Messrs. King, King & Co., Bombay, India. 
Bailey, Cyril, M.A., Balliol College, Oxford. 
Hamar-Nemespann, La Baronne de, Hohe Warte 50, Vienna XIX. 
Lyall, Edward, Barton, R.S.O., Darlington. 
Scott, Captain Gerald Bassett, 27th Punjabis, Indian Army, 

Multan, India. 

Wright, Maurice B,, M,D,, 33 Wimpole Street, London, W. 
ANDERSON, MRS., Brackenboro', Bramhall, Cheshire. 
BRIANTCHANINOFF, ALEXANDRE N., 11 Grand Monetnaia, St. Peters- 
burg, Russia. 
BRISTOWE, LEONARD S., Judge of the Supreme Court of the Transvaal, 

CARNAHAN, CHARLES TINGLEY, 951 Logan Avenue, Denver, Colo., 


DAVIS, MRS., 46 Sussex Gardens, Hyde Park, London, W. 
DAY, Miss MABEL K., M.A., Gershom, Reigate, Surrey. 
ELLIOTT, E. T., Hawarden, Iowa, U.S.A. 
HOUSTON, JAMES, 1 Hereford Mansions, Hereford Road, Bayswater, 

London, W. 

HUNT, GUY W., Southport, Queensland, Australia. 
LEWIN, THE REV. C. H., West Hendred Manor, Steventon, Berks. 
ODELL, S. W., 202 Boston Building, Pasadena, Calif., U.S.A. 
SHASTRI, PRABHU DUTT, Indian Institute, Oxford. 
SKEFFINGTON, J. B., M.A., LL.D., 21 Crumlin Road, Belfast. 
STEWART, MAJOR D. B., R.F.A. Mess, Roberts Heights, Pretoria, 

S. Africa. 

STOEHR, Miss C. H., Down End, Hindhead, Surrey. 
WALTON, JOSEPH PLATT, Hill House, Halesworth, Suffolk. 
WHITEHEAD, THE REV. JOHN, M.A., Th.B., Lexington and Beaver 

Streets, Waltham, Mass., U.S.A. 

MAIL, 1910. Annual General Meeting of Meirib* 247 


THE Annual General Meeting of Members of the Society was 
held at 20 Hanover Square, London, W., on Monday, January 
31st, 1910, at 4 p.m.; the President, Mrs. Henry Sidgwick, 
in the chair. There were also present: Mr. W. W. Baggally, 
Professor W. F. Barrett, Mr. E. N. Bennett, the Rev. A. T. 
Kiyer, Mrs. Home, Lord Leigh, Mr. W. M'Uougall, Mr. Sydney 
C. Scott, Mr. H. Arthur Smith, Mrs. Smithson, and Mrs. Verrall ; 
also Miss Alice Johnson, Research Officer, and Miss Isabel 
Newton, Secretary. 

The Report of the Council for the year 1909 was read, 
and is printed below. The audited account of income and 
expenditure for the year 1909 was presented and taken as 
read, and is also printed below. 

The President announced that the six retiring Members 
of the Council offered themselves for re-election. No other 
nominations having been received, the following were declared 
to be duly elected Members of the Council : Mr. St. George 
Lane Fox Pitt, Lord Rayleigh, Mr. Sydney C. Scott, Mrs. H. 
Sidgwick, Lieut.-Colonel G. L. Le M. Taylor, Dr. C. Lloyd 


THE 101st Meeting of the Council was held at 20 Hanover 
Square, London, W., on Monday, January 31st, 1910, at 
3.30 p.m., the President, Mrs. Henry Sidgwick, in the chair. 
There were also present : Mr. W. W. Baggally, Professor W. F. 
Barrett, Mr. E. N. Bennett, the Rev. A. T. Fryer, Mr. W. 
M'Dougall, Dr. T. W. Mitchell, Mr. Sydney C. Scott, Mr. A. 
F. Shand, Mr. H. Arthur Smith, Dr. C. Lloyd Tuckey, and 
Mrs. Verrall ; also Miss Alice Johnson, Research Officer, and 
Miss Isabel Newton, Secretary. 

After considering their Report for the year 1909, the Council 
adjourned for the Annual General Meeting of Members of 
the Society, and re-assembled at the conclusion of that meeting. 

The Minutes of the last meeting of the Council were then 
read and signed as correct. 

248 Journal of Society for Psychical Research. MAR., mo. 

The proceedings of the Annual General Meeting were reported. 

Mr. H. Arthur Smith was elected President of the Society 
for the year 1910. 

Mr. H. Arthur Smith was also re-elected Hon. Treasurer ; 
Mrs. Henry Sidgwick and the Hon. Everard Feilding were 
elected Hon. Secretaries ; and Mr. Arthur Miall was re-elected 
Auditor for the current year. 

The following were co-opted as Members of the Council 
for the year 1910: Mr. W. W. Baggally, Mr. G. Lowes 
Dickinson, the Eev. A. T. Fryer, Sir Lawrence Jones, Mr. 
W. M'Dougall, Professor Gilbert Murray, Mr. A. F. Shand, 
and Mr. V. J. Woolley. 

Committees were elected as follows : 

Committee of Reference and Publication : The Rt. Hon. Gerald 
W. Balfour, Professor W. F. Barrett, Sir William Crookes, 
the Hon. Everard Feilding, Dr. W. Leaf, Sir Oliver Lodge, Mr. 
J. G. Piddington, Mr. F. Podmore, Lord Eayleigh, Mrs. H. 
Sidgwick, Mrs. A. W. Verrall, and Miss Jane Barlow. 

Library Committee : The Hon. Everard Feilding, Mr. J. G. 
Piddington, Mr. F. Podmore, and Dr. C. Lloyd Tuckey. 

House and Finance Committee : Mr. W. W. Baggally, the 
Hon. Everard Feilding, Mr. J. G. Piddington, Mr. Sydney 
C. Scott, Mr. H. Arthur Smith, and Lieut.-Colonel Le M. 

Corresponding Members and Honorary Associates were re- 
elected for the year 1910. 

Six new Members and eighteen new Associates were 
elected. Their names and addresses are given above. 

The monthly account for December, 1909, was presented 
and taken as read. 


THE 135th General Meeting of the Society was held in the 
large Hall at 20 Hanover Square, London, W., on Monday, 
January 31st, 1910, at 5 p.m.; Mr. H. Arthur Smith, having 
been introduced as the new President by Mrs. Sidgwick, took 
the chair. 

A paper on " Seeing without Eyes," by MR. FRANK PODMORE, 
was read by Miss ALICE JOHNSON. 

lino. Report of the Coum-ll . 249 


Tin; membership of the Society has, as usual, continued to 
increase during the year. 27 new Members (including one 
Corresponding Member) were elected and 3 Associates became 
Members; 128 new Associates were elected and 4 Members 
became Associates. On the other hand, the total loss in 
numbers from deaths, 1 resignations, and other causes was 20 
Members and 102 Associates, leaving a net increase of 40. 
The total membership has now reached 1230, the numbers 
lining distributed as follows: Members, 300 (including 25 
Honorary and Corresponding Members); Associates, 930 (in- 
cluding 12 Honorary Associates). 

A general increase in activity has also been evinced by the 
fact that three Parts of Proceedings have been published this 
year, in February, June and November, amounting to 782 pp., 
whereas last year (1908) only two Parts appeared, in June 
and October, amounting to 686 pp., and the year before (1907) 
two Parts, in February and October, amounting to 318 pp. 
The papers published this year included two reports on the 
trance phenomena of Mrs. Piper ; the first by Professor James, 
chiefly relating to the sittings in America that took place 
shortly after Dr. Hodgson's death (that is, during the first half 
of 1906) in which a number of communications purported to 
come from him. The second report by Sir Oliver Lodge dealt 
with his sittings with Mrs. Piper in England at the end of 
1906, and the spring of 1907, the intermediate period having 
been already dealt with by Mr. Piddington in his report in 
Proceedings, Vol. XXII. 

Since Mrs. Piper's return to America, a series of sittings 
with her on behalf of the S.P.E. has been held by one of our 
Vice-Presidents, Mr. G. B. Dorr. Some of the results of these 
sittings were reported by Mr. Piddington at a meeting of the 
Society in October, and several papers on them will be 
published in the forthcoming part of Proceedings. 

Meanwhile Miss Verrall has been working over the volumi- 
nous unpublished records of earlier Piper sittings held by Dr. 

x lt happens that we have lost an unusually large number through death 
this year, viz., 6 Members and 19 Associates, total 25; whereas last year the 
total number of losses from this cause was 14, which was larger than usual. 

250 Journal of Society for Psychical Research. MAR., 1910. 





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252 Journal of Society for Psychical Research. MAK., 1910. 

Hodgson in America, which were sent over to England after his 
death, and a paper on these is now nearly ready for publication. 

Mrs. Verrall and the other automatic writers, between whom 
and Mrs. Piper so many " cross-correspondences " have occurred, 
have been continuing their script, with results which will be 
reported to the Society from time to time. As stated by 
Mrs. Verrall at a meeting of the Society in May, some cross- 
correspondences also occurred between Miss Verrall's and her 
scripts, and those of a new group of automatic writers hitherto 
unknown to any of the others. Mrs. Verrall's paper on this 
case will be included in the forthcoming part of Proceedings. 

Part LIX. contained the full report of the Naples sittings 
with Eusapia Palladino, of which Mr. Feilding gave a summary 
at the meeting of the Society in June. Some criticisms of 
this report have since appeared in the Journal and the discus- 
sion is to be continued. 

In July and August some sittings were held with the 
Italian medium, Carancini, who was alleged to produce " physical 
phenomena " of the same general type as those which are said 
to occur with Eusapia. The results of these sittings, however, 
were disappointing ; not only because they presented no evidence 
of any genuine phenomena, but also because there was definite 
positive evidence of fraud on the medium's part. Mr. Baggally, 
who was in charge of the sittings, gave an account of them 
at the last meeting of the Society, and his account is printed 
in the Journal for January, 1910. 

During the year a legacy of 100 was left to the Society 
by the late Mr. Robert Hannah, who died on April 5th, 1909. 
Mr. Hannah had been a member for many years and was 
deeply interested in the work, to which he had generously 
contributed for several years an extra annual subscription. 

There are a few points in the balance sheet for the year 
which may be noted. On the one side we have in accordance 
with the increase in membership of the Society an increased 
income from annual subscriptions, which amounted this year 
to about 88 more than last year. It is also gratifying .to 
observe that the sale of our publications to persons not belong- 
ing to the Society brought in nearly three times as much 
this year as last, viz., 128 instead of 44. This seems to 
indicate a general growth in the interest taken by the public 

M.\H., 1910. I!' port of the Cou'n< ;/ 253 

in our work. On the other hand, corresponding to an increased 
output of publications, our expenses for printing and postage 
have increased, being 181 more this year than last. There is 
a prospect that this item will continue to grow as time goes 
on, and while it should be possible always to meet the 
printing expenses from the annual income from subscriptions, 
the research work, which leads to the greater part of these 
expenses, will also, it is to be hoped, constantly increase, and 
research in some cases involves other expenses. The Council 
desire, therefore, to remind members that the Endowment 
Research Fund has not yet reached the 8000 which they 
fixed as its first goal, and that further contributions to it 
will be gratefully received. 

Two General and four Private Meetings of the Society (for 
Members and Associates only) were held during the year. The 
dates and subjects of the papers read were as follows : 

* January 28th. "Preliminary Report on Mrs. Piper's 

Hodgson Control," by Professor William James. 
March 30th. "Some Incidents in the Script of Mrs. 

Holland," by Miss Alice Johnson. 
May 18th. "A New Group of Automatic Writers," 

by Mrs. A. W. Verrall. 
*June 18th. "A Series of Sittings with Eusapia Palla- 

dino," by The Hon. Everard Feilding. 
October 28th. "Classical Allusions in Mrs. Piper's Trance," 

by Mr. J. G. Piddington. 

December 13th. "The Detection of Hidden Objects by 
Dowsers," by Professor W. F. Barrett, F.R.S. " Some 
Sittings with Carancini," by Mr. W. W. Baggally. 


A NOTABLE paper by Miss Johnson appeared in the Proceed- 
ings, Vol. XXL, under the title "The Education of the Sitter," 
a head under which she usefully criticises certain records of 
observations of physical phenomena ; regarding them either 
naturally or artificially, that is to say either in her own proper 

* Those marked with an asterisk were General Meetings. 

254 Journal of Society for Psychical Research. MAR., 1910. 

person or as a useful exercise from the point of view of 
the extreme sceptic. I have nothing to find fault with in 
the paper ; it is well adapted to its purpose, which I presume 
is to urge whatever can be urged against the accounts which 
have been given hitherto of the observation of supposed super- 
normal physical phenomena, so as to assist future records to 
be of a more complete and more obviously trustworthy 

But there are two points on which I think her article 
needs supplementing, since without some supplement it may 
be misleading. 

One is that she appears to think an observer worse instead 
of better for continual opportunity for observation, because he 
is liable to become sophisticated by habit ; whereas her real 
meaning doubtless is that this only applies to observers who 
are insufficiently critical and too easily convinced ; inasmuch 
as they are liable to observe less and less well as they go on, 
so that their accounts become less and less reliable. 

The other point is that she seems hardly to discriminate 
sufficiently between the reports of a skilled practitioner and a 
novice meaning by a novice not a novice in everything, but 
a novice in the art of making and learning from experiment. 
The most learned moral philosopher the most astute man 
of letters may be a novice if immersed in the intricacies 
of a laboratory. If he is wise he will keep his hands in 
his pockets and not attempt to meddle. It used to be amusing 
to see an examination candidate sometimes automatically assume 
this attitude in a junior practical examination. It was a sure 
sign that he had learnt from text-books and blackboard draw- 
ings ; he might answer questions on paper fairly well, but of 
instruments themselves he had a marked and well-grounded 
mistrust. An experienced experimentalist is not in this 
predicament, since he is accustomed to manipulate and deal 
critically with phenomena and to draw deductions from them. 

Miss Johnson's reply to this will doubtless be that even 
scientific experimentalists are novices when they enter the 
region of psychical research, and must be treated as such 
until they have had experience in this particularly treacherous 
field. Their special aptitude and skill will make them quick 
to realise features of importance, bnt will not guard them 

MAH., lino. The Education of an Observer. 

against deception. For this kind of investigation it is indeed 
often urged that an expert must be an expert ad hoc, and 
that general scientific training is not sufficient ; that the 
training of a conjurer is better. 

I do not wish to contest that position, both kinds of training 
are certainly useful ; but I do feel that a man of science has 
an undeniable advantage over let us say a man of letters 
or a philosopher, in the particular matter of learning by direct 
observational experience, whatever other comparative disadvan- 
tages may fall to his lot. And if he cares to devote his 
energies to psychical research for a moderate time he ought 
before long to become an expert in that field also. 

However I do not propose either to discuss or criticise Miss 
Johnson's paper in detail 1 only propose to supplement it ; 
and I can do so most readily and compactly by making a 
short and independent communication of my own. And in 
so doing I would explain that I have in my mind her few 
remarks on the testimony of Sir William Crookes, rather than 
her criticism of observations made by Lord Adare. The latter 
gentleman is not known to me, but I presume that he would 
not claim to be an observer with the training of a man of 

The title Miss Johnson uses for her paper will serve my 
turn only slightly modified so as to make it more general 
and not applicable to psycho-physical investigators alone. 

It must be admitted that however great the intellectual 
competence of a man of letters may be, he is not accustomed 
to the examination and discovery of truth by means of physical 
experiments. A training in this special kind of observation is 
surely necessary for the formation of a valid and secure opinion, 
in addition to the natural powers of an educated mind. Take 
such a person into an ordinary physical laboratory for instance, 
and show him an experiment of any delicacy ; it is quite 
possible that he will see nothing at all. He certainly will 
not be able to interpret what he sees without guidance, and 
it will not be difficult to guide him wrong. Knowing this, 
he will mistrust his own judgment, he will not think of 
expressing a first-hand opinion ; and if to suppose something 

256 Journal of Society for Psychical Research. MAR., 1910. 

absurd he is asked to report on the phenomena in a respon- 
sible manner, he will necessarily be ultra-sceptical and hard 
to convince of anything whatever. Amid so many loop-holes 
for error, under such strange surroundings, the circumstances 
will necessarily call out a degree of caution which cannot be 
stigmatised as excessive. In some instances even the trained 
physicist will have lost his bearings and feel on strange 
ground. In that case he too will, if he is wise, be extremely 
cautious. But when he is on familiar territory, he knows fairly 
well what to look for, and is ready to draw inferences, with 
caution indeed but without excessive compunction. Every 
man of science makes inferences which to men trained in 
other branches even in other sciences will seem to be rapid 
induction based upon instinct rather than upon complete 
evidence. The facts which led Dalton to the atomic theory, 
for instance, would not have led the ordinarily educated man 
anywhere. Ordinary men live surrounded by phenomena of 
which the scientific meaning and theory is quite unknown to 
them. The very same facts, to the trained intelligence specially 
directed to them for months or years, may be full of signi- 
ficance. No stigma nothing odious is conveyed by such a 
comparison. The score of a symphony is one thing, to a 
skilled musician ; it is another thing and nearly meaningless 
to a man in the street. 

Even a practised observer like Faraday, a man who lived 
in a laboratory all his life and worked constantly with his 
own hands even Faraday when taken to a new experiment 
asked to be told "what he had to see" before sitting down 
to it; and he never considered himself capable of seriously 
criticising an observation until he had himself witnessed the 
experiment which demonstrated it. He knew well what a 
multitude of things might confuse the observer ; he knew how 
difficult it is to see a phenomenon for the first time, how 
comparatively easy the repetition becomes. Instruction from 
the man who was familiar with the particular experiment, 
and a hint as to what the precise point was that constituted 
the novelty, was sought even by him. 

How then can it be supposed that an observer or sitter can 
dispense with education ? How can it be thought that his 
first and unaided impressions are likely to be the best ? 

MAK., luio. The Education of an Observer. 

If it be urged that every one is a novice in a strange field 
for some time after he has entered it, I agree. Great . and 
patient care must be taken not to be hasty either in coming 
to a conclusion or in publishing results; acceptance on the 
part of a novice might easily be detrimental, and would not 
really substantiate the phenomenon to which he prematurely 
testifies. But still the converse remains true, that the novice 
in every kind of physical science feels himself at a still 
greater disadvantage; and, if wise, he .is instinctively cautious, 
self-distrustful and sceptical. To learn direct from phenomena 
is not a common attitude of mind : the usual method is to 
learn from books and from people. The exploration of nature 
at first hand is not a matter to be lightly and confidently 
undertaken ; and a person who had dealt chiefly with books 
would find it necessary to be ultra-sceptical, in order not to 
be credulous, when called upon to deal with things. Here I 
think lies the explanation of some of the hyper-scepticism now 
prevalent concerning what are called "physical phenomena," 
whose basis is necessarily that of direct experimental observa- 
tion. They are facts extremely difficult to admit into any 
scheme of nature, since they seem to run counter to life-long 
experience. They are indeed so extraordinary as to be repellent. 
They cannot, I should judge, be legitimately accepted on second 
hand testimony. No testimony seems able to sustain them : 
it can but establish a prima facie case for an open mind. 
Nevertheless, both by physicists and physiologists, they have 
had to be admitted as true, as a result of direct and repeated 
experience ; and sooner or later their place in the scheme of 
things must be found. 

Meanwhile it will remain difficult to demonstrate them. 
The object of showing experiments to a learner is to 
illustrate something which is being verbally explained to 
make the fact more real and living. Sometimes a diagram 
does better, and always the experiment must be simplified as 
much as possible. He must to a certain extent take things 
on trust at least he cannot be supposed to be a competent 
critic, and if unable to see some faint result when it occurs, 
his failure proves nothing concerning it either way. Even if 
he does see it, or imagine that he sees it, he will find himself 
not permanently proof against the suggestion sometimes quite 

258 Journal of Society for Psychical Research. MAR., 1910. 

absurd, but sometimes not unjustified of anticipatory hallucina- 
tion. Novices brought in to see the effect of imaginary 
N-rays sometimes saw them. Skilled physicists from this 
country did not. The evidence of the novice however good 
it may really be is bound to be mistrusted even by himself. 

Call upon a spectator at a conversazione to inspect a 
photograph of a spectrum which demonstrates, say, the magnetism 
of a sun-spot, and he will see nothing but a smear crossed 
by rather fuzzy streaks. The fuzziness is the essence of the 
phenomenon. How can he possibly form an opinion on what 
he sees ? No one expects him to. He would feel bound to 
take an agnostic attitude. 

This is probably the reason why even orthodox scientific results 
are only half accepted by the public, until they have become 
a matter of habit. If anything depends upon acceptance by 
the public, that body is bound to be sceptical : it can only 
take new things on authority. We all take things to some 
extent on authority, except in the special and narrow field 
which we have ourselves investigated after a lifetime of training. 
Everybody has his own field, and outside that he is content 
to learn from others, subject always to his ordinary common 
sense, which enables him to judge and more or less clearly 
discriminate between authorities, if they conflict. 

Concerning this very matter of supernormal physical phenomena 
there is decided conflict, and it is to the ordinarily trained 
educated man that appeal must be made. 

If after due consideration people in general decide against 
the reality of modern miracles as they have been called I 
shall be entirely content. If the time is not ripe for their 
reception it is better that they be rejected for a season. Far 
better things than they have had to run the gauntlet of hostile 
criticism and to bide their time. 

All I would suggest is that meanwhile wise and responsible 
persons whatever their training may have been should not 
too strenuously or too assiduously deny the .possibility of the 
occurrence of everything that has at one time or another been 
styled miraculous. Some day we may have to discriminate, 
and to admit that some of them some few of them may 
have really happened. 

M.\K., HMO. The',,,,! of an Observer. 


With Sir Oliver Lodge's permission I add a few words to his 
j taper in the same number of the Journal, not with a view to 
combatting his general conclusions, with which I heartily concur, 
but in my turn to supplement them, and also to make my own 
position clearer. 

The title of my paper was, perhaps, unfortunate, as it lends itself 
to his interpretation that an observer becomes worse instead of better 
for continual observation. This no doubt happens sometimes with 
very uncritical and careless observers ; but in speaking of the 
" Education " of the sitter, I was referring to the gradual develop- 
ment in him of susceptibility to suggestion, either from the general 
environment or from the medium, and I think that no one who 
has had much practical experience of sittings can doubt that such 
a development is often liable to occur. 

Sir Oliver Lodge shows clearly the necessity for practical training 
in observation before a man can become an expert observer, and 
remarks that even Faraday did not think himself capable of judging 
a physical experiment the first time he saw it. Still less, I suppose, 
would he have felt capable of judging a biological experiment, 
and following out the same principle, he should have felt less 
capable still of judging an experiment in psychical research. 

And, as an intelligent man distrusts his own judgment of a subject 
which is new to him, so he expects that any one who claims to 
be listened to on any subject must first have studied it thoroughly. 
Thus, if a supposed discovery is made in chemistry, its acceptance by 
the scientific world does not depend on whether the discoverer is, 
say, an expert astronomer, but on whether he is a competent chemist. 
But if a supposed discovery is made in psychical research, it is almost 
invariably recommended to the world on the ground that the dis- 
>verer is an eminent physiologist, or a distinguished psychologist, 
or astronomer, or physicist, whereas it appears to me that the only 
relevant consideration is his competence as a psychical researcher. 

By a competent psychical researcher I do not mean, as Sir Oliver 

)dge suggests, a conjurer. A professional conjurer is generally a 
lan of limited education, whose limitations are apt to make him 
dogmatic in some cases and credulous in others, and it is notorious 
that professional conjurers have been deceived by fraudulent mediums, 
though they have also done good occasional service in exposing 
frauds. While a conjurer is on safe ground in dealing with fraud, 

260 Journal of Society for Psychical Research. MAR., 1910. 

since the art of deception is his special province, he is on the same level 
with any other amateur as far as genuine phenomena are concerned. 
Therefore, while his evidence is valuable when he can show how 
a given performance is done, the mere fact that he cannot see how 
it is done proves nothing, except that the capacity of the performer 
whether fraudulent or genuine exceeds his own. 

Nevertheless, since, of course, fraud is a large element in what 
we have to deal with, an expert in fraud is one though by no 
means the only one of the experts needed in our work. I think, 
however, that a man of general education who has added a practical 
knowledge of conjuring to his general equipment (as was pre- 
eminently the case, e.g. with Dr. Hodgson), is likely to be much 
more useful than a mere conjurer. 

With the greatest possible respect for science, I do not regard it 
as the one and only study in which a scientific habit of mind can 
be cultivated. An equally high standard of accuracy, a power of 
nice discrimination, and a capacity for judging evidence, may be 
found among men of letters. And even a philosopher may be useful 
in expounding the general principles on which enquiries should be 
carried on, and the conclusions which may legitimately be deduced 
from them. In our work, the help of educated men of every type 
is of great advantage, and we have been fortunate in never being 
without it. But we have been fortunate above all in being able 
to count among our founders to speak only of those who are 
no longer living men who were not only eminent in philosophy, 
or in letters, or versed in practical science, but each one of whom 
was at the same time an expert in psychical research. 



There is nothing in this Note of Miss Johnson's with which I 
disagree, unless it be the emphasis laid on "suggestibility" in con- 
nexion with skilled and responsible observers ; and in her concluding 
paragraph as is clear from page 4 of my book "The Survival of 
Man" I heartily concur. 





Society for Psychical Research. 



New Members and Associates, 262 

Meeting of the Council, .... 263 

Private Meeting for Members and Associates, 263 

Eusapia Palladino in America, .... 265 

Mr. G. W. Balfour on Psychical Research and Philosophy, 276 


A General Meeting of the Society 




On THURSDAY, MAY yh, 1910, at 4.15 /.;//. 


A Presidential Address 



N.B. Members and Associates will be admitted on signing their names 
at the door. Visitors will be admitted on the production of 
an invitation card signed by a Member or an Associate. 
Each Member or Associate is allowed to invite ONE friend. 

262 Journal of Society for Psychical Research. APRIL, 1910. 


Names of Members are 
Names of Associates are 

in Black Type. 

Astley, Hubert Delaval, Benham- Valence, Newbury, Berks. 

Greene, James G., 34 Stiles Street, Elizabeth, New Jersey, U.S.A. 

Hall, Mrs. Basil. 31 Cadogan Gardens, London, S.W. 

Reeves, Mrs,, 6 Sterling Street, Knightsbridge, London, S.W. 

ASPINWALL, THE REV. CHARLES F., Tregenna, Decoy Road, Newton 
Abbot, South Devon. 

BERRY, MRS. ARTHUR, Meadowside, Grantchester Meadows, Cam- 

BRAZIER-CREAGH, MRS., Heath View, The Barracks, Lichfield. 

BRUCE, JAMES, Craik, Sask., Canada. 

BAKER, Miss MABEL, St. John's Schools, Eton, Windsor. 

CATHER, Miss A. S., 3 Bedford Place, Russell Square, London, W.C. 

COPLAND, HOWARD, Villa Copland, Interlaken, Switzerland. 

CRITCHLEY, W. A. PAGET, 15 Parkside, Albert Gate, London, S.W. 

DUFF, Miss H. A., 27 Chester Street, London, S.W. 

ENO, HENRY LANE, 8 East 61st Street, New York, U.S.A. 

FILLMER, HORATIO R., 52 Ship Street, Brighton. 

GARDNER, HAROLD E., 4 Harrington Street, Liverpool. 

HENLY, MRS. ALBERT W., Gwydyr House, Bromley, Kent. 

HESSEL, Miss K. A., 14 Waterlow Court, Hampstead Garden Suburb, 
London, N.W. 

LIBRARIAN, Birmingham Public Libraries, Ratcliff Place, Birmingham. 

M'ALPINE, ROBERT, Balclutha, Greenock, N.B. 

GATES, R. CROSBIE, Moyallen, Ness Holt, near Neston, Cheshire. 

PAUL, J. RODMAN, 505 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia, Pa., U.S.A. 

PINCHOT, MRS. AMOS, 1021 Park Avenue, New York, U.S.A. 


STILES, MRS. T. L., 411 North D. Street, Tacoma, Washington, U.S.A. 

STEVENSON, MRS., Wingrove, Moorend Park Road, Cheltenham. 

WHERRY, EDGAR T., Ph.D., Lehigh University, South Bethlehem, 
Pa, U.S.A. 

APRIL, 1910. Meeting of the Council. 263 

WILSON, CHARMS J., Dublin Local Section, 17 Pembroke Park, 


YOUNG, Miss ELSIE, 33 Elm Grove, Cricklewood, London, N.W. 
YOUNG, J. F., 72 Lansdowne Road, Netting Hill, London, W. 


TIIK 102nd Meeting of the Council was held at 20 Hanover 
Square, London, W., on Tuesday, March 15th, 1910, at 6 p.m., 
the President, Mr. H. Arthur Smith, in the chair. There were 
also present: Mr. W. W. Baggally, the Right Hon. Gerald W. 
Balfour, Mr. E. N. Bennett, Mr. W. M'Dougall, Dr. T. W. 
Mitchell, Mr. Sydney C. Scott, and Mrs. Henry Sidgwick ; also 
Miss Alice Johnson, Research Officer, and Miss Isabel Newton, 

The Minutes of the last meeting of the Council were read 
and signed as correct. 

Four new Members and twenty-six new Associates were 
elected. Their names and addresses are given above. 

The monthly accounts for January and February, 1910, were 
presented and taken as read. 


THE 31st Private Meeting of the Society for Members and 
Associates only was held in the large Hall at 20 Hanover 
Square, London, W., on Tuesday, March 15th, 1910, at 4 p.m.; 
the PRESIDENT, MR. H. ARTHUR SMITH, in the chair. 

DR. T. W. MITCHELL read a paper on "A Study in Hysteria 
and Double Personality, with Report of a Case," which will, it 
is hoped, be published later in the Proceedings. The following 
is a short abstract of the case reported : 

In 1901 Amelia G. P., aged 29, developed a variety of 
hysterical symptoms after a period of acute illness which corre- 
sponded to no known affection. She presented many of the 
recognised stigmata of hysteria, such as hemianaesthesia, con- 
centric reduction of the visual fields, paralysis and tremor of 
the limbs. She also suffered for over a year from an unusual 
form of speech-defect, which was accompanied by word-blindness. 
The power of writing was retained, but her spelling reproduced 

264 Journal of Society for Psychical Research. APRIL, 1010. 

all the peculiarities of her speech. This illness lasted for 
eighteen months, after which she remained well until the end 
of 1904, when she again became affected in a similar way. 
All the old symptoms returned in a more severe form, and 
many new ones developed. On this occasion her illness lasted 
until the end of December, 1905. From this date she kept 
well until November, 1908, when she had a recurrence of the 
same kind of illness. 

From the beginning of this last attack she was treated by 
hypnotic suggestion, and Dr. Mitchell said he was struck by 
the unequal response to therapeutic suggestions which he met 
with in this case. It seemed to him that the resistance 
encountered in connection with particular suggestions was the 
deliberate act of a second personality which was brought to 
light by the induction of hypnosis. Only when the. hypnotic 
personality so pleased were suggestions for the relief of any 
particular symptom of any avail. 

Further evidence of the existence of a second personality was 
found in the somnambulic life of the patient, and in her 
tendency to drop into the second state spontaneously in the 
daytime. For convenience the hypnotic state was referred to 
as Amelia and the waking state as Milly the name generally 
used by the patient's friends. Amelia claimed to be different 
in some ways from Milly. She said she knew more than 
Milly did and remembered much that Milly had forgotten. 
Amelia maintained that she was the originator of some of 
Milly's hysterical symptoms. She said : " I made her hands 
shake and, her legs as well, and I scratched her and made all 
those nasty places on her hands and legs, and made her fingers 
close down and her thumbs so that she could not move them. 
... I made her fall downstairs and hurt herself." She denied 
all responsibility, however, for the speech troubles and the other 
more serious symptoms, and Dr. Mitchell was inclined to think 
that there was some foundation for the distinction she made. 
The more serious functional disorders appeared to him to be 
connected with the functioning of dissociated states of conscious- 
ness which were not synthesised within the hypnotic personality. 
And although these symptoms were ultimately removed by 
suggestion, their removal seemed to necessitate the induction of 
a deeper hypnotic state. 

HMO. Eusapia Palladino in America. 265 

During the discussion that followed, DK. AGATHA POKTKI: 
asked if there had been any evidence of double personality 
before the patient was hypnotised. 

DR. MITCHELL replied that he had had no reason to suspect 
the exiatence of a second personality until after hypnosis had 
been induced. But he did not think that the doubling of the 
personality was a result of hypnosis. He said that in ordinary 
hypnotic sornnambules a second personality, perhaps as well 
marked as that shown in the case recorded, might be artificially 
created by suggestion, but in this case he had found the second 
personality already formed when the hypnotic state was first 

In reply to the KEV. J. W. HAYES, DR. MITCHELL said he 
thought the amount of malice that such an artificially formed 
personality could be made to display would depend on the real 
character of the subject rather than on the intentions of the 


A SOMEWHAT sensational article by Professor Hugo Miinsterberg 
on the sittings with Eusapia Palladino in America has recently 
appeared in The Metropolitan Magazine (for February, 1910). 
Apart from one incident, to be related presently, on account 
of which we refer to it, the article contains little or nothing 
in the way of facts or of comments that will be new to those 
who have paid any previous attention to the subject, while 
Professor Miinsterberg disarms all criticism of himself as an 
observer by remarking at the beginning, " I myself am entirely 
unfit for such an investigation." He seems to decide, never- 
theless, at the end that " physical phenomena " must be 
impossible on a priori grounds, and between the two one 
wonders that he took the trouble to sit with Eusapia at all. 

With the fact that she is extremely skilful in making sub- 
stitutions of one of her hands or feet for the other we are 
already familiar; and we know that a number of devices 
have been mentioned (in our publications and elsewhere) by 
which, in the opinion of many persons, some of her perfor- 
mances may be carried out. Further, several cautious observers 
have previously remarked that the occasional searches to which 

266 Journal of Society for Psychical Research. APRIL, 1910. 

she has submitted are not sufficient to exclude the possibility 
of hidden apparatus. 

There is, however, one observation of Professor Mtinsterberg's 
which seems novel and which, if confirmed and followed up 
by other investigators, might be instructive. He says : 

I noticed, while I was sitting at her side, that every time before 
a levitation of the table began she arranged something between her 
knees under her clothes. It was often only a quick movement as if 
she were pressing a button, but I never saw the levitation without 
such a preparatory action, though the knees themselves, which I held 
with my hand, were kept entirely quiet. Moreover, frequently she 
arranged the folds of her skirt around the legs of the table as if 
some forceps were to hold the table leg from below the gown. 

The last part of the article also gives an account of a very 
instructive and hitherto unpublished incident, as follows : 

One week before Christmas, at the midnight hour, I sat again at 
Madame Palladino's favorite left side and a well-known scientist on 
her right. We had her under strictest supervision. Her left hand 
grasped my hand, her right hand was held by her right neighbor, 
her left foot rested on my foot while her right was pressing the 
foot of her other neighbor. For an hour the regulation performance 
had gone on. But now we sat in the darkened room in the highest 
expectancy while Mr. Carrington begged John to touch my arm and 
then to lift the table in the cabinet behind her and John really 
came. He touched me distinctly on my hip and then on my arm 
and at last he pulled my sleeve at the elbow. I plainly felt the 
thumb and the fingers. It was most uncanny. And, finally, John 
was to lift the table in the cabinet. We held both her hands, we 
felt both her feet, and yet the table three feet behind her began to 
scratch the floor and we expected it to be lifted. But instead, there 
suddenly came a wild, yelling scream. It was such a scream as I 
have never heard before in my life, not even in Sarah Bernhardt's 
most thrilling scenes. It was a scream as if a dagger had stabbed 
Eusapia right through the heart. 

What had happened 1 Neither she nor Mr. Carrington had the 
.slightest idea that a man was lying flat on the floor and had succeeded 
in slipping noiselessly like a snail below the curtain into the cabinet. 
I had told him that I expected wires stretched out from her body 
and he looked out for them. What a surprise when he saw that 

1910. Eusapia Palladino in America. 

she had simply freed her foot from her shoe and with an athletic 
backward movement of the leg was reaching out and fishing with 
her toes for the guitar and the table in the cabinet! And then 
lying on the floor he grasped her foot and caught her heel with firm 
hand, and she responded with that wild scream which indicated that 
she knew that at last she was trapped and her glory shattered. 

Her achievement was splendid. She had lifted her unshod foot 
to the height of my arm when she touched me under cover of the 
curtain, without changing in the least the position of her body. 
When her foot played thumb and fingers the game was also neat 
throughout. To be sure, I remember before she was to reach out 
for the table behind her, she suddenly felt the need of touching my 
left hand too, and for that purpose she leaned heavily over the table 
at which we were sitting. She said that she must do it because 
her spiritual fluid had become too strong and the touch would relieve 
her. As a matter of course in leaning forward with the upper half 
of her body she became able to push her foot further backward and 
thus to reach the light table, which probably stood a few inches too 
far. And then came the scream and the doom. 

As our readers may like to have further authentic informa- 
tion about this incident, what led up to it, and to whom the 
credit of the exposure is due, we print the following account 
by Mr. G. B. Dorr of the sittings in question. The account 
was undated, but bore the postmark Dec. 26th, 1909: 

I had three seances with Eusapia Palladino in New York last 
week. I arranged for them some time ago. And friends of mine 
went to them with me, so that we could, to some extent, control 
conditions. Professor Miinsterberg went with me also on two evenings, 
the first and last. I had read the Naples report quite carefully, 
and went, so far, prepared. The first evening Professor Miinster- 
berg, I, and one of my friends controlled during the whole evening, 
observing very closely, but like others came away quite unable to 
explain the things that happened, which were mainly levitations of 
the table, the over-throwing, or throwing out from the cabinet of the 
little table placed in it, the blowing out of the curtain, and its 
bulging out as though with pressure from behind, and touchings on 
the arm or side toward the cabinet, while my friend controlling 
opposite me was grasped at one time on the arm. The light during 
the levitations of the larger table was excellent, even strong, but 
everything else happened in a dark-red light, difficult to see in. 

268 Journal of Society for Psychical Research. APRIL, 1010. 

A temporary boarding across the room, with a boarded-up recess in 
it for cabinet, before which E. P. sat, made her background. 
One could pass behind this boarding. I noticed one or two things 
that seemed to ask attention that evening. One was that she com- 
plained beyond what was reasonable, 1 thought, of pain caused by 
my holding her hand even lightly, and by my resting my foot on 
hers, so that she presently had both hand and foot resting upon 
mine, and free. 

Another thing was that the first thing that happened when any- 
thing was about to take place in the cabinet was the blowing out 
(as it seemed) of the curtain, which then remained resting on, and 
covering, one or other of her arms and shoulders, screening that 
whole side from being seen in the dim light. I also noticed that 
E. P. asked one of my friends, who was standing behind my chair 
as I controlled during the time of dim light, to go further off, on 
the ground that if I were " touched," I might think it was he that 
did it. 

The second evening Professor Miinsterberg was not present, but 
Professor Trowbridge of Princeton, a physicist, was. Otherwise the 
group was practically the same. We then tried the experiment of 
shifting the cabinet (without previous warning) to the obviously solid 
corner of the room, across which we stretched the curtains, as in the 
Naples sittings. And I asked Mr. Carrington and the interpreter (one 
of my friends spoke Italian like a native) to leave us alone with E. P. 
during that sitting, which [they] very courteously did. Under these 
conditions the same phenomena as before took place, and in addi- 
tion something resembling slightly a palely illuminated hand appeared 
in the dim light, three times, above E. P/s head. Her own hand, 
if free, however, could easily have got into that position. And 
Prof. Trowbridge told me that at a previous sitting at which he 
had been the week before something similar in appearance had shot 
swiftly out over the table in front of her when the light was 
dim and that then it was at a lower level, the level of her shoulder, 
at which it would have to be in order to reach out far in front if 
it really were her hand thrust out from under the concealing curtain. 
And I came off with the impression that it probably was her hand, 
in some way free. 

Another thing I noticed that evening was that when the curtain 
came out it seemed to me to be rather twitched out from some 
point low down as low down as her waist than freely blown out 
from behind. I was able also from where I stood to reach across 

1910. Eusapia Palladino in Ameri< 269 

and feel of it before the movement cea&cd, uml it was drawn, I 
thought, quite tensely above the point of movement, which I could 
not reach. The corner of a room is a poor place in one way to 
locate the cabinet, because no one but the controllers on either 
side whom she controls as well as is controlled by can get 
IK HI- it. It also seemed to me that evening that the wind from the 
cabinet was caused by the curtain as it was moved, not that it was 
the wind that moved it. 

That evening E. P. began by saying that she wanted no one to 
stand near the controller upon either side, nor as far back as they 
towards the cabinet; that is, she wanted to keep all present within 
a certain angle in front of her, as it were. I also noticed that 
before the cabinet performances began she gradually worked her 
chair and the table back until she practically touched the curtain, 
and that she left her controls " con permesso " at times, and stretched 
about as though to rest herself, which was, of course, quite natural, 
but gave opportunity, when the light was dim and the curtain had 
blown out over her shoulder, to arrange things in the cabinet or 
elsewhere if she wished. 

That evening I did not control at all myself, but getting as close 
as I could behind one of my friends who was controlling, in the 
cabinet period of the seance, I found myself able to see into the 
cabinet, as soon as the curtain on my side had been blown out 
and was resting on her shoulder, with considerable distinctness, 
thanks to the white-plastered, sloping wall, and I made up my mind 
that whatever took place in it had its origin between her and the 
object moved, and not behind the latter. Moreover, all the move- 
ments that took place from the cabinet outward seemed to have the 
character of ones due to sudden pulls or pushes not to any per- 
sistently acting force ; e.g. the little table seemed to me to be thrown 
out always even when, one time, it was thrown out on top of the 
other and not to be propelled by any steady force. 

The third evening the sittings were on the 13th, 16th and 18th of 
December more people were present than previously, a dozen or so 
in all, besides herself and those who came with her, the interpreter, 
a stenographer, and Mr. and Mrs. Carrington, but several of these 
had been present at the other sittings. That evening we began by 
asking E. P. to let herself be searched by two ladies who were 
present by my own arrangement. This was done quite thoroughly, 
by their report, but I noticed that E. P. did not, they told me 
afterward, take off her boots, which did not occur to them as 

270 Journal of Society for Psychical Research. APRIL, 1910. 

necessary. I merely made a mental note of the fact at the time, 
but afterwards it seemed important. The cabinet was now back 
in its old place, in the recess in the boarding, which gave those 
present and not controlling more room to get near, or in a line at 
least with the front of, the cabinet. 

In the first part of the sitting there were levitations of the table in 
full light, as before, and these we could in no way explain. Professor 
Miinsterberg was controlling on one side ; one of my friends a keen, 
intelligent, and younger man upon the other. I was free, and could 
see plainly under the table as it rose. Her knees were not lifted, 
her hands were above the table and in control, and one of my friends 
once ran his hand down between her body and the table as it was 
rising. None of us indeed, however sceptical, who were present at 
any of these sittings have yet been able to suggest any explanation 
for these full-light levitations. I think it possible that they may be 

After a while the light was turned down that is, a bulb covered 
with dark-red paper was used instead of the plain bulb and things 
began to happen in the cabinet, the curtain having first blown out, 
or been drawn out, as usual, and resting on her shoulder her left 
shoulder it was. Prof. Miinsterberg had not been " touched " ; she 
was asked to " touch " him that is, to get him " touched " the same 
thing if you will ! To bring this about she brought him from control- 
ling on her right side to her left. I had noticed previously that the 
things done from the cabinet seemed to come mainly from one side 
or the other at any given time, not from both indifferently. M. 
was then touched on the arm; I was standing behind him, a little 
way off but leaning forward with my hands resting on the back of 
his chair. 

One of the friends who had come with me, a younger man, 
active, quick and cool, stooped down between me and M.'s chair, to 
watch, if possible, if anything came out from the cabinet. The 
room was then quite dark (with a single red light), and being unseen 
behind M.'s chair and E. P. being then close to the cabinet 
with the curtain (i.e. a strip of it) drawn over her left shoulder, 
which further prevented her from seeing as from being seen, my 
friend gradually stretched out upon the floor until his head was in 
the cabinet, and lay there watching. 

A suggestion was then made that the little table should be brought 
out again it had already been thrown out once and been replaced, 
and E. P., I think, had herself replaced it where it then was standing 

APRIL, 1910. Eusapia Palladino in America. 271 

when suddenly my friend saw a foot, no boot upon it, above him 
in the dim light, and took hold of it. E. P. screamed out, in Italian 
of course, that some one had touched her foot. He let go immediately 
and divw quietly back, rising up behind inu in the dark, so that 
he remained throughout unseen. At the moment no one, I think, 
but myself knew what had happened, and one of the other men 
present, familiar with her stances, who happened to be standing 
opposite me, behind her right control, remarked that it was "very 
extraordinary," he had " never known of Eusapia's being * touched ' 
before." She herself was very much disturbed ; accused a quite 
innocent person who did not even know what had happened of 
having crept into the cabinet ; and then exclaimed that the newspapers 
would say, the next morning, that she did things with her foot. 

Nothing more of importance happened after that. She kept re- 
curring to it, that some one had touched her foot; but she did not 
seem at the end to be as hysterical, I thought, as previously at 
the trance's end, which left me with a question as to how real the 
hysteria and exhaustion had been in which the other trances had 
seemed to leave her. 

Now, to go back, the foot, when my friend grasped it, must from 
his position have been at least two feet behind her. At the same 
time Prof. Miinsterberg and it was unmistakably upon his side was 
quite unconscious that he was not " controlling " able to account 
for, that is that same foot, which was placed on his and pressing 
continuously on it at the time, he tells me. That she released her 
foot from under mine in a previous sitting and placed it above, I 
have already mentioned. The simplest explanation would seem to 
be, I think, that she has very supple feet and limbs, and draws 
her foot out from her boot, which she still continues to hold 
down in some way with some attachment on the other foot con- 
ceivably on the controller's foot while she uses her own to move 
things in the cabinet, and probably to touch the controllers on the 
arm or elsewhere. Mr. Carrington told me in the beginning that 
everything that happened took place within four feet of her. Now 
this is just about the reach of leg and foot, if she has a chance 
under the cover of the extended curtain and the darkness to stretch 
out at length. I think she also reaches back and places things in 
the cabinet where she can reach them later, when she stops and 
frees herself to " rest." She rearranges the curtain then, and might 
easily arrange the things behind it too, for the room is dark and 
she is dose to the curtain, where she could readily reach back. 

272 Journal of Society for Psychical Research. APRIL, 1010. 

In my three sittings there was nothing that took place in con- 
nection with the cabinet that could not easily be explained by a 
free foot or hand, used skilfully ; and that she does use both, and 
skilfully, there now can be no doubt. The levitation of the larger 
table in full light I am rather inclined to believe in as genuine, 
as I have already said, partly because the control of eye as well 
as touch seems, in this case, to be so good ; and if this be 
genuine, perhaps other things are genuine too. But I feel quite 
sure myself that none of those we saw were so, apart from the 
levitations of the larger table. E. P. certainly has a well worked out 
system for doing things by trickery if they fail to do themselves. 
The knocking of the table, bidding people talk, is part of it, no 
doubt. Mr. Carrington told me it seemed to "help things to 
happen " and I think it did. The tying of the feet which we 
did one evening at her suggestion I think must hold the boot, 
not the foot. 

The man controlling opposite Prof. Miinsterberg at the time of the 
foot incident was an unusually intelligent, clear-witted younger man, 
and an old friend of mine, who had been present at all three 
sittings and had controlled before. He, like Prof. Miinsterberg, 
was quite unconscious at the time of her having escaped in any 
way from his control. Nor did she probably, as it was quite 
evidently on Prof. Miinsterberg's side that she had freed herself. 
But he was also watching closely, and feels quite certain of the 
pressure of her foot as he thought it on his at the time the thing 
took place. He now thinks the touch he felt just previously was 
no doubt her toes, reaching up under the cover of the extended 
curtain to his right arm. G. B. DORR. 

After writing this letter, Mr. Dorr obtained the following 
statements from the sitter who grasped the foot and from 
Professor Miinsterberg. In sending us the . original account of 
the former Mr. Dorr calls attention to his own error in stating 
that the foot was seen in the cabinet ; the dim light and the 
shadow of the extended curtain precluded sight, and the foot 
was grasped on the indication of sound alone. The writer of 
the account is an old friend of Mr. Dorr's ; what he did was 
done upon his own initiative, as he saw the opportunity offered 
him and took it, and not in consequence of any suggestion 
from Professor Miinsterberg, whom he had met for the first 
time that evening. His name and address were given to us, but 

i9io. Eusapia Palladino in America. 273 

\M- were asked not to print them, as he wished to avoid being 
involved in the notoriety which the incident had gained in 
America. He writes as follows : 

February Wh, 1910. 

I wish here to place on record my impressions of what happened 
at the seance of Eusapia Palladino which I attended in New York. 
During the early part of the evening I acted as " control " of 
K usa pin's left arm and left leg, while Professor Hugo Miinsterberg had 
control of her right arm and leg. The usual phenomena occurred 
as described in the various reports of the E. P. sittings. The only 
difference that I see from the reports which I happen to have read 
was the very much larger number present. There were in the 
room, including Eusapia, the stenographer, and Mr. and Mrs. 
Carrington, seventeen people. 

At the end of a considerable time I signified my intention of 
giving up my place, which Miinsterberg took, his place being 
taken by a well-known scientist, the President of a scientific body 
in New York. 

during my " control " I had been touched several times in the 
tit ribs, and so when the manifestations had progressed and the 
m returned to its darkened condition, I dropped to the floor and 
back of Miinsterberg's chair. There I lay in a strained 
ition for a long time with my open hand covering his ribs hoping 
t whatever had touched me would touch him, intending instantly 
close on it. Nothing, however, happened, except that I lost my 
lance slightly, owing to the strain of my position, and I lightly 
rushed M.'s ribs by mistake. 

I then crept back to the furthest end of the table from E., and 
umed my standing position among the onlookers in order to 
rest from the long strain of my position. It must be realized that 
during all this time the curtain of the cabinet had been blown or 
lifted on to the table and completely filled the gap between Eusapia 
and Miinsterberg. Realizing that probably no one but you [Mr. 
Dorr] would notice another attempt, I once more dropped to the 
floor and glided on my stomach along the back of Miinsterberg's 
chair, but instead of stopping there I crept on to the extreme edge 
of the cabinet. Of course that side was open, as the curtain was 
on the table between E. and M. Just as I got there the table 
was upset and almost fell on my face. It was then lying half 
inside and half outside the cabinet and I right beside it. I lay 
there from then on, with my left hand raised ready to intercept 

274 Journal of Society for Psychical Research. APRIL, 1910. 

anything that might be between the small table and Eusapia's 
chair. I had already felt all up and down the table to see if 
there could be anything there, but it was completely clear. I here 
draw a rough plan of the situation at this moment, although it 
is not in scale. 

As my position made it possible to intercept anything returning 
from the table to E., I determined to wait for the first slight 
movement of the table, as earlier in the evening it had first upset 
in the cabinet and then later on shot out behind my chair when I 
was the left "control." I did not know what to expect, a wire 
hook, possibly electricity, when suddenly the table moved and I 
instantly closed in to intercept, and my fingers closed firmly on 
a human foot in rapid motion which was stopped and arrested by 
my hand. My fingers were over the instep and my hand closed 
firmly on it. It was then that Eusapia gave a piercing shriek and 
I glided quickly back in the darkness towards the other end of the 
table, where I resumed my standing position. Eusapia's outcry, 
followed by continuous wailings that she had been seized by the 
foot, so distracted the attention of the general company that I 
escaped detection except by you and by one of the ladies present. 
I was very much aided in being able to remain so long near 
the centre of action unobserved by the fact that there were so 
many people present. As the curtain was lying on the table between 
Munsterberg and Eusapia, the journey from his chair to the cabinet 
was comparatively safe as long as it was accomplished in perfect 

If at any time you require this statement in a more formal 
character, please send me a type-written copy of it and I will swear 
to it before a notary public. 

Professor Miinsterberg wrote to Mr. Dorr as follows : 


January 19, 1910. 

In accordance with your request I state here in writing what I 
at once told you orally after our seance with Madame Palladino 

APRIL, 1910. Euaapia Pcdladino in America. 275 

on December 18th, the second in which I took part. I understand 
that you are interested only in a statement concerning those observa- 
tions which have reference to Madame Palladino's situation at the 
time when her foot was grasped in the cabinet. 

At the moment when her screaming indicated that she was 
grasped, I felt sure that I held her left hand with my right hand 
and that I felt her left shoe on my right foot. Moreover I felt 
sure that no change in the pressure of the shoe had occurred 
during the preceding minutes. I believed myself to feel both the 
heel and the sole of her left shoe, while it was her left foot which 
reached out for the table in the cabinet. Inasmuch as the gentle- 
man on her right side also felt her whole foot on his foot, I 
consider it impossible that a substitution had set in by which her 
right foot gave to both her neighbours the feeling of being touched 
by her shoe. As throughout that part of the stance I gave my 
fullest attention to my foot sensations, I must believe that her 
right foot remained on the foot of her right neighbour and that her 
left shoe remained on my foot. 

The skill with which she succeeded in removing her foot from 
bhe shoe without giving me the slightest suspicion appears to me 
larvellous. By my laboratory work I am accustomed to careful 
>bservation of impressions. I gave my full attention to the tactual 
jnsations which her shoe produced on my foot, and yet I did not 
lotice anything of the change until the scream occurred. On the 
)ther hand I confess that the surprise of the scream withdrew my 
ittention for a few seconds so fully from the tactual sensations that 
iter I was unable to remember what happened immediately after 
ic surprise. Certainly when I turned my attention to my foot 
again, her foot was in the shoe once more. But it may be that a 
minute had elapsed since the excitement which the scream 

Let me add that the gentleman who caught Madame Palladino's 
foot in the cabinet told me a few minutes afterwards that he had 
it near the heel and that the foot was without a shoe. 

le tactual sensations which I perceived at the arm were also such 
as an unshod foot might easily produce with the toes, while a 
shoe could not have given them. 


276 Journal of Society for Psychical Research. APRIL, 1910. 


AN important article by Mr. Gerald Balfour has appeared in the 
Hibbert Journal for April, 1910, on "Psychical Research and Current 
Doctrines of Mind and Body." These he divides into three principal 
varieties, namely : 

(1) Parallelism, which holds that between mind and brain inter- 
action is inconceivable; neither can influence the other. Yet they 
are so closely related that to every change in the mental series a 
change in the physical series exactly corresponds. 

(2) Epiphenomenalism, which also asserts that every mental event 
has its exact counterpart in a brain event; but that, while conscious- 
ness cannot influence the molecular changes in the brain, the molecular 
changes in the brain are the cause, and the sole immediate cause, of 
all conscious states. 

(3) Interactionism, which like Parallelism recognises both a dis- 
parity and a correlation between the mental and the physical series, 
but holds that the two series may be causally related to each other 
and that the relation of the mind with the brain is one of reciprocal 

After explaining briefly the essential features and some of the 
consequences of these doctrines, the writer goes on to consider whether 
any fresh light is thrown on the question of the relation of mind 
and body by the special investigations to which Psychical Research 
is directed. He shows that if empirical proof were produced that 
the individual mind may survive bodily death, carrying with it 
sufficient of its earthly memories to maintain continuity between its 
discarnate and its corporeal existence, the doctrine of Parallelism 
and still more that of Epiphenomenalism would, so far as we can 
see, have to be abandoned, and some modification of the Inter- 
actionist theory involving a doctrine of the relations of soul and 
body rather than of mind and brain would seem to remain the 
only one tenable. 

The evidence for individual survival, however, in Mr. Balfour's 
opinion, falls considerably short of proof, but telepathy between 
the living is in his view an established fact, and he expresses his 
astonishment at the readiness with which the ordinary educated 
public (we may add, with little or no examination of the evidence 
on which it rests) have adopted a belief in telepathy, while they 
fail to see how profoundly even this belief should modify all current 
psycho-physical doctrines. Finally, he points out that, though 
the evidence for survival is seriously weakened by the counter 
hypothesis of telepathic faculty combined with subliminal agency; 
on the other hand, if a mind associated with a brain can be in 
direct telepathic relation with some other mind, there is at least a 
prima fade ground for supposing that this relation may subsist after 
the destruction of the brain. 




. Society for Psychical Research. 



Discussion of the Naples Report on Eusapia Palladino. By Lieut. -Colon el (.. L. 

Le M. Taylor, 277 

Review: Mr. Podmore's "Telepathic Hallucinations," 290 

Endowment Fund for Psychical Research, - 292 

Errata in Proceedings Part LX., 292 



I AM sorry that the conditions of investigation accepted by our 
Committee and explained in their Report on Eusapia Palladino 
should not meet with Miss Stawell's approval ; but I think in her 
criticism, published in the February Journal, she sometimes seeks 
to put a construction on words and reported actions they do not 
fairly bear. 

She begins her paper by speaking of the "suspicious circum- 
stances " and " obvious attempts at trickery " described on pp. 338, 
383, 400, and 543. (Proceedings, Vol. XXIII.) 

It is well known that things take place during Eusapia's seances 
which do seem to be attempts at fraud, but during the present 
investigation they seem to have been very rare. Miss Stawell calls 
attention to only 4 as having occurred throughout the 13 seances 
reported ; there were, however, one or two more. I do not know 
the reason for this, but, if other things are shown to have been 
unaccountably abnormal, rare attempts at fraud of the description 
mentioned in Miss Stawell's paper, even granting that they do 
take place, are in my opinion of no consequence. 

Miss Stawell now goes into greater detail to show that Mr. 
Podmore's views are warranted, and because she cannot "see how 
to make the shorthand report consistent with F.'s later notes about 
the substitution of hands and the seizing of Mrs. H.'s wrist," she 
concludes it is not so, and makes some remarks on the difficulty of 

278 Journal of Society for Psychical Research. MAY, 1910. 

accurate memory, tending to depreciate the evidence tendered by 
our Committee. 

(1) As to the "substitution of hands" affair, if Miss Stawell had 
enquired she might have found out that the shorthand notes (Pro- 
ceedings, Vol. XXIII. p. 540) are not inconsistent with the supple- 
mentary information given on p. 541 that what took place 
between 10.30 and 10.34 during Seance XL, was in fact as follows: 

(a) E. P. substituted part of her right hand for her left, un- 
perceived by Mrs. H. 

(b) F. saw E. P.'s left hand moving towards the curtain and 
asked Mrs. H. if she was holding the medium's left hand. Mrs. 
H.'s attention being thus attracted to what her right hand was 
holding, she became aware, by feeling the thumb-nail of the medium's 
right hand, and probably other indications, of the substitution that 
had taken place and answered, "No, she has made a substitution." 

(c) F. now exclaimed "substitution of hands" in such a way as 
to attract the attention of the stenographer, who recorded this 
remark, and also that of Mrs. H. which followed, namely, "I 
thought that I had still hold of the medium's left hand." 

(2) From what I read on p. 549, it appears that what F. 
dictated for note by Mr. Meeson, namely, " Mrs. H.'s hand was 
seized by the wrist by a hand and dragged across the table to 
touch B.'s face" must have been prompted by what Mrs. H. told 
him (unless Mrs. H. dictated it herself), for although he saw her 
hand move across the table, he did not "see any hand holding it." 
I fail to recognise any want of consistency. 

(3) Miss Stawell is struck by what she considers the incessant 
changes in the position of Eusapia's hands, and gives the following 
example from the report of Seance VI. 12.30, of how she thinks 
such changes may "provide the opportunity for the phenomena, 
fleeting as these are." She quotes from p. 453 the shorthand 
notes of what took place, and asks whether there might not have 
been time between that at which E. P. withdrew her hand from 
F.'s and replaced it in B.'s to have done some act which caused C. 
to aver that he saw a head come out from the curtains slowly and 
to within six inches of his head, stay out about two seconds and 
then go back. I do not know but granting that E. P. took more 
than two seconds to move her hand from F.'s to B.'s, what C. saw 
was a head, not a hand. If he saw this head come out from 
behind the curtains to the left of Eusapia's head, it could not have 
been represented by her hand, because she could not have got it 

MAY, i9io. The Naples Report on Eusapia Palladino. 

into that position. If not so, however, remembering that Eusapia's 
head was resting against C.'s head, and her left hand in his, so 
that, when she put her right hand inside the curtain to take F.'s, 
she must have swung her right shoulder back, and the only way 
she could have performed the miracle imputed to her must have 

(a) To change the appearance of her hand to that of a head. 
(I) To swing this false head right across in front of B., to 
pause a moment close to C.'s head, then repass 8. and 
gain the shelter of the curtain. 

(c) To permit her hand to re-assume its ordinary shape and 
then replace itself in B.'s. 1 

(4) Miss StawelPs next remarks refer to the statement that during 
Seance V. 11.8, the little table struck B. under the shoulder 
(p. 429). She quotes the following sentence from " Remarks on the 
seance" (V. p. 420). "From 10.52 onwards there were a series of 
movements of the small table and of other objects behind the cur- 
tain, culminating at 11.8 by the small table striking B. on the 
shoulder and upsetting completely, the medium being rigorously 
held, visible and motionless," and from this she infers that the 
intention is to imply that E. P. was "held, visible and motionless" 
from 10.52 to 11.8. I could draw no such conclusion, but if for a 
moment I did entertain it, a glance at the shorthand report of the 
seance would be enough to dispel that error. 

She goes on to remark on the incessant motion of E. P.'s limbs, 
and would, I think, like the reader to infer that the movements of 
the things behind the curtain were caused by Eusapia, owing to the 
want of control exercised by the experimenters. I maintain, however, 
that since the table and the other things were behind the curtain, 
and the curtain behind the medium's chair, she could not have been 
the cause of their movement with even much more liberty of action 
than the report grants her. Miss Stawell describes the medium's 
left leg as "kicking backwards and forwards," but forgets to say 
that it was under the table and under F.'s control. To Miss 
Stawell the fact that on one occasion it was found that Eusapia 
had only buttoned her boots by the top button "suggests pre- 
paration for slipping her foot in and out;" to me it suggests 
slovenliness only. 

1 The above speculation is, however, needless, for on enquiry I find that 
"the head appeared after Eusapia had replaced her hand on B.'s." 

280 Journal of Society for Psychical Research. MAY, 1010. 

But to go back to Mr. Feilding's original statement on p. 420, 
that when the table struck B. Eusapia was " rigorously held, visible 
and motionless " (pp. 420 and 429) and Miss Stawell's that " it 
was after the table has struck B. at 11.8 that the medium appears 
to have become motionless." 

Here are two statements which cannot both be true, one made 
by a witness of the event, the other by one who was not. In order 
to settle which is correct, let us turn to the shorthand report made 
at the time, and then and there recorded. 

"11.8 p.m. B. The little table struck me under the shoulder 
and fell over completely on the right of the medium. 

"B. At the same moment she was holding my left hand with 
her right, and her right foot was resting on my left foot. I felt 
the whole length of her leg against my leg. 

" F. Her left hand is in my left, on the corner of the table. My 
right hand across both knees. Her left leg motionless. Her left 
foot on my right foot, and I know it is the whole of it. Her head 
close to me and motionless and clearly visible. 

"B. Her head is visible to me as well." 

This appears to me inconsistent with Miss Stawell's statement. 

Finally, in this section of her remarks, Miss Stawell thinks it likely 
that E. P. " substituted a dummy hand for her right during Seances 
V., VI, and VII"! "Possible," "conceivable," it may be; but 
I think in the face of the report of those present altogether 
unlikely. 1 

(5) Raps, p. 334. 

Under this heading Miss Stawell calls attention to par. 10, page 
537 : " Finally the series of raps produced on the door leading 
into B.'s room, at the side of the cabinet, at the close of the 
seance (XL), which must be regarded as the only really evidential 
raps obtained throughout the whole series. The No. I. Light was 
on, and the room additionally flooded with light through the open 
door of the next room." 

She explains these raps by supposing a confederate of Eusapia's 
got into B.'s room and made them in answer to signals; of course 
this is a possible explanation, but under the circumstances not a 
likely One. 

(a) Miss Stawell says the door from B.'s room opening on the 

1 Mr. Baggally, who is the witness most concerned, repudiates my expressions 
"possible, conceivable," as completely wide of the mark. 

MAY, 1910. The Naples Report on Eusapia Palladino. 281 

passage was not locked. 1 My own experience of continental hotels 
is, that bedroom doors are always kept locked. 

(b) She says that Signor Zingaropoli remained in the stance room. 

This gentleman is not mentioned in the report of what took 
place, made at the time, but Mr. Baggally in his final report made 
in March, 1909, says, "This lady (Mrs. H.) retained her seat on the 
left of the medium and I retained mine on her right. The other 
persons who had been present at the stances (with the exception of 
the stenographer who remained seated at his table) had retired into 
C.'s room." 2 She reminds us that Signor Z. is a friend of Eusapia's ; 
does she suggest that he was her confederate ? 3 

1 do not know what they do with strangers who "slip into" the 
bedrooms of guests in Italian hotels, but I fancy it is something 
not very nice, particularly if they gain admittance by help of a 
skeleton key. 

How does Miss Stawell imagine that the necessary signals were 
made ? Did one of them perhaps consist in scratching the back of 
R's hand ? 

As to the raps being described as both "loud" and "feeble," it 
must be remembered that these are merely relative terms. 

(6) Levitations, p. 331 (1). 

The view that the occurrence of levitations in the presence of 
Eusapia may be denied on a priori grounds is reasonable ; but to 
argue from the report published that the members of our Committee 
were mistaken when they thought there was no adequate physical 
connection between the medium and the things levitated seems to 
me unreasonable on the part of one who was not present at the 
seances, and whose opportunity of judging must be small compared 
with theirs. 

The first instance of levitation of the stance table criticised by 
Miss Stawell is one which took place during the first seance at 

1 In fact, the door of B.'s room opens, not on the passage, but into a dressing- 
room, the door of which, he assures me, it was his custom to lock whenever he 
left the room, and he has no recollection of not having done so on this occasion. 

2 Or this may be looked at from the point of view of arithmetic Present, 
6 persons, three (H., B., and MJ remaining in the seance-room and "three 
of the company going into the room on the other side (C.'s room)" (Miss 
Stawell's Paper, p. 234). 

y On referring this to Mr. Baggally, he says, "Miss Stawell's implied assertion 
that Signor Zingaropoli was a confederate cannot be entertained. This gentleman 
occupies a very high position in the legal department of Naples municipality." 

282 Journal of Society for Psychical Research. MAY, 1910. 

11.44. In the report of this case the description given of the con- 
trol exercised is not quite accurate owing to some confusion in the 
use of the words "right" and "left," this confusion would no doubt 
be cleared up by means of a question or two addressed to the 
witnesses; 1 still the main point is, that the experimenters who 
were on the spot were satisfied that the levitations were "genuine." 
If Miss Stawell wishes to criticise the report of levitations, she 
should attack the strongest cases she can find, and had she drawn 
attention to the one that occurred at 11.43, one minute before the 
one the evidence for which she attacks, she would have been unable 
to show any confusion in the wording of the description of the 
control exercised, and would have had to meet in addition the evi- 
dence of the shorthand writer, Mr. Meeson, who says, " I could see 
the table in the air with nobody touching it," and this in Light I. 

(7) Objects emerging from the Cabinet. 

The shape, colour, and size of the objects observed to emerge 
from the cabinet, are, no doubt, matters of interest, but our 
enquiry is rather whether this emergence was the result of some 
physical action on the medium's part or not. 

Read the report of a " white hand " coming out from behind the 
curtain at 12.9 a.m., during Seance VII. p. 477, and say whether 
that report leaves any room for supposing it to be Eusapia's hand, 
particularly when the outsider has to judge by the written record, 
as Miss Stawell (p. 237) maintains he must. 

(8) The transportation of the clay on the board. 

In her criticism of this incident, Miss Stawell commences by 
saying, "If Eusapia once got her left hand free," but this is, I 
think, a bold suggestion when its possibility is denied as follows, by 
three responsible witnesses. 

Says R. "My right hand was lying perfectly flat on the middle 
of the table, and her left hand was stroking my wrist " (p. 496). 

Says F. " Her right hand was continuously in mine." If the 
medium's right hand was under F.'s, as the Committee agree in 
saying (p. 485), it could not have been the one stroking B.'s 
without F. being aware of it ; but F. has more to say ; he writes : 
"Eusapia's two hands were both visible, her left on R.'s right hand 

a The following question addressed to Mr. Carrington was all that was 
necessary "I cannot follow the explanation, p. 353, unless in line nine, 'right 
hand' should have been 'left hand.' Is it so?" The answer from Mr. 
Carrington was "Yes." 

, 1910. The Naples Report on Eusapia Pcdladino. 283 

near the middle of the table, her right hand under my right hand 
about a foot distant from her left" (p. 503), and lastly, C. says 
(p. 503), "It would have been an utter impossibility for the medium 
(even supposing that she had her left hand free) to have placed the 
clay in the position in which I first saw it ( x 2 on plan, p. 503), and 
then to have moved it on to the stance table." Certainly not without 
being discovered, for as they could see the clay and board move 
slowly out, they could also have seen the medium's hand carrying it. 

The above rather strongly suggests to me that E. P. did not get 
her left hand free ; Miss Stawell, on the contrary, gains an opposite 
suggestion, just as powerful, perhaps, from the facts that half an 
hour before one curtain had been right over the table, that the 
medium's two hands were resting on the table, about a foot apart, 
visible and controlled respectively by F. and R. and that "one at 
least of her hands was moving about," was stroking R's wrist, if 
that is what you call " moving about." 

Commenting on C.'s report, Miss Stawell says (p. 237), " It 
seems as though it must have been very hard to detect a slight 
movement of the black curtain in that dim light (Light III.) and 
from the angle where he (C.) was standing, (see plan, p. 503)." 

A slight movement ! If Eusapia had leant back in her chair and 
thrust her hand into the cabinet (her left hand is, I suppose, 
suggested) between the two curtains, and then brought it round 
and out of the cabinet again between the left-hand curtain and the 
wall, by the window, and so back to the middle of the table, the 
whole of the left-hand curtain would have been gathered up in her 
left arm and carried forward so as to cover the left-hand corner of 
the table at least. If she had thrust her hand into the cabinet by 
the wall, the disturbance to the curtain would not have been 
"slight," as Miss Stawell describes it, but considerable, even before 
she was able to get at the clay at all. 

(9) The cold freeze and the curtain bulging, etc. 
For between 20 and 30 years Eusapia has been before the public, 
during which time the phenomena occurring in her presence have 
been enquired into, examined and re-examined by eminent scientific 
men of all nationalities, yet, as far as I know, no evidence has been 
forthcoming that she provides herself secretly with apparatus for 
fraudulent purposes, and if any such evidence exists, I feel confident 
that Miss Stawell would have brought it forward in support of her 
theories ; instead of that, however, she now floats away on the wings 
of an imagination which despises all difficulties of manipulation and 

284 Journal of Society for Psychical Researcli. MAY, 1910. 

any inference which might be drawn from the non-discovery, during 
so many years, of these hypothetical tools. 

Miss Stawell supposes Eusapia to provide herself, as occasion re- 
quires, with tubes, bulbs, bladders, dummy hands, crooked wires, and 
phosphorus, but when we come to look more closely at how these 
things are to be used for fraudulent purposes, it seems to me that 
they will require for their manipulation, hands free beyond all 
freedom that " substitution " could give them, and also that the 
effect they are supposed to serve could be, in many cases, much 
more easily produced without their aid. 

If, for example, the dummy hand was used to deceive during 
Seances V. VI. and VIIL, its use seems a needless refinement, 
seeing that Eusapia's own hand must itself have been behind the 
curtain to hold it. 1 Again, if a bladder at the end of a tube is 
supposed to be the device by means of which the curtains are made 
"to balloon out in a round bulge" the bladder itself must have been 
held behind the curtains; Eusapia with her naked hand, without the 
bladder, could make quite as effective a demonstration with no risk 
of any apparatus being discovered, and without the trouble of getting 
the thing out from between her "skin and her combinations/' 
inflating it, etc., etc. 

Miss Stawell says that " the description of the . . . curtain-bulging 
seems exactly to suit the effect that might be produced by such a 
bladder dilated at will;" but the experimenters say : "If we made a 
sudden grab at the bulge, no resistance was encountered. . . ." Now, 
if the bulge was made by a bladder being pressed against the 
curtain from behind, it would be distinctly felt by any one who 
suddenly grabbed at the bulge. 

(10) Dress swelling. 

Perhaps the dress swelling is not incompatible with the use of the 
supposed bladder, but from my ignorance of ladies' underclothing I 
cannot follow the arrangements described; a good deal depends on 
the size of the swelling arid the consequent size of the bladder. 
The difficulty of deflating the bladder without noise also has to be 

(11) Movements of the little table. 

" Most of these movements," says Miss Stawell, " can be explained 
on the quite possible supposition that Eusapia got one hand or foot 

1 To suppose that the Committee could have been deceived by a detached inflated 
thing placed loosely on the table under the curtain seems to me preposterous. 

MAY, HMO. The Naplen Report on Eusapia Pcdladino. 285 

free." The supposition does not seem to me quite so possible as she 
would have it. In the only instance, as Miss Staweli thinks, in 
which the movements of the small table could not have been caused 
by one hand or foot unassisted by apparatus, was at 11.55, during 
Stance II. when she supposes the use of a thin wire about the 
thickness of a hairpin how long this wire is supposed to be she 
does not say, though this dimension is of vital importance. In any 
case, the wire could only assist the medium in either drawing the 
table towards her or pushing it directly away, if that; but, as far 
.as I can follow the report, it seems that the table moved from some 
position on the floor to the right of the medium to a position in 
the cabinet directly behind her, and this change of position could 
not be effected by any direct push or pull. 

I have a little table, weighing just about 7 Ibs., which I put on. 
the bare floor and tried to move with a wire, gauge 18, length 
3 ft. 6 inches. I could not move it. I then tried a piece of wire, 
gauge 16, of the same length, and found that by bending an end I 
could pull the table to me, but not push it away. It was not till 
I tried a wire of the gauge 10 that I could cause any motion of 
translation except directly towards or away from myself, and then, 
only partially and with difficulty. I had, however, I expect, not so 
smooth a surface to work upon as the possibly polished floor of the 
room in Naples. 

(12) Twanging the Guitar. 

Of this phenomenon Miss Staweli takes two cases on which she 

In the first case, during Seance II., she says : " Is it out of the 
question " that in good light the medium should with a wire pluck 
the strings of a guitar which was over three feet away directly 
behind her chair, with an overset table between them, this wire 
being held in one of her hands, hands which the experimenters 
thought they were controlling, or actuated in some mysterious way 
with her foot ? If asked, I should answer " quite." Think what 
length of wire this supposition would require 3 feet and over 
just get a piece of wire of this length and No. 18 gauge, which is 
that of an average hairpin, take it by one end and see what you 
can do with the other you will be astonished ! 

On the second case, Seance VI., her comments are four in number : 
(a) "After the shorthand notes ended" Yes, because the full 
light had been turned on, indicating the end of the 

286 Journal of Society for Psychical Research. INI AY, 1910. 

(b) " When they thought the seance was over, and therefore 

could not have been controlling her so carefully." The 
medium was standing up outside the curtain, "her two 
feet were controlled by those on either side of her (C. and 
F.), and her two hands held." 

(c) "When B. and M. were talking," but C. and F. listening 

and giving their whole attention to what was going forward. 

(d) "When Eusapia might have imitated the slight sound of 

the twanging that they heard." She may have been able 
to do this, but those standing by her do not think so. 
"That she does imitate sounds," continues Miss Stawell, "is 
the almost inevitable inference from the * kiss ' episode, see 
Seance VII. 12 p.m." But if a " kiss," the sound of which is 
so easily reproduced, was so badly imitated on that occasion 
as to be described as "clicking of the nails,'"' how can we 
suppose that she imitated the vibration of a guitar string 
so well as to deceive two critical witnesses standing one 
on each side of her 1 

(13) Movements of the Curtains. 

On the assumption that Eusapia surreptitiously got one hand free, 
it is legitimate to suppose that she used the freedom of a hand to 
cause movements of the curtain with it, but it seems to me far- 
fetched as a theory to suppose that she used the freedom of a 
.hand to lay a hypothetical wire " aslant on the floor " " one end 
under her left foot, the other slipped through the opening behind 
the edge of the right curtain," and then to suppose that by a jerk 
of the foot she could cause "the whole of the left edge of the 
right curtain " to rush out and " completely envelop her right side." 

In this connection Miss Stawell writes : " For instance, she might 
have pulled the curtain with her own hand, as B. actually caught 
her doing with the very hand F. was controlling at the time " (Seance 
VIII. 12.43, note by B.). This sentence would convey to an average 
reader the suggestion that B. had caught the medium doing some- 
thing fraudulently and surreptitiously, when in fact F. says " She 
.appeared to give these [pulls] quite openly and without concealment 
from me." 

(14) Movements of the little Stool. 

Under this heading Miss Stawell in her remarks suggests a 
situation so different from that disclosed by the report that it is 
-difficult to suppose her serious. 

MAY, 1910. The Naples Report on Eusapia Palladino. 287 

She takes two cases. 

(a) During Stance IX. 11.45, that which she describes as having 
taken place in " poorish light " is spoken of by B., who was present, 
remember, as being observed in " a very good light." 

Also, if the account given by M. of his examination of the stool, 
p. 514, be compared with what Miss Stawell says about it, it will at 
once be seen what a different impression is conveyed by the report 
and the conjecture. 

(b) The second case is one from " Seance XI. 12.26, when the 
stool climbed up the curtain." 

All I can say is, that whatever force was used to make the stool 
climb up the curtain, it was not exercised through the medium's left 
hand, because at the moment that it would have required the 
support of that hand or fallen to the ground, the hand named was 
believed by Mrs. H. to be in hers, and was felt to be there by M., 
whom F. saw feel for it. Miss Stawell, from experiments she has 
made, thinks it quite possible to make a small stool climb up a 
curtain, using her left hand only, but I fear that the movement of 
the stool she speaks of is not the motion of the stool as reported 
by two witnesses, namely, " It slid past the curtain, which remained 
motionless," and "The stool appeared to slide along the stuff of the 

Miss Stawell requires for her experiments that part of the bottom 
of the curtain be held taut and at a certain angle, and for her 
theory, I presume, that Eusapia's left leg should be out of control. 

(15) The Touches. 

About the touches felt by B. during the Seance X. at 12.11 and 
12.20, Miss Stawell says that they correspond suspiciously with the 
presence of a photographer, but as far as I can see, no photographer 
is reported to have been present, that is, in the room, and why 
should his presence in another room be thought suspicious ? J 

That F. found the medium's right hand in the "Substitution 
position" at a moment when the position of her left hand rendered 
substitution impossible, strengthens the inference that the touches 
that B. felt were not made by either of Eusapia's hands. Miss 
Stawell omits to notice the statement made by F. the morning after 
the seance was held about this incident, namely, that " After this, 
B. and I together controlled both the medium's hands, I leaning 

1 Simply by asking the question I found that there were no photographers 
present at all at this time, they had been dismissed previously. 

288 Journal of Society for Psychical Research. MAY, 1910. 

over to B.'s side of the table. The touches, however, on B.'s back 
still continued as before." This was at 12.13 and 12.20, when the 
control was particularly attended to, and described in the report 
made at the time. 

Of the touches during Seance XL 12.51 Miss Stawell says : 

(a) " These occurred after the control was no longer to be given 
[reported] in full" but there is no reason for thinking that it wa& 
any the less rigidly maintained on that account. 

(b) Miss Stawell complains that the light was "dim." It was r 
but what I have to complain of is that although B. says " I can 
see both the medium's hands on the table," Miss Stawell should say 
he only thought he saw. What a man is able to see depends on 
the goodness of his eyesight, and the man himself must, I think, 
be a better judge of how much he sees than any other person. 

(c) Miss Stawell calls attention to the fact that it was only after 
12.56, when the curtain was blown over the table, that B. held 
both Eusapia's hands and was touched nevertheless, and she con- 
tinues, "Then he only held her thumbs, so that her fingers were 
free." Miss Stawell puts the words "her fingers were free" in 
italics, to suggest, I suppose, that those free fingers were concerned 
in the touches felt by B. 1 but this is what is reported by 
witnesses present at the time : 

" B. now takes hold of both thumbs of medium in his right hand. 

"F. B.'s left hand lying on the corner of the table, and a hand 
from inside the curtain plays with it. Meanwhile B. is now holding 
the two thumbs of the Medium in his right hand, visibly to me " 
(page 553). 

There now only remains to consider the suggestion that E.P. 
brought phosphorus with her to Seances VII. and XI. 

Ten minutes after Eusapia "puts her head behind the curtain 
and makes a sudden dive to the right," B. reports "Both C. and I 
saw a brilliant light inside the cabinet about 2J feet from the 
medium, inside the right hand curtain." "It was about 3 feet 
from the ground behind the extreme edge of the right curtain" 
(and would, if it was caused by phosphorus, have required something 
to hold it there). 

The control is thus described : 

"B. Her right hand was on my left hand, but she had lifted 
her foot and placed it on the bar of her chair. 

1 Mr. Baggally says that the conditions were such that Eusapia's fingers 
would have to have been a foot and a half long to do it. 

MAY, 1910. The Naples Report on Eusapia 7 '"/A "//no. 289 

"F. Her hand in mine on this side of the table and her left 
foot was on mine." 

I fail to see how this report favours the theory of the presence 
of phosphorus. 

Miss Stawell, accepting Mr. Baggally's opinion that the lights 
seen in the presence of Carancini were produced by phosphorus, 
after the use of which no smell was observed, argues that the lights 
now under discussion might also have been made by phosphorus, 
despite no smell having been perceived. 

In the first place, I fear Miss Stawell does not appreciate the 
danger and difficulty of dealing with phosphorus in such a way 
as to produce lights such as described, if it will produce such. 1 

Phosphorus is described in the Century Dictionary as " A solid, 
non-metallic, combustible substance, (which) exposed to the air at 
common temperatures . . . emits a white vapour of a peculiar garlic 
odour." Twelve grains of phosphorus melted in half an ounce 
of olive oil and contained in a small bottle is the preparation 
usually imagined to be used for fraudulent production of "spirit 
lights." On uncorking in the dark this solution emits light and, 
permit me to say, also smell. 

There are, however, "phosphorescent" substances containing no 
phosphorus which may be used for this purpose, such as barium 
sulphate, which, properly prepared and sealed up in small glass 
tubes after exposure to sunlight, shines with a bright orange 
coloured light, or calcium sulphate, which is said to shine even 
brighter than the other when similarly dealt with. 

Both in this paper and in that contributed by Mr. Podmore in 
December, it seems to me that the authors are more anxious to 
criticise the report of the Committee appointed to examine the 
phenomena than to ascertain what really occurred ; but what actually 
did take place in Eusapia's presence is what the Committee was 
appointed to enquire into and is that about which the S.P.R. is 
particularly concerned. The common-sense way of getting this infor- 
mation would be, if any point in the report is considered obscure, to 
request the witness or witnesses concerned to throw what light they 
-can upon it, and only after every means to ascertain what really 
occurred had been exhausted to venture an opinion as to how it 
was done. 

1 A few days ago a chemist who prepared for me a small bottle of 
phosphorus oil burned his hands so badly that he is now unable to do his 
business and will not have completely recovered under three weeks. 

290 Journal of Society for Psychical Research. MAY, 1910. 

As an illustration of what I consider the vicious method of 
enquiry, I would remark how easy it would have been for Miss 
Stawell to have asked what had happened in the "substitution of 
hands" case, and saved herself the trouble of drawing from an 
imperfect conception of the situation the doubtful inference of "how 
impossible it is to remember afterwards exactly what took place 
at the moment " the " afterwards " in this case being the next 

In the same way Mr. Podmore also complains that the 
Committee's report is indefinite, and " Frequently at the critical 
moment the statement is incomplete," p. 174 (2). I agree with him 
in this complaint, but the first thing that would occur to me 
if I were about to discuss the matter would be to ask those 
concerned what the real situation had been. Mr. Podmore continues 
a few lines lower down : " It is probable that Eusapia's right hand 
was under the curtain during their progress" that is, during the 
progress for about an hour of various phenomena. How much more 
practical applicability his inference would have, namely, the inference 
that Eusapia used a freed hand between 10.58 and 11.56 to 
fraudulently impose on our Committee, had it occurred to- 
him to ascertain by enquiry whether the place where her right 
hand was supposed to be, had, in fact, been covered by the curtain 
continually during this hour or not. If it turned out that the 
curtain was there all the time, so much the better for Mr. 
Podmore's contention. If it was not, then it would have been 
better if he had not launched a suggestion resting on inaccuracy. 1 



Telepathic Hallucinations: The New View of Ghosts. By FRANK 
PODMORE. (Milner & Co., Limited, Paternoster Row, London. 
1909; XXth Century Science Series.) 128 pp. Price, Is. net. 
AT the present time there seems to be an increasing tendency to 
identify psychical research with the questions of individual survival 
after death, and of the possible influence of supposed outside intelli- 
gences on human affairs. Yet before any one can be competent 
to form an estimate of what evidence exists on these topics, he 
must first have made a careful study of the possibilities of super- 

1 On reference to one who was present, I am informed that "The curtain 
most decidedly did not cover the medium's right hand continuously from 
10.58 till 11.56 as Mr. Podmore suggests." 

MAY, mo. Review. 291 

normal mental action as exercised by living persons. It is therefore 
most important not to lose sight of the fact that our knowledge of 
telepathy is still in a purely empirical stage, and that no greater 
service could be done to psychical research than to discover the laws 
which govern its operations and so raise it to the rank of a science. 
To those unfamiliar with the mass of material to be found in our 
Proceedings and Journal, Mr. Podmore's little book will form an 
excellent introduction to the subject, for it contains not only a 
selection of some of the best authenticated cases, but also a clear 
and instructive exposition of the application to them of acknowledged 
psychological principles. 

Two questions are raised in the book : whether there are 
"ghosts" and what "ghosts" are. The first question Mr. Podmore 
answers in the affirmative, that is to say, he considers that 
the cumulative force of the evidence for apparitions of the 
living and the dead is too strong to be resisted. A particular case 
may be explained by supposing error or exaggeration on the part 
of the percipient, but all collectively cannot be so explained. In 
considering the second question, he discusses and rejects the theory 
that there is "in each of us a quasi-material form . . . which can 
leave the body for a time during life, which must leave it per- 
manently at death, and which can, under favourable conditions, 
make itself visible to mortal eyes." " There is no evidence, (he says,) 
for such entities : for apparitions have never furnished proof of their 
kinship with matter, and recent discoveries of science show us that 
they are to be regarded rather as sensory hallucinations" (a term 
which is carefully and clearly explained by Mr. Podmore). But to 
say this is not to say that they are necessarily subjective in origin, 
for these apparitions are often seen when the person whom they 
resemble is ill or dying; and from a consideration of the evidence 
afforded by the Census of Hallucinations, it appears that such co- 
incidences are too numerous to be ascribed to chance. The evidence 
for experimental and spontaneous telepathy is next briefly reviewed, 
with special reference to the experiments conducted by Mrs. Sidgwick 
and Miss Alice Johnson, by Professor Pierre Janet, and more recently 
by Miss Clarissa Miles and Miss Hermione Ramsden. The result of 
all these experiments, in Mr. Podmore's opinion, is to establish "the 
affection of one mind by another at a distance, as a fact." 

Thus the theory that some ghosts are to be regarded as telepathic 
hallucinations is greatly strengthened. Moreover we find, as would 
be expected on this hypothesis, other examples of hallucination, not 
necessarily of human form, apparently produced by telepathic agency, 
with examples of "experimental ghosts," that is to say, "fully 

292 Journal of Society for Psychical Research. MAY, 1910. 

developed hallucinations of a human figure, produced by mental 

"But if apparitions of the living may be inspired by the thoughts 
of the living, may not apparitions of the dead be inspired by 
thoughts of the dead 1 " Mr. Podmore admits that to this question 
no certain answer can be given, but he shows that many phenomena, 
which at first sight may suggest telepathy from the dead, prove on 
further investigation explicable by telepathy from the living. E.g. 
in several cases the percipient's impression coincides with the time 
when the death became known .to other living minds. "Mr. George 
King, on December 2nd, 1874, dreamt of his brother being wrecked. 
On the following morning the newspapers contained an account of 
the foundering of his brother's ship, which had taken place on 
November 29th." At the time of Mr. King's dream " the founder- 
ing of the ship would have been known at least in the printing 
office and by the owners of the vessel." 

With regard to haunted houses, Mr. Podmore suggests that in 
most cases, " real sounds, exaggerated and misinterpreted, induced 
in nervous persons a state of uneasy expectancy, and this nervous 
state in its turn gave rise to hallucinations." But there remain a 
few instances which are difficult to explain thus and which suggest 
rather some telepathic origin, and in these cases common sense points 
to the source of the apparition in the thoughts of the living, whom 
we know, rather than in the imagined thoughts of the unknown dead. 

Nevertheless, Mr. Podmore concludes that " the investigation of 
these phenomena is by no means complete, and though they should 
prove to be wholly born of earth, these ghosts of the living and 
of the dead assuredly illustrate- in a striking manner the mysterious 
workings of the human mind and the unsuspected influence of soul 
on soul. They are meteors which throw strange gleams of light 
upon the structure of the cosmos of which they form a hitherto 
neglected part." H. DE G. V. 


WE have much pleasure in acknowledging the receipt of a 
donation of 5 to the above Fund from Miss Balfour. 


P. 87, footnote 1. For "p. 135 " read " p. 98." 
P. 89, footnote 1. For "p. 105 " read " p. 116.' 

No. CCLXX. VOL. XIV. JUNE, 1910. 



Society for Psychical Research. 



New Members and Associates, - 294 

Meeting of the Council, - 295 

General Meeting, - - 295 

Case, - 295 

Tric-k-Methods of Eusapia Palladino ; Major and Minor. By Stanley L. Kreb,- 297 

Discussion of the Second Report on Mrs. Holland's Script. By Frank Podmore, 317 

Experiments in Crystal Vision and Hypnotism, 821 

Endowment Fund for Psychical Research, 824 


A Private Meeting of the Society 





On FRIDAY, JUNE 2^th, 1910, at 3.30 p.m., 


" Cross-Correspondences j with special 

reference to Proceedings^ Part LX." 





N.B. No Tickets of Admission are issued for this Meeting. Members 
and Associates will be asked to sign their names on entering. 

294 Journal of Society for Psychical Research. JUNE, 1910. 


Names of Members are printed in Black Type. 
Names of Associates are printed in SMALL CAPITALS. 

Jenkin, Francis Charles, 5 Paper Buildings, Temple, London, E.G. 
Scott-Gatty, Sir Alfred S., C.V.O., F.S.A., Garter King of Arms, 

College of Arms, London, E.G. 

Suffern, Ernest S., 165 Broadway, New York, U.S.A. 
ALLEN, BERNARD MEREDITH, 14 Gainsborough Gardens, Hampstead, 

London, N.W. 
BIRLEY, Miss FLORENCE H., Goldsmiths' College, New Cross, 

London, S.E. 
BLACKWOOD, Miss LENA, 26 George Street, Hanover Square, 

London, W. 

BRENDON, WILLIAM T., Whistley, Yelverton, South Devon. 
BURNHAM, MRS., Barn field, Limpsfield, Surrey. 
DICKINSON, Miss A. J., Poultry Court, Painswick, Gloucestershire, 

and 3a Clareville Grove, London, S.W. 
HAWKINS, HERBERT PENNELL, M.D., F.R.C.P., 56 Portland Place, 

London, W. 

HEUSS, OTTO, 13 Stanley Crescent, London, W. 
HOLMS, MRS. DOUGLAS, 16 South Street, Thurloe Square, London, S.W. 
HORTON, W. CLAUDE, 81 Church Road, Hove, Sussex. 
HOWSON, EICHARD, M.I.C.E., 5 Southfield Terrace, Middlesbrough, 

KINGSMILL, Miss AGNES, 26 George Street, Hanover Square, 

London, W. 

LIBRARIAN, Yale University Library, New Haven, Conn., U.S.A. 
MOGGRIDGE, Miss EDITH, 15 Belsize Square, Hampstead, London, 

SHADDICK, W. HARRIS, Lyndhurst, 99 Montague Road, Leytonstone, 

London, N.E. 

SPENCER, Miss C. H., 26 George Street, Hanover Square, London, W. 
WINSLOW, L. FORBES, M.B., LL.D., D.C.L., 57 Devonshire Street, 

Portland Place, London, W. 
WINSLOW, MRS. FORBES, 57 Devonshire Street, Portland Place, 

London, W. 

JI-XK, I'.MO. Meeting of the Council. 295 


THE 103rd Meeting of the Council was held at 20 Hanover 
Square, London, W., on Thursday, May 5th, 1910, at 6 p.m., 
the President, Mr. H. Arthur Smith, in the chair. There were 
also present : Mr. W. W. Baggally, Professor W. F. Barrett, the 
Hon. Everard Feilding, Dr. T. W. Mitchell, Mrs. Henry Sidgwick, 
Lieut.-Colonel G. Le M. Taylor, Dr. C. Lloyd Tuckey, and Mrs. 
Verrall ; also Miss Alice Johnson, Research Officer, and Miss 
Isabel Newton, Secretary. 

The Minutes of the last Meeting of the Council were read 
and signed as correct. 

Three new Members and eighteen new Associates were elected. 
Their names and addresses are given above. 

The monthly accounts for March and April, 1910, were 
presented and taken as read. 


THE 136th General Meeting of the Society was held at Morley 
Hall, George Street, Hanover Square, London, W., on Thursday, 
May 5th, 1910, at 4.15 p.m., the President, MR. H. ARTHUR 
SMITH, in the chair. 

The PRESIDENT delivered an Address, which will be published 
in the next Part of the Proceedings. 


L. 1179. Dream. 

THE following case of a dream which coincided with the 
death of the person dreamt of was sent to us by Major- 
General Carey, who carefully examined the witnesses and 
J obtained their statements. 
The dreamer's account is as follows: 
SOUTHAMPTON, April H/A, 1910. 
I, Charlotte Cox, am in the service of Miss Lydia Le Cocq, 
who resides at No. 30 Archers Road, Southampton. (I have been 
upwards of 38 years in her service and in that of her cousin, Mrs. 

296 Journal of Society for Psychical Research. JUNE, 1910. 

Laurence, who died in 1889.) My mistress being in poor health, 
I am accustomed to sleep in her room. 

On Sunday, 19th December, 1909, at about 7 a.m., I had a vivid 
dream. I thought I saw an old friend of mine standing in the door- 
way (half-open) between the bed-room and the landing. I said in 
my dream, " here is Susan." She appeared to be dressed in her 
bonnet and mantle, looking quite natural, like herself as I recollect 
her, though I had not seen her for some years. Miss Le Cocq, I 
thought, turned round with a smile to welcome her, she being an 
old acquaintance, having lived for upwards of 50 years in the family, 
with Dr. Le Cocq, Miss Le Cocq's uncle, and Mrs. Barnes, his 
daughter, both now deceased. She had married a Mr. Thomas 
Brailey about 20 years ago, being then upwards of 60 years of 
age, and lived with him in Guernsey till his death about three years 
ago, afterwards in Jersey. 

The dream was a short one, and I awoke at about my usual 
hour in the winter, 7 a.m. 

I mentioned the fact of having had the dream that morning, 
both to Miss Le Cocq, and also to my fellow-servant, Lilian 
Allmeritter, who too has been 17 J years with Miss Le Cocq. 

On the next evening, Monday, 20th December, 1909, I received a 
notice from Messrs. Croad & Sons, Undertakers in Jersey (attached 
hereto), dated 19th December, 1909 (Post-mark Jersey, 11.45 p.m. 
Dec. 19, '09) to the effect that Mrs. Thomas Brailey had died on 
that day at The Birches, St. Saviour's, Jersey. 

A few days after I also received a letter from a friend in Jersey, 
who mentioned the hour of the death, viz. 7 a.m. thus coinciding 
with the time when I awoke from my dream here. I was not 
aware at that time of Mrs. Brailey being ill, nor had any reason 
before my dream for being anxious about her. I had never dreamt 
of her before, nor have I had any other experience of a similar 
character at the time of the death of any other friend of mine. 


Miss Allmeritter writes : 

April Uth, 1910. 

I am in Miss Le Cocq's service. I recollect Charlotte Cox, at 
breakfast on the 19th December, 1909, telling me of her dream 
about her old friend, Mrs. Brailey, as described above. The notice 
from the Jersey undertakers came by post the next evening. 


JUNE, Case. 297 

General Carey adds : 


SnlTHAMPTON, April 14^, 1910. 

I have this day seen Miss Le Cocq, who is a cousin of mine. 
She corroborates Miss Cox's statement, and recollects quite well her 
having told her about the dream on the morning of its occurrence, 
and before the news of Mrs. Brailey's death arrived. 

She gives Miss Cox the highest possible character as a thoroughly 
veracious and reliable person and a most devoted servant to her. 

W. D. CAREY (Major-General). 

The notice from Messrs. Wm. Croad & Sons, Undertakers, is 
in our possession and confirms the date of Mrs. Brailey's 
death, as stated above. 



[Dr. Krebs is an Associate of the Society who was formerly 
an Associate of the American Branch. He has for many years 
made a special study of the trick-methods used' by fraudulent 
mediums, and an article of his on the slate-writing of the 
Misses Bangs, of Chicago, with an introductory note by Dr. 
Hodgson, appeared in the Journal S.P.R. for January, 1901 
(Vol. X., pp. 5-16). He writes to us that he was greatly 
disappointed at the results of his sittings with Eusapia, which 
were, we understand, held before the exposure advertised by 
Professor Miinsterberg had become known. ED.] 

IN round numbers there were a dozen guests present at both 
the seances referred to in the following account, which were 
held in Room 328, third floor, Lincoln Square Arcade, New 
York, Dec. 1909 and Jan. 1910. 

A rough board partition had been erected at the farthest 
end of the room, in which was built the " Cabinet " with two 
thin black curtains hanging from the top and falling loosely 
down to the floor covering the entrance. 

Against these curtains the back of the medium's chair was 

298 Journal of Society for Psychical Research. JUNE, 1910. 

placed. In front of her was the table, a very small table 
and light in weight ; in fact it weighed only twelve pounds, 
and was only a foot and a half wide and about a yard long, 
made of plain, unpainted, pine boards. The gentlemen who 
occupied the places of right and left " control " at various 
times during the two stances were Dr. Frederick T. Simpson, 
hospital neurologist, of Hartford, Conn. ; Dr. Daniel Frohman. 
theatrical manager, of New York ; Mr. Lewis G. Mayer, 
electrical engineer, of Philadelphia ; Mr. Frank Tilford, mer- 
chant, of New York ; Mr. Bradley, business man of Florida ; 
and myself. Dr. Leonard K. Hirshberg of Johns Hopkins 
University requested to be placed in control, but Eusapia 
failed to elect him perhaps wisely from her standpoint. 
Three others sat at the table, the other guests being distri- 
buted around the room, mostly sitting close to the chairs or 
the table-circle. A stenographer sat back taking notes at a 
small table covered with a black cloth, her note paper being 
illumined by a dim red electric bulb screened so that it could 
not throw any light in any direction but upon her tablet. 

[The general arrangement of the room and cabinet was as 
described in the account by Mr. Dorr printed in the Journal 
for April, pp. 267-272, but Mr. Krebs adds that the sides 
and back wall of the cabinet were painted black. The 
phenomena were of the usual type.] 

About half-an-hour after the sitting had commenced Dr. 
Simpson took the place of Mr. Mayer as right-hand " control," 
and I remained in " control " on the left. 

About eleven o'clock Dr. Hirshberg disturbed the stance 
and caused a mild sensation by openly declaring that the 
whole thing was a fraud and specifically charging that Eusapia 
had a string attached to the flower-stand. The full light was 
turned on and the stand examined ; Eusapia took off her black 
skirt and it was examined by me as well as her under white 
skirt, stockings, and shoes ; but no trace of a string, or hook, 
or any machine whatever was found. 

About half an hour after this interruption I left my chair and 
gave place to Mr. Bradley, who remained as left " control " the 
balance of the evening. This change left me free to observe 
the proceedings from various points nearer the table and 

1910. Trick-Methods of A\wa/m/ /'./////<//'no. 

The bulk of the phenomena consisted of the levitation of 
the table, the " blowing out " of the curtain upon the table, 
and the movements of the flower-stand. 

The phenomena of the second stance were practically the 
same as those of the first. One variation was that not only 
were the feet of the medium tied to each " control's " chair, 
but her wrists were also tied to their wrists. Twice the knot 
on left " control's " wrist was untied by " John " (Eusapia's 
spirit guide or control) and the rope thrown up upon the 
stance table. 

General Explanation of the Phenomena. 

I found substitution and thus liberation of hand or foot 
going on all the evening, i.e. as long as I was in "control" 
the only position in the circle in which this trick can be 
discerned. Other experimenters have detected this, but only 
on a few sporadic occasions ; my claim is that this is the core 
of the whole matter, and that Eusapia does it all the time, 
and in several ways. I apply it to the whole performance, 
and not only to occasional or fractional parts thereof. 

I found, then, that the major secret of her phenomena is 
a free hand, or a free foot, or both, employed simultaneously. 
Her trick consists in skilfully freeing a hand or foot under 
cover of (1) the table; (2) the curtains of the cabinet; (3) 
her black dress ; (4) the darkness of the room ; (5) the 
cabinet curtain when " blown out " and lying upon the stance 

These are the five blinds or screens which are necessary to 
the seance, and cover up the movements of hand and foot. 
When the light is full and bright, and table tiltings and 
raps are the only phenomena, then the table and her skirt 
are the only blinds required, but they constitute quite good 
and sufficient ones. The withdrawal of one foot and substi- 
tution of part of the other for it, so that her one foot presses 
upon both feet of the " controls " at the same instant, and a 
similar manoeuvre with her hand, she has refined to an art. 
No sitter who allows his mind to be dominated by " expectant 
attention," diverted in the slightest degree to the " phenomena," 
or hypnotized by the wonder-feeling generally pervading the 
atmosphere of the circle, will ever detect the nicety of these 

300 Journal of Society for Psychical Research. JUNE, 1910. 

hand and foot movements unless she bungles them, which, of 
course, sometimes happens. Hence she is sometimes detected 
in them by those who sit in " control." 

Two features at once aroused my suspicion : (1) The extreme 
narrowness of the table only 18 inches wide; (2) the fact 
that her feet were placed on ours instead of. .as I had sup- 
posed, ours on hers, and I determined to follow out to their 
logical conclusion the clues thus thrust upon me. It flashed 
over me instantly that this table had been made to order ; its 
unusual dimensions and small weight evidently designed for 
some unusual purposes. I saw, for instance, at a glance that 
its extreme narrowness would naturally bring the feet of the 
two " controls " close together on the floor beneath it ; and 
then I noticed finally that the feet of the table were all 
square, with sharp or perfect edges, not rounded or bevelled. 

Her feet being on those of the "controls," she controls them, 
not they her. She not only wants to know, but must know 
where their feet are in the darkness, so that they do not get 
into her way or into dangerous places for her work. This is 
the reason she keeps her feet in touch with the two " controls' " 
feet all the time. Her first shift towards freeing one foot or 
the other is to move both feet down to the toes of both 
" controls." From this position either foot can be removed 
and the other one made to cover both toes at once. It is 
much better when the " controls' " feet pass each other side 
by side a position that often naturally follows, because the 
table is so narrow ; in this position each " control " will feel 
what seems to him the entire foot pressing his. This 
manoeuvre is done quicker than it takes to describe it. She 
frequently taps, pats or kicks with her foot. This motion 
accustoms your foot to momentary absences of hers, and in one of 
these momentary absences the other foot takes its place. 

The control of hands follows two general plans: (1) When on 
top of the table in sight, she will allow yours to rest upon hers. 
(2) When under the table and on her lap out of sight, or 
under the " blown out " curtain on the table top, hers grasps 
yours or lies lightly on top of yours, and it is in this posi- 
tion that she is enabled to loosen her hand grasp gradually 
until only the fingers are lying flat on the back of your 
hand ; the next move is to play furtively or restlessly on 

JIM:, ioio. Trick- Methods of Eusapia Palladino. ..<! 

your hand with the fingers of her left hand, when suddenly 
the fingers of her right hand will take up this play with 
the palm of it still resting upon the back of the opposite 
" control's " ; thus she has her left hand free. 

This is all done skilfully, and much more rapidly than it 
takes either to read or to write it. A free hand and a free 
foot is the key that can unlock most of the performance that 
she gives. I insist that it is much more essential for her to 
keep tab on the " controls " than they on her, a fact which 
explains why she is so careful and alert to keep in touch with 
you. Several times I tried gradually and stealthily to release 
my hand when under the table from hers in order to reach 
out in the dark and grab her free arm ; but just as soon as 
she detected this slight sliding of my hand away from hers 
she pressed it all the harder. 

I followed her in these hand and foot movements again and 
again while I sat in left " control " ; I focussed my attention 
there ; her slightest movement on my side I did not allow to 
escape me ; and besides this I kept my eyes practically glued 
to the leg of the table that stood between me and the medium. 

That our two feet were close enough together to be covered 
by one of hers I ascertained when Mr. M. was my opposite 
" control " by simply moving my foot forward until it touched 
his ; I had to move it less than an inch. When I did this 
I felt her move her foot up upon my instep, i.e. back to its 
original position. I made this little experiment towards the 
middle of the seance. 

That the " controls' " feet do, moreover, pass each other by 
two or three inches and lie parallel I ascertained distinctly at 
the second seance held January 10th. When the medium's 
ankles were tied I was asked to get down and examine same, 
and report to the circle. When feeling around the medium's 
ankle to see how the rope had been tied, I also felt both feet 
of the two " controls," and found them side by side. 

Change of " Control " and the Instruction it afforded. 

When Mr. M. left " control " and Dr. S. took his place, I 
distinctly felt her left foot slide in and upon my right, while 
the toe of her other foot was still on the toe of my right, i.e. 
she failed to time the bringing back of her left foot and the 

302 Journal of Society for Psychical Research. JUNE, 1010. 

taking away of her right, so that instead of being simul- 
taneous, as intended by her, they followed each other momentarily, 
thus distinctly proving to my sense of touch that the left foot 
had been away somewhere and had now returned to its full 
perch upon rny right foot so as to have her right foot free to 
place entire upon Dr. S.'s foot as soon as he should take his 
seat. Had no change in the " controls " been made she would 
not have been in such a hurry to get her foot back to the 
" original position " for it, and her bungle (for such it was) 
would then not have occurred. 

This bungling, by the way, explains, I think, why she is 
sometimes caught in her work and only sometimes ; for, when 
she is not fully alert or is perhaps scared by some sudden 
action on the part of some one in the circle, she is naturally 
in a hurry to get hand or foot back into proper place, and in 
this hurry fails in the gradual approach or instant co-operation 
which is necessary to truly artistic results. As a rule she has 
full command of herself, because she has had immense practice 
and is an artist in her line ; consequently the slightest diversion 
of the " controls' " attention is sufficient to enable her to accom- 
plish the trick undetected, when instantly the " phenomenon " 
happens, whereby attention is still more diverted from hand, 
knee, and foot to the phenomenon. 

At every seance it is officially announced that the backs of 
Eusapia's feet and hands are sensitive " extremely hyper- 
aesthetic " during the seance, and for this reason the " controls " 
should not place their feet upon hers nor hold her hands with 
their thumbs pressing the backs of hers, as such control is very 
distasteful to her and makes her nervous. , 

On the subject of Eusapia's " hyperaesthesia " I must relate 
an experiment I made later in the evening. 

Mr. H., when standing behind my chair and close to the 
cabinet in light 3 or 4, when the pale white of any one's 
hands could still be seen, stuck his hand and arm into the 
cabinet behind the curtain, which had been thrown out and 
was lying upon the seance table. Instantly Madame Palladino 
cried out as if in pain, whereupon Mr. Carrington explained 
that she always does this when any one thrusts their hand 
into the cabinet when the cabinet phenomena are taking place, 
because the hand seems to pierce the vitality or substantial 

a I'Jio. Trick- Methods of Eusapia Palladino. 303 

emanation, or whatever it is, which, he said, seems to flow from 
Eusapia's body. So Mr. H. at once withdrew his hand. He 
had put it into the cabinet to see if he could feel, catch, or 
detect anything. But later in the evening, when Mr. B. was 
in my place in " control " and I stood behind his chair 
close up to the cabinet, I quietly slipped on a dark glove, 
stuffed my cuff' up under my black coat sleeve, and at least a 
dozen times had my whole right hand and nearly all of my 
arm in the cabinet, and yet not once did she cry out for pain ! 
Why not ? Simply because she could not and did not see my 
gloved hand enter the cabinet, while in the case of Mr. H.'s 
ungloved hand she did. Her crying out in his case, therefore, 
was all acting, which proves that she will turn tricks to produce 
mental effects as well as physical ones. 

Tiltings of the Table. 

These are employed throughout the evening, and evidently 
serve to keep up the interest of the circle and divert their 
attention when preparations are making for a more startling 


She tapped with her index finger nail on top of the table 
in full light, both hands in full view. There were four faint 
echoes, raps that imitated the rate and number of her finger 
taps. The echoes were dull and sounded more like a distant 
drum than a sharp, hard click such as her finger nail had made. 

These echo-raps were made by gently thumping the heel 
or toe of her free foot against the lower extremity of the 
table leg. I not only distinctly felt the muscular contraction 
and slight movement of her leg near the knee when she 
did this, and also having my leg against the leg of the table 
felt the four vibrations of the table leg, but further, looking 
down around the corner of the table I saw the lower part 
of the black skirt hit four times against the table leg. 

Table Levitations. 

Dr. H., as stated above, departed early and left a sensation 
behind, to settle which I was asked to examine the medium's 

304 Journal of Society for Psychical Research. JUNE, 1910. 

skirts, knee, leg, and shoe. When doing this my attention 
was caught by the part of the shoe vamp at the heel. I 
noticed that it was somewhat loose or projecting, as is often 
the case, thus furnishing a splendid little shelf into which 
the square edge of the table foot could snugly fit and upon 
which it could get a perch of about a quarter of an inch. 
All she had to do was to tilt the table and move her heel 
slightly under the leg ; then she was ready for " levitations," 
partial or complete. I saw the table leg in exactly this 
position to her foot with her black skirt between the table 
foot and her shoe, thus hiding the presence of the latter. 

I have tried again and again, and find that you can 
produce a " complete levitation " with only one hand on 
so light a table ; thus the other hand could be held in the 
air above the table and clenched, as Eusapia often does, as 
though " the force " was being thrown by this muscular effort 
into the substance of the table an occult discharge from 
the one into the other ! 

The free or fulcrum foot is in such a position that the 
projecting edge of the sole of the shoe can also be used as 
a little shelf for the sharp edge of the table foot. 

I noted very easily that when the table was levitated 
" on all fours," i.e. completely levitated, all four legs being 
in the air at once, that it was never evenly levitated ; there 
was always an angle of levitation, i.e. one corner was 
always the highest and its diagonal opposite was the lowest. 

In all the complete levitations the corners of the end 
away from the medium were higher than the two corners 
near her. 

All these features will be clearly understood from the 
simple fact that when the left foot is used as the fulcrum 
it is under the near left leg of the table, the bofctom of 
that leg or rear edge of it resting on the vamp of the 
shoe ; while her hands, resting flat on the table, or only 
one hand, press upon it and so have sufficient friction to 
pull so light a table backwards and diagonally to the left 
which would have the effect of raising it highest at the far 
end, with the right far corner higher than the left, the left 
near leg being 2, 3, or 4 inches from the floor and resting 
upon the heel vamp. To raise the table leg this high she 

1910. Tricl - Methods of Eusapia Palladino. 305 

draws her left free foot backward and up from the knee 
as the immovable or radial centre, so that the " control " on 
Lliat side still feels her left knee pressing against his and her 
right foot pressing upon his. When the table is levitated 
with the right foot, the left far corner would naturally be the 
highest point, and the right near corner the lowest. 

Thus the phenomena as they actually happened are 
explained, together with the fact that no levitation was 
even, i.e. all four corners never rose to an equal height, say 
llT or 15" from the floor. 

I distinctly felt the slight muscular strain or movement 
in her knee on my side at the moment when the levitation 
occurred, as I sat at the left leg ; and twice I gently pushed 
my leg closer and felt the calf of her left leg back of where 
its true position would be if it were connected with the foot 
I felt upon mine. 

The above considerations show how the " controls " feel a 
knee and a foot and think they belong to the same leg, when 
they really belong to different legs. 

No man could do the foot-substitution, simply because any one 
looking under the table could see it ; but the skirt of a 
woman hides it. Eusapia's skirt was not only over her foot 
but also under the table foot ; hence when levitations occurred 
the table foot seemed simply to be touching her dress in the 
most natural way, though it really was grounded upon the 
shoe vamp under her skirt. 


One thing had struck me from reading the published reports, 
and that was that the left curtain was the one generally 
" blown out." I therefore hovered around the left side of 
the cabinet and made it the centre of my observations during 
the evening; and my experience agrees with the reports, for 
it is a fact that the left curtain at these two stances was 
thrown out far more frequently than the right. 

Curtain Blown Out. 

While standing during the first seance close up to Mr. B., 
who was on the left " control," and close to the curtain as 

306 Journal oj Society for Psychical Research. JUNE, 1910. 

well, whenever the light was dimmed (for that is the signal 
that cabinet phenomena are about to come), I always focussed 
my gaze into the cabinet through the crack between the loosely 
hanging curtain and the partition. In a moment or two the 
left curtain was " blown out " or thrown forward up upon the 
table, where it remained. 

When this happened I distinctly saw a pale white hand 
and black sleeve back of it pushing or throwing out the curtain. 
Whose hand and arm could this have been but Eusapia's ? 
For the black arm that ran up from the swiftly moving pale 
white thing that looked like a hand ran straight up towards 
her shoulder. 

How she Finds Out what is in the Cabinet. 

It is sometimes stated that the articles are placed in the 
cabinet before she enters the room, and that since she does not 
pull the curtains aside or otherwise look into the cabinet, she 
cannot know what they are or where placed. 

But all she has to do, and actually did at these stances, 
is to " blow out " the curtain with a free arm and then simply 
turn her head slightly to the side and look into the cabinet. 
This was done in Light 2 and Light 3, when articles could 
still be seen and their location easily discerned. 

I saw her deliberately do this on the right and left sides 
of the cabinet. 

Moreover, it is significant in this connection that a metro- 
nome which Dr. S. brought and placed far back in the 
middle of the cabinet on the floor, against the partition, could 
not be readily seen without turning her head completely around. 
This metronome was not touched nor disturbed during the first 
seance. But a letter from Dr. S., who was present at another 
seance the very next night, tells me that on this night the 
metronome was moved forward from the rear of the cabinet 
by " John " and the pendulum of it disengaged. Why did 
this happen the second night Dr. S. was there and not the 
first night ? 

Because on the first night she evidently did not know that 
the metronome was there, nor what the metronome was, nor 
what it was expected to do ; but after the first seance was 
over Dr. S., I well remember, freely talked of what he had 

.ii NK, i -.MO. Tii<L-M'f//<td8ofEu8apiaPalladino. 307 

hoped would happen to it and where he had placed it in the 

cabinet. So on the second night all this occurred. 

Hand and Arm in Cabinet. 

While moving my gloved hand around in the dark of the 
cabinet on one occasion it suddenly came into contact with 
Eusapia's arm there ; what I touched felt exactly like any 
human arm. I knew it was hers for two reasons: (1) Mr. B. 
had his arm lying on her lap with her right hand touching 
it and covering the other " control's " too ; stooping forward 
as I was at that moment I could readily see this. (2) When 
this touch occurred it naturally startled her and she moved 
uneasily in her chair, turning and looking searchingly at me. 
This action proved she had been touched. I said nothing 
and appeared to be unconcerned, which relieved her fears, 
and so she took B.'s hand in hers and moved both up and 
down and around in the air to her left and his right, and 
in front of the cabinet, by which manoeuvre she wished to 
demonstrate to me that what I had touched in the cabinet 
a moment before was that combination ! My keeping discreet 
silence reassured her that I would not report anything to the 
circle, and all she had to do then was to convince me alone, 
which she sought to do by waving B.'s hand and hers around 
in the air, imagining that I would infer that it was the same 
hand I had touched just a moment before. But the arm I 
had touched a moment before did not have hold of B.'s, because 
his was quietly lying on her lap in the usual position of control. 
I could not catch the arm I touched in the cabinet because 
it was instantly withdrawn after our bump and in her 
direction which again is very significant it did not melt 
away in the cabinet, or go to " John " ! No, it drew back 
towards her, and I saw it going. 

Again, a dentist was standing near me in the second 
seance, and when the flower-stand in the cabinet was moved 
out and lifted bodily from the seance table, he too saw the 
pale white hand grasping the leg of it and lifting it up. I 
saw that hand, and saw, moreover, that an arm was attached 
to it which ran straight up to Eusapia's shoulder, just as I 
had seen it do before. In the second stance also the 
mandolin passed through the air over Eusapia's left shoulder 

308 Journal of Society for Psychical Research. JUNK, 1910. 

and gently descended upon the seance table ; I was standing 
to the left of the medium over near the cabinet and 
distinctly saw her right hand under the blown-out curtain 
holding the string end of the instrument and placing said 
instrument upon the table covered by the curtain which was 
still lying out upon it. To those sitting around the table and 
in front this thing could not be seen, simply because it 
was protected by the curtain. On seeing this, we both 
instinctively moved forward to get a better view into the 
cabinet and be ready for the next moving thing, which 
I wanted to get close enough to to seize ; but this proximity 
evidently made Eusapia nervous, for she ordered us to move 
away from the cabinet and retreat farther back into the room. 

Several times, while standing alone close to the cabinet 
before D. came near me, I attempted to steal forward unobserved 
in order to get close enough to scrutinize more carefully a 
light object (size of a human hand) which I saw move from 
the medium into the cabinet a moment or two before 
several of the phenomena occurred there ; but every time 
Eusapia watched me closely, and at last commanded me, 
through the interpreter, to stand away from the cabinet, on 
the ground that my presence disturbed her " fluid." 

Once she lifted her entire left leg and laid it prone on 
both of my knees under the table, while I was in " control." 
With this arrangement both feet were surely out of com- 
mission, for Dr. S. felt her right foot firmly on his, while 
both of us felt her hand on ours in her lap or on the table 
top under the " blown-out " curtain. With this apparently 
impregnable " control " the phenomena nevertheless continued. 
But I noticed particularly that they were such as could be 
produced by a free left hand, such as rappings or slight bumps 
of the table at her end of it, table tiltings, movements of the 
flower-stand, and touches of a hand on my side, which was the 
left side of the medium. When the flower-stand had fallen to 
the floor and was then slid across it, I saw the pale white 
hand grasping its highest leg, and so distinctly that I also 
saw that the thumb-side of the grasping hand was towards 
me. This would be the only possible position in which Eusapia 
could grasp it with her left hand. 

The rope with which they tied her wrists later in the seance 

lino. Trick-Methods of Eusapia Palladino. 309 

was a clean, new, white rope, whiter than the skin of her 
hands. Dr. G. tied it around the sleeve of her arm just above 
her wrist; she did not allow it to remain tin-re, however, but 
slid it down until it was free from above the sleeve, and then 
pushed it back on the bare wrist until the black sleeve 
covered it. She explained she did this for comfort, and it 
seemed to be a very natural and non-significant action. But 
in view of the fact that she needs her hand and arm for 
reaching into the dark cabinet and moving things there, we 
can readily see that so white an object as the rope around 
the outside of a black sleeve would at once be seen and 
recognized. It was therefore a neat and necessary precautionary 
measure to cover the whiteness of the rope with the blackness 
of the sleeve. 

Tied with Ropes. 

At her own suggestion she was tied with ropes. Dr. G., 
who did the tying, wanted to tie both of her ankles together ; 
but this she objected to. He was then instructed to tie 
each wrist of hers to wrist of " controls," and each ankle 
to chair of " control." This was done ; but each tie, according 
to instructions, had to have at least twelve inches slack in it. 
Besides this the interpreter stated that the " controls " were 
instructed by Madame to yield to any pull or stress in 
any direction and not to resist same. All this gave her as 
much freedom of hand and foot movement as she had enjoyed 
before this serious looking rope was applied. 

Knot Untied. 

At the second seance " John " untied the rope around the 
wrist of the left "control." Dr. G. tied it again; the light 
was dimmed, and again the " control " announced that the knot 
was being untied, and soon it was thrown upon the seance 
table. It seemed to be a striking act indeed. 

I was standing behind and slightly to the right of the left 
" control," and had stooped forward and to the right, which 
brought my eyes in line with the end of the seance table 
and a little below it. In this position I could see under the 
curtain which was lying on the table, and all along the edge 
of it over to the right " control " ; and this is what I saw : I 
saw the medium's left hand covering both hands of " controls,'* 

310 Journal of Society for Psychical Research. JUNE, 1910. 

and her right arm passing under her left with her right hand 
tugging away at the knot. From the position of the right 
" control " (Mr. Frohman) and curtain at that moment this 
hand might have been seen also by him ; but it could not be 
seen by the left " control " or by any one at the table or any 
other part of the room, because the curtain covered " controls' " 
hands and hers. 

The Mandolin. 

The mandolin sounded twice, as though a finger were 
furtively swept over it. But it was within easy reach of her 
right hand, and it was easy to get that right hand free from 

Dynamometer and Match Box. 

They were lying on the table, and were mysteriously dropped 
by " John " into the left " control's " outside pocket, i.e., the 
pocket nearest the medium. 

To accomplish this neat trick all that she had to do was 
(1) To throw the left curtain out upon the table partially 
covering the dynamometer and totally covering the match box ; 
and this was the way the curtain fell upon them. (2) With 
her free left hand to reach under the curtain and secure the 
dynamometer and match box, which was also done, for we saw 
the dynamometer disappear under the curtain. (3) To drop 
them, still in her left hand, into " control's " right-hand pocket. 
As they fell they naturally made the click which all heard. 

Pinch of a " Spirit " Hand. 

I was pinched or squeezed on my right shoulder by a hand 
that was clearly a hand ; I could distinctly feel fingers and 
thumb. Prof. Munsterberg thinks this touch can be made 
by her free foot ; that she could lift her foot to that height 
while seated on the chair and do it without the slightest 
change in the position of her body. I hold that such a 
gymnastic performance is utterly impossible. The " control " 
of that leg would at once detect the strain and stretch of 
it and the withdrawal of her knee, which would be absolutely 
necessary to reach the upper arm or shoulder. But even if 
possible, how could a foot mimic the squeeze of a thumb 
and fingers ? The toes of the foot might press like the fingers 

,h M:, HMO. Trirk-Mcf/uH/n of Eusapia l'"//>/ino. 311 

of the hand; but what MM tin- I.K,I rould mimic the thumb 
pressing in a direction opposite to the contracting ting< . 
No, it is impossible for her, thus seated, to produce so hand- 
like a squeeze and at the height of one's sliouldcr. But how 
ridiculously easy the squ </<' hccoinfli with a free left hand 
under the blown-out curtain 1 

The Toy Piano and Metronome. 

All sitters have noticed the fact that as a rule only those 
objects are moved which are within reach of the medium's 
arms or feet. 

However, there were two exceptions to this rule, namely, 
the metronome, which was placed against the rear partition of 
the cabinet on the floor, and the toy piano, which was also 
on the floor against the left partition of the cabinet, and both 
of these objects were so low and small that it was clearly 
impossible to reach them unless she leaned very far over to 
the side or backward; which she never did. Nevertheless, in 
the first seance the toy piano was seen to come out directly 
over her head, as it seemed to us, pushing the blown-out 
curtain with it and gently falling upon or laying itself upon 
the stance table. This was in Light 4. It was a striking 
performance, for even if her left arm were free, how could 'she 
reach the piano in the first place, and then move it directly 
over her head ? 

To answer the first question : The flower-stand in the 
cabinet is the instrument, I feel sure, which was used to 
reach the toy piano and draw it nearer, within arm's reach. 
Note this fact, I was appointed several times during the seance 
to enter the cabinet and rearrange the contents after they 
had been thrown into disorder by the frequent falling over of 
the flower-stand, and in one of these excursions into the 
cabinet I found that the stand had fallen over the toy piano 
in such wise that the latter could easily have been drawn toward 
the medium by pulling the stand. Prior to this particular 
manifestation of the toy piano which we are now considering, 
the flower-stand fell over in the cabinet. Then there was 
silence ; then all of us heard something slowly sliding over the 
floor of the cabinet as if something was sneaking around in 
there : we watched, but nothing appeared from the cabinet as 

312 Journal of Society for Psychical Research. JUNE, 1910. 

we momentarily expected it to do ; instead some other things 
happened some tiltings of the table, and the dynamometer 
and match box incident which attracted or distracted our 
attention, and just when we were not expecting it, lo ! the toy 
piano pushed out and landed on the seance table. 

This flower-stand, which figures so prominently in the 
seances, is an innocent-looking, frail affair. But its three legs 
crossing form a clever hook at the top end to " scoop" in 
things lying on the floor, and the legs are good handles to 
grasp easily; for you can let it fall in any direction it may, 
and one leg is always up in the air, while the clear space at 
the top end between the two legs and the top is a splendid 
arrangement in which to bag objects beyond arm-reach. A 
four-legged stand would have to be cross-stayed, which would 
surely prevent as thorough and sure a hold on objects as the 
three-legged arrangement provides. 

I think, therefore, she could get the metronome at another 
seance by pushing the flower-stand to fall back over it ; the 
top of the stand would thus catch the metronome, and she 
could draw it slowly forward within reach, just as she 
evidently did with the toy piano. 

But even if the toy piano was brought within reach by the 
flower-stand, how could she lift it directly over her head from 
rear to front ? 

Mr. B. was standing behind the right " control," Mr. H. 
and I behind the left " control." To one standing at the 
side, as we were located, the toy piano appeared to come out 
directly over her head ; but I found afterwards this was a 
case of mal-observation, for the stenographer, who saw it from 
directly in front, and could therefore see the exact relation 
it had to the medium, reported it as coming out over her 
left shoulder, as high as the top of her head, a movement 
which is not at all difficult to execute. So one can see how 
easy it was for her to bring out the toy piano with her 
free left hand under the blown-out curtain and gently place 
it upon the table, all in very dim light, too. 

Dr. S.'s Chair is Moved. 

Dr. S.'s chair was twice pulled, with him sitting in it, of 
course. This seems to be too heavy a bulk of matter for 

JINK, 1910. Trick-Methods of Euaapia Palladino. :;i:; 

one woman to pull without giving open signs of muscular 
effort. Is there an explanation ? In answering this, I have 
three points to make: (1) It happened on the side of the 
table opposite to where I sat ; nevertheless all could dis- 
tinctly see that the slide of an inch or two (not more) 
which the chair made was in the direction of the medium. 
This was very evident and also very significant. (2) It 
happened twice. After it had happened once " John " was asked 
to do it again. Upon this request I tbcussed my whole 
attention on the foot and knee of the medium on my side 
(for at this time I was still in " control ") and found that, 
when the phenomenon was repeated, there was a distinct 
pressure of her foot on mine and slight muscular movement 
of knee, with slight increase of pressure against my knee. 
All these circumstances made me think that with her free 
right hand (the left still covering both " controls ") she 
pulled the chair, and at the same instant braced herself with 
her feet and knees so as to keep her body stationary or 
immovable. (3) On practising this afterwards with a man as 
heavy as, if not heavier than, our slender Dr. S., I found, to my 
surprise, that it requires but a slight, somewhat sudden, mus- 
cular contraction of the arm to draw the chair towards you an 
inch or two. 

Her Trance State. 

She occasionally yawns and hiccoughs. These signs, we are 
told, herald or accompany the oncoming of the trance state. 

If she is really in a trance, how can she be asking the 
interpreter all the time what the sitters are saying whenever 
they say anything ? If any one makes a serious remark, she 
at once asks to have the interpreter explain it to her. (She 
does this, in my judgment, to get cues as to which point or 
in which direction their suspicions may be tending, and to 
govern herself and the phenomena accordingly.) How could 
she be entranced, and at the same time keep so firm a hand 
on all these questions and mental currents of the circle ? 

A dentist and I were standing right back of left " control " 
near the cabinet ; Eusapia, through the interpreter, asked us 
to step away and not stand so close. We obeyed, and noted 
that the phenomena came faster then. 

314 Journal of Society for Psychical Research. JUNE, 1910. 

She is Argus-eyed, glancing here and there alertly, evidently 
to find out where people are standing and what doing. If in 
real trance she would not know or care where they were. 
I do not believe that Eusapia Palladino was in any kind of 
trance at any moment of these two " successful " seances. 

Several times she objected to the very dim light and 
ordered more turned on. This seemed to be in her favour. 
But it really works the other way in my judgment ; for, if 
I were in her place, I too would not want the light so low 
that I could not see where people were, for some one might 
approach the cabinet unobserved by me, and there do infinite 

Does any one ask why, when I detected her in these 
substitutions and movements, I did not then and there expose 
the facts? For two reasons: (1) Item 4 in the "Notes to 
Sitters," the printed and formal instructions which Mr. Car- 
rington mails to all who engage seats, reads as follows : " It is 
very important to remember that, whatever the attitude of the 
sitter toward the Medium may be, no suspicion be openly 
manifested at the sittings, as this is liable to spoil the 
phenomena." I obeyed this rule. Of all things I did not 
want the phenomena spoiled ; on the contrary, I wished them 
to be produced and multiplied in as great numbers as possible 
in the time allotted to the seance. (2) I wanted her to have 
her own way unmolested. I was there to observe, not to 
obtrude ; to discover, and not to dictate. She was the per- 
former, and I simply part of the audience. 

Eusapia claims that she is anxious to allow sitters, 
especially the sceptical ones, to examine everything and do 
anything they please to satisfy themselves. Not only the 
writer, but many others besides, can bear positive evidence 
to the unquestionable fact that she does not allow any 
such absolute freedom. She positively refused to let me have 
my foot on hers and my hand hold hers ; she positively 
refused to have her ankles tied together ; she positively 
refused to allow me to stand as close to the cabinet as I 
wanted to, etc., etc. Note carefully : she refused at the 
very points I found to be the vital points ; on the non- 
vital points, such as examining the table, the cabinet, the 
flower-stand, etc., she is liberal enough. 

1910. Trick-Methods of Euwtpia Palladino. 315 

Mr. Feilding says : " She keeps her hand on top of the 
' controls' ' and moves them restlessly about." This restless 
motion gets the controls accustomed to the motion, which, 
as I found again and again, is her preparation for hand 

" Her right foot on mine is kicking about." This is what 
I mean by the tapping of the foot or working of it on the 
control's. By this means they get accustomed to the 
momentary absence of the medium's foot, and in that 
momentary absence the other foot is substituted, they think- 
ing, however, all the time, that it is the same one she had 
started out with. 

Dr. Morselli conducted a series of stances with Eusapia 
at Genoa that were far more successful than the series 
conducted at Milan. Dr. Morselli noticed that muscular 
contractions made by the medium synchronized with the 
appearance of the phenomena. " We have almost always 
noticed," the report says, " this isochronism between the 
phenomena and the gestures of the medium ; the effort of the 
medium is produced on these occasions on the opposite side 
to that on which the phenomena are produced." 

These two facts may be explained by the hypothesis of 
a free hand or free foot on one side, while the other hand 
and other foot are pressing upon the " controls'," for thus the 
muscular contractions would be felt on one side, while the 
phenomena would be produced on the other. 

It is a curious thing, to my mind, that we all had to learn 
Italian enough to say " Bene," " Controlo Bene," " Molto 
Bene " (" good," " control good," " very good "). We said 
this to encourage the medium. We had only a few minutes 
to learn this, while the medium has been with English people 
often. It is said she is an illiterate woman, but she is quite 
bright, and should have been able to learn some English words 
in all this time. Mr. Feilding writes : " We have always 
been extremely suspicious of a substitution of feet being 
performed. During this seance Carrington did notice a change, 
and he stooped down to feel, and found that Eusapia had 
crossed her feet. He told me in English that the foot control 
was not good. Eusapia, who is always annoyed when she 
does not know what is being said, was furious. She worked 

316 Journal of Society for Psychical Research. JUNE, 1010. 

herself up into a passion and covered us with rich Neapolitan 
reproaches for our suspicion. The storm raged for about an 

Here she seemed to understand English perfectly well. 


(1) She uses no confederate. 

(2) All the phenomena are produced in a space or area 
that is within reach of the arm and leg of the medium, still 
further lengthened by the use of a flower-stand as a " reacher," 
and a shoe edge as a fulcrum for levitations. 

(3) Personally I do not believe Eusapia Palladino has any 
extraordinary psychic or telekinetic power. Her whole per- 
formance seems to me, on the basis of what I saw and felt, 
to be the deception of two senses, sight and touch, assisted by 
intentional suggestions. 

Instruments of precision from the scientific laboratory are 
not needed here. The problem, in my judgment, lies in quite 
a different and far simpler field that of clever detection. 

From my experience of these two sittings, I would make the 
following suggestions to future investigators : 

(1) The medium was always dressed in a black dress. If 
she were dressed in white her whereabouts and movements 
could easily be seen in the dark room. This would be the 
simplest test of all, and I therefore place it first. 

The cabinet was painted black on the inside. The table 
which " John " moved so frequently was made of plain unpainted 
pine boards ; why then had the cabinet to be painted, and 
painted black ? The answer is simple, namely : to render 
the sleeves of her black dress unseen when she thrust her 
arm inside. And another thing may be explained by this 
black sleeve and black background, namely, that it isolates 
her hand for the sense of sight, so that sitters, seeing a 
pale white hand in the cabinet, will exclaim: "I see a hand 
unattached ; just a hand ; no arm with it." If she wore a 
white dress this illusion of sight could not take place. 

(2) Another simple precaution would be to place the 
medium at the broad side of the table and have only one 
person in control of both her hands and both her feet at one 
and the same time. 

1910. Trick-M'-flto'l* of EH<II>'HI. r<ill<t<l',no. 317 

(3) I would also suggest a square table, each side of which 
is at least three feet in length. This width would compel the 
" controls " to sit so far apart that their feet could not be 
pressed simultaneously by only one foot of the medium ; 
suid she should then keep her hands on the table top in 
full view. 

(4) Since she asks to be tied, her two ankles should be 
tied together with a slack of only four or five inches not 
more and her two wrists together with a similar slack. 

(5) But if she will allow none of these test conditions, 
tlit'ii I would advise the sitter who desires to verify my 
observations for himself to secure the place of left "control,"' 
since that appears to be the more active side. He will then 
have more numerous opportunities of detecting the various- 
movements here described. 


IT is always easier to believe in spirits than in any known cause,, 
because, knowing nothing about spirits, we are justified in crediting 
them with omnipotence, whereas in advocating a known cause, 
even a cause so imperfectly investigated as telepathy, our very 
knowledge of the subject reveals difficulties and objections. 

Any explanation on telepathic lines of the remarkable series of 
correspondences in the " Sevens " case l must obviously leave gaps, and 
offer numerous points of attack. Let that be admitted. But it is 
hardly necessary to point out that the case points primarily to 
telepathy as the explanation. Moreover, it invalidates by anticipation 
the evidence to which we have all been looking as almost crucial 
the evidence to be derived from a posthumous letter. Personally I 
have always recognised that the explanation by telepathy from the 
living was not wholly precluded in such a case, but if a posthumous 
letter had actually been read, I should certainly have felt that the 
evidence for the action of the dead had been enormously strength- 
ened. Obviously, one can feel that no longer. The possibilities of 
leakage so clearly demonstrated in this case have practically shattered 
all our hopes of obtaining evidence in that direction. 

Proceedings, Part LX. pp. 222-263. 

318 Journal of Society for Psychical Research. JUNE, 1910. 

But the explanation of telepathy from the living presents, as said, 
difficulties. Let us attempt to trace out the possible outlines of the 
process. Mr. Piddington ever since July 13th, 1904, has been mentally 
whispering "Seven" and "Seventy times seven" to all the world. 
Now we know from the "Steeple" incident (Proc. Vol. XXII. 
p. 38) that Mr. Piddington has influenced Mrs. Piper telepathically. 
From Mrs. Verrall's script, written also on July 13th, 1904, he 
appears also to have influenced Mrs. Verrall. (Note, as bearing upon 
the hypothesis of communication from the dead, that this same 
script, which gave true information about the contents of a living 
mind, gave false information, and that in the most emphatic terms, 
about the contents of a mind no longer living. Miss Johnson 
suggests (Part LX. p. 257) that the true information may have 
come from the [disembodied] intelligence which planned the whole 
scheme from the other side. What, then, was the source of the 
false information given in the same piece of writing ?) 

There is no direct evidence that Mr. Piddington influenced the 
mind of any other contributor to the cross-correspondence. Indeed, 
from the fact that all the correspondence occurred in the space of 
three months, nearly four years after the posthumous letter was 
written, it seems clear that something else was needed. That some- 
thing else was no doubt Mrs. Verrall's influence. The idea of 
Seven, latent probably in Mrs. Verrall's mind for years, seems to 
have taken definite shape on the occasion of her reading Dante, 
and to have been thence transferred, in close alliance with Dantesque 
imagery, to the other automatists. This explanation does not pre- 
clude the possibility that Mr. Piddington directly influenced the 
minds of all the automatists. If he did so, it would appear that 
his influence was not sufficient, until reinforced by that of Mrs. 
Verrall, to arouse any mental image. 

Now let us suppose a double stream of telepathic influence acting 
on the minds of the five other automatists, and tending to produce 
the idea of Seven, allied with images from the Divine Comedy. It 
seems to me probable that the automatic association of ideas would 
produce results such as we find recorded. The telepathic influence 
is not quite strong enough in most cases to make the ideas come 
to the surface of themselves. The imported image can only make 
itself visible when reinforced by its connection with images momen- 
tarily passing through the mind. Thus Mrs. Piper has some 
mediaeval Latin doggerel read to her, and selects from it the words 
" angel band," because Mrs. Verrall has for some days past been 
trying to say "angel band" to her. 

In Miss Verrall's case the procedure appears to have been more 
complex. The idea of Seven is here much more conspicuous than 
the Dante imagery. The idea of Seven calls up primarily images from 
botany and from the book of Revelation. But these are fixed, it 
may be, because they happen to coincide with Dante images. But 
the Dante influence does not seem to me predominant. The attempt 
to connect (d) and (b) with Dante seems far-fetched. 

Mrs. Home was apparently inaccessible to the Dante influence, and Second Report on Mrs. Hollands Script. 319 

the allusions to Dante in Mrs. Holland's script are very dubious. The 
idea of the posthumous letter in these two cases would here seem 
to be reproduced unalloyed, but the time-coincidence points to the 
conclusion that even here Mr. Piddington'l influence could produce 
no cH'eot until reinforced by Mrs. Verrall's. Mrs. Piper's "tick, tick, 
tick," would also point to Mr. Piddington's influence. Here, again, 
we may suppose that Longfellow's poem passed through the mind 
by natural association of ideas, and was arrested in its passage by the 
previous faintly impressed image of ////. But the coincidence here 
may be purely fanciful. 

In conclusion, may I briefly recall some experiments which present 
certain parallel features to the cross-correspondences. In 1884 Prof. 
Kichet conducted some experiments as follows : At a table were seated 
three mediums or automatists persons under whose unconscious 
muscular action the table would tilt. Behind their backs, at a second 
table, was seated an operator, who incessantly let his pencil travel 
backwards and forwards along a printed alphabet. The alphabet 
was further concealed by a screen from the mediums. When the 
table tilted a bell rang, and the letter indicated by the pencil at 
that moment was recorded. M. Richet himself thought of a word, 
or looked at a line in the dictionary and the word would be 
spelt out, letter by letter. 

In this experiment we have to assume a double telepathic action 
of some kind. The simplest explanation is that the "mediums" 
were influenced both by .Richet and by the " operator." Alternatively, 
the operator may have received Richet's thought telepathically, and 
have telepathically influenced the mediums to tilt. The experiments 
are quoted in Proc. Vol. II. pp. 247 seq. On either explanation we 
find here a rudimentary form of the more complex process which 
appears to be demonstrated in the recent cross-correspondences. 

I will take the present opportunity to discuss another point. Miss 
Johnson, in criticising my account of the Latin Message incident, 
repeats a claim originally made by Mr. Piddington. " Mr. Podmore," 
she says, "has omitted to take into account the important fact that 
though the Piper-Myers failed to show any real comprehension in 
the abstract of the plan of cross-correspondences, he pointed out 
and maintained his point in the face of every discouragement that 
4 Browning, Hope and Star ' was an instance of ths kind required." 

In my original criticism (published in the Contemporary Review for 
September last) I designedly omitted any reference to this point, 
because I thought that it was not substantiated. Let us see how the 
case stands. 

" Browning, Hope and Star " is a brief description of an extremely 
complex, allusive, and enigmatic cross-correspondence in which Mrs. 
Piper, Mrs. Verrall and Miss Verrall all took part. The relative 
scripts were written in the period between January 23rd and February 
17th, 1907, that is, shortly after the Latin message had been dictated. 
The first attempt at translation of that message took place on February 
20th. In the interval, on February llth, though not in any connection 
with the Latin message, the Piper-Myers spontaneously referred to 

320 Journal of Society for Psychical Research. JUNE, 1910. 

Evangelical, Browning, Hope and Star. Immediately after the second 
reference to the three words last quoted, Mr. Piddington, in taking 
leave of the control, asked him to reply to the Latin message at 
the next sitting (Proc. Vol. XXII. pp. 320-1). 

In the course of the next few days Mr. Piddington read the 
scripts of Mrs. and Miss Verrall, in which the cross-correspondence 
"Hope, Star and Browning" occurred, and, in his own words, before 
February 20th "I had become impressed, I may even say obsessed, 
with the idea that Mrs. Verrall's script of January 28 which had 
on February 11 been described in the trance by the Piper-Myers as 
' Hope Star and Browning ' -was an attempt by the Verrall-Myers 
to give, by means of indirect allusions to Stanza vii. of Abt Vogler, 
an intelligent answer to the Latin message" (p. 330). 

Note Mr. Piddington's very candid account of the state of mind 
in which he approached the seances of February 20th and subse- 
quent dates. 

On February 20th there occurred the first attempt at translation. 
On February 27th occurred two other attempts. In the interval 
between these two later attempts the control remarked "I believe . . 
I have sufficiently replied to your various questions to convince the 
ordinary scientific mind . . ." Mr. Piddington, referring to this 
statement, said later in the seance to the control : " You say you 
have replied tell me in what messages your reply is given." The 
control, in answer, refers successively to "the poems," "halcyon 
days," "evangelic," "shrub," "syringa," "the poems and cross- 
corresponding messages." Mr. Piddington then asks, "What poems'?" 
The control replies, " My own. Browning. Horace." At the con- 
trol's request Mr. Piddington repeats this last utterance, and the 
control continues: "Yes; chiefly Browning's lines as given through 
Mrs. Verrall and another." 

Mr. Piddington then told the control : " I want to say that 
you have, I believe, given an answer worthy of your intelligence, 
not to-day, I mean, but some time back but the interpretation 
must not be mine. You must explain your answer [through Mrs. 
Piper]. . . . You could do it in two words." 

The control replies, "Hope, Star." Mr. Piddington, "Well? Yes?" 
The control "Browning." Mr. Piddington then tells the control: 
"In telling me that 'Browning, Hope, and a Star,' contains your 
answer to the Latin Message you have given an answer which to 
me is both intelligible and clear." 

It is hardly necessary to say that after this last explicit statement 
from Mr. Piddington no later reference to the connection of the 
Latin Message with "Hope, Star and Browning" could possess 
much evidential value. But in fact it does not appear that, despite 
the strong hint given, the trance intelligence did advance much 
further in connecting the two ideas. 

It is then on the conversation above summarised that Mr. Piddington 
has based his contention that the control showed a comprehension 
of the purport of the Latin Message. And presumably Miss 
Johnson relies upon the same incident to support her statement 

I'.no. Second Report on Mr*. Holland's Script. 321 

that the Piper-Myers "pointed out, and maintained his point in 
the face of every discouragement, that 'Browning, Hope and Star' 
was an instance of the kind required." 

In my view we should not even be justified in regarding the 
connection casual and insignificant as the connection seems to be 
of the Latin Message with "Hope, Star and Browning" as having 
been effected spontaneously by the trance intelligence. The control 
suggests several things : Mr. Piddington, on its repetition, selects 
the word poems, and asks "What poems?" The control names three 
poets and asks Mr. Piddington to repeat the sentence after him. 
After listening to Mr. Piddington, the control selects Browning. 
But Browning had already been connected with Hope and Star at 
a previous seance. The evidence, as it stands, would certainly not 
he accepted in a telepathic experiment. 



THE following accounts by the Rev. H. E. of experiments in 
hypnotism were sent to us by Mr. F. C. Constable. The 
h'rst experiment is similar to those recorded by Mr. H. E. in 
the Journal for November, 1908, and November, 1909. 

No. 7. 

February 21s/, 1910. 

April 11, 1909. F. B. and E. E. P. F. B. had been describing 
a dream. A public house called the Milkman's Arms, and a slate 
with the drawing of a cow on it, formed part of this dream. On 
the table was a cycling map, and F. B., having finished the above 
description, read from the cover of the map a list of names of places 
for which other maps of a like kind were prepared. 

*I gave the crystal to E. E. P. He held it up to his eye, and 
looked at the lamp through it. I have never seen him use the 
crystal like this before. He then began to describe a shop where 
milk and butter were sold. It had marble slabs on the counter and 
ferns in the window. A man with reddish whiskers was behind 
the counter. Outside, it was a starlight night, and there were large 
electric lamps in the street. The shop was situated in the fork of 
a road. E. E. P. was able to read the name over the shop indis- 
tinctly, and thought it seemed to be Newman. He could not 
remember ever having seen the shop, and declared he did not 
know where it was. 

On being hypnotised, he stated in reply to my question, "Where 
was the shop you just saw in the crystal?" "At Kewbury ; I slept 
there with my brother W. when we cycled through it, about seven 

322 Journal of Society for Psychical Research. JUNE, 1910. 

years ago." Asked why he saw the picture, he replied that F. B. 
had mentioned Newmarket when reading out the names on the 
map-cover. "What had that to do with it?" "There was a 
race-course there; they were making a new one and I went to see 
it." Further questioned about the shop, he said he thought of 
the milk-shop when F. B. was describing his dream about the cow 
drawn on the slate. There was a white china cow in the window 
of the shop. He did not know the name of the shop at all. Was 
pressed hard on this point, but kept to his statement that he did 
not know it. He did not say "did not remember" it. 

The chain of thought seems to start with the name Newmarket. 
This suggests racing. This suggests the racecourse at Newbury. 
Also the description of the cow on the slate suggested the cow in 
the window. Doubtless the name Milkman's Arms also helped. It 
is curious to note how many of F. B.'s random remarks by chance 
fitted in with a previous experience of E. E. P.'s, and suggested the 
crystal picture. This experiment differs from others inasmuch 
as the crystal gave the name (indistinctly and uncertainly) of the 
shop, and yet E. E. P. could not recall it in his hypnotic state at 
all. He also professed entire ignorance of the name of the shop 
in his waking state. 

E. E. P. has only this once been to Newbury, arriving late in 
the evening " when the stars were out," and leaving the next 
morning after seeing the race-course. H. E. 

The following is a simple case of the exaltation of memory 
under hypnotism, the impression which then emerged having 
been apparently limited to the subliminal consciousness when 
it first occurred. 

February IQth, 1910. 

I once gave a subject, while awake, a cedar pencil which I took 
from my pocket. He was to make some calculations for me, pre- 
viously to being hypnotised, and he used the pencil for about 5 
minutes or so. After he had been hypnotised and had completed 
the experiment in which I was engaged, I asked him suddenly 
the name, etc., of the maker of the pencil. He gave it me at once, 
and knew the number of the particular make, which was stamped 
in the usual gold letters and figures, together with the name of 
the manufacturer. Afterwards, when he was awake, I offered him 
5s. if he would give me these details, but he was quite unable to, 
adding that he had never troubled to look at the pencil. Now he 
had looked at the pencil, and he had taken in all these details, 
probably at a glance, but he was quite unconscious of the fact. 
It may be argued that he read my mind. But this will not help 
much, as [in that case] I must equally unconsciously have learnt 
these details and stored them, for I did not know in the least the 
words or numbers on the pencil, and should be quite ready to 
declare I had never seen them. H. E. 


JINK. lino. Experiments in Crystal Vision and Hypnotism. 323 

The following are experiments in the timing of dreams 
that occurred in the hypnotic state. 

March 19^, 1910. 

W. R. S. A stoker in Royal Navy, aged 27. An exceptionally 
strong subject, mentally and physically. He goes into a deep 
hypnotic sleep, if allowed to, so deep that it is difficult to get 
any answers to questions. While in this profound trance, he dreams. 
On waking, he remembers these dreams which he says are the 
same as ordinary dreams. He is not subject to dreams in normal 
sliM-p and has them but rarely. I suggested, while W. R. S. was 
in hypnosis, but before I let him go into the profound sleep, that 
if a dream occurred, he should give a "grunt" and another when 
it ended. I took the time by the second-hand of my watch that 
elapsed between the two signals. The following dreams occurred : 

(1) March 11, 1910. Sitting in No. 3 mess H.M.S. playing 

whist. Has for partner F. C. and as opponents S. and B. Plays 
three hands and wins. Was playing for beefsteak and (tin) peas. 
At end of game W. R. S. goes to galley and cooks steak ; dream 
ended while cooking. Brought back from deep sleep to a lighter 
one, and asked how long the dream he had just had, had lasted, 
he replied "about half an hour." I then awaked W. R. S. and 
asked him if he had had a dream while asleep, to which he replied 
by relating the dream, as above. He said it was vivid and clear, 
and seemed very natural. Asked how long it lasted, he again said, 
"about half an hour. I was able to play the three hands right 
through, and nearly finish cooking the steak." Actual time, 10 

(2) March 16, 1910. W. R. S. dreams: Gets on cycle at H 

to ride home. Almost directly, a child runs into him, and he comes 
off. No one hurt. Starts again, and just before getting home, 
again runs into children playing marbles in the road, who won't 
move for him. He kicks at one as he rides past. 

After waking he says this really happened a day or two before. 
That the dream seemed to take about 20 minutes. That he could 
never see anything clearly, all seemed dark. He was conscious 
of the handle-bars of the cycle, but nothing else. He knows he 

(can ride this journey in 20 minutes. Actual time, 25 seconds. 
(3) March 17, 1910. Dr. C present. W. R. S. dreams: 

At No. 16 boiler in H.M.S. S. is drawing fire, Stoker B. 

is damping down. W. R. S. thinks he is standing behind B. S. 
faints from the great heat and falls forward over handle of rake. 
Burns right hand badly by falling on hot cinders. W. R. S. picks 
him up and takes him. to next stokehold and sends man with him 
to sick bay. 

W. R. S. after awaking says he was dreaming 15 or 20 minutes. 
Time between* the two signals given by himself was slightly under 
15 seconds. 

324 Journal of Society for Psychical Research. JUNE, 1910. 


In dream (2) W. R. S. has a repetition in sleep of an event exactly 
as it occurred in all details. The dream differed from Nos. (1) and 
(3) in not being clear and vivid. "He was always in darkness." 
" He could feel the cycle going, but could see nothing but the 
handle-bars." "He saw nothing of the road/'' etc. 

In dreams (1) and (3) we get scenes manufactured out of various 
[actual] events. In (1), for instance, the card game [which had 
actually been] played for the supper was not whist, and it was 
a "drive," in which many more than four players took part. Also, 
W. R. S x . has never [really] played whist at any time with S. and 
B., they would be a class of person he would not play with. But 
he has often played with F. C., who he dreamt was his partner. 

In [the actual event on which] dream (3) [was based], W. R. S. 
did not pick up the fainting man, as he could not get at him, 
the fire being between them, but Stoker C., who was not in the 
dream at all, took the man away. 

The cause of dream (3) is interesting. I had asked Dr. C. to 
be present to test the dream-timing, as it seemed a new experiment. 
We had been getting a number of crystal visions from W. R. S., 
and one of them we had dwelt on for some time. This was the 
vision of a railway station and a man lying on the platform with 
a crowd round him, and it had occurred nine days previously. I 
had not asked him afterwards, while in hypnosis, what it meant, and 
he could not give any account of it in his normal state. As this 
picture came again, I sent W. R. S. to sleep and asked for an 
explanation. He said it was Plymouth N. Road station, and at 
Easter, 1902, when there, starting for his leave, a man had a 
fit on the platform just as the train came in. The man was put 
into the train, and he got out at Exeter. Both on March 8th and 
again on this occasion, W. R. S. said, while looking at the crystal, 
a G. W. Railway station, for I can see G. W. R. and number 275 
"it looks like Exeter station." On March 8th, he added, "it is 
on a porter." This man in a fit probably suggested the dream 
(3), which was the next experiment. H. E. 


We have much pleasure in acknowledging the receipt of 
donations of 100 from Mr. G. Le M. Mander and 5s. from an 
anonymous contributor to the above Fund. 

No. CCLXXI. VOL. XIV. JULY, 1910. 



Society for Psychical Research. 



New Members and Associates, 325 

Meeting of the Council, - - 326 

Private Meeting for Members and Associates, 326 

CAM, - 

Sittings with Kusapia 1'ulludin.. in America, 

Note on the above. By the Hon. Everard FeUding and W. W. Baggally, - - 343 

Some Points in the Recent Reports oil Automatic Scripts. By Alice Johnson, 345 

Notes on Current Periodicals, - 353 

The Rooms of the Society at 20 Hanover Square, London, W., will be 
closed during August and September, re-opening on October 1st. 
The next number of the Journal will be issued in October. 


Names of Members are printed in Black Type. 
Names of Associates are printed in SMALL CAPITALS. 

Butler, Mrs., 20 Park Side, Albert Gate, London, S.W. 
Sandford, Miss Alice, 33 Hertford Street, Mayfair, London, W. 
Steel, Mrs. Flora Annie, Talgarth Hall, Machynlleth, N. Wales. 
CAYLEY, HUGH ST. QUINTIN, Vancouver, British Columbia. 

! CHANCE, CLINTON F., Lawnside, Edgbaston, Birmingham. 
COURTAULD, R. M., M.B., Borough Sanatorium, Brighton. 
CuNLiFFE-OwEN, MRS., 181 Ashley Gardens, Westminster, London, 
DAVIES, MRS., The Goodwyns, East Cosham, Hants. 
DEARMER, REV. PERCY, St. Mary's Vicarage, Primrose Hill, 

London, N.W. 

DICKIE, H. ELFORD, British Vice-Consulate, Kertch, Crimea. 
DUTTON, Miss A., Somerdon, Sidmouth. 
ELLIOT, MRS. GILBERT, Kasr el Nuzha, Cairo, Egypt. 
EVANS, WILLIAM ARTHUR, The Brackley, Stoneygate Avenue, 

326 Journal of Society for Psychical Research. JULY, 1910. 

HARDEMAN, Miss FRANCES E., Westfield, Sefton Park, Liverpool. 
JACKSON, MRS. W., 44 Park Street, Calcutta, India. 
LLOYD, REV. JOHN, 1542 Main Street, Marinette, Wisconsin, U.S.A. 
MOORE, MAJOR H. G. A., Army and Navy Club, London, S.W. 
RODAKIEWICZ, DR. ERLA, Bernbrunngasse 17, Hietzing, Vienna, 


SCOTT, REV. D. D., The Manse, Onehunga, Auckland, New Zealand. 
WIGHT, EDWARD, M.R.C.S., 9 Regency Square, Brighton. 


THE 104th Meeting of the Council was held at 20 Hanover 
Square, London, W., on Friday, June 24th, 1910, at 6 p.m., 
the President, Mr. H. Arthur Smith, in the chair. There were 
also present: Mr. W. W. Baggally, the Right Hon. Gerald W. 
Balfour, Mr. E. N. Bennett, the Hon. Everard Feilding, Sir 
Lawrence J. Jones, Sir Oliver Lodge, Mrs. Henry Sidgwick, 
Lieut.-Colonel G. Le M. Taylor, and Dr. C. Lloyd Tuckey ; 
also Miss Alice Johnson, Research Officer, and Miss Isabel 
Newton, Secretary. 

The Minutes of the last Meeting of the Council were read 
and signed as correct. 

Three new Members and seventeen new Associates were 
elected. Their names and addresses are given above. 

The monthly account for May, 1910, was presented and 
taken as read. 

Miss Helen de G. Verrall was appointed Assistant Research 
Officer, the appointment to date from Michaelmas, 1910. 


THE 32nd Private Meeting of the Society for Members and 
Associates only was held at Morley Hall, George Street, 
Hanover Square, London, W., on Friday, June 24th, 1910, at 
3.30 p.m.; the President, MR. H. ARTHUR SMITH, in the chair. 

Papers were read by the RIGHT HON. GERALD W. BALFOUR, on 
" Professor Pigou's criticism of Cross-Correspondences " ; and by 
SIR OLIVER LODGE on " An Incident supplementary to the 
' Lethe ' Case," both of which will, it is hoped, be published 
later in the Proceedings. 

JULY, 1010. ' 'use. 


L 1180. Dream. 

TIM: Inlluwiii- account has been communicated to us by General 
Sir E. H., who, while informing us of the full names of all 
the persons concerned, requested us to print their initials only. 
He gives a preliminary statement of the circumstances, as 
follows : 

In order to understand the dream, I should mention* that my 
elder brother some years ago took on an additional surname, so 
that from General H. he changed to General H.-S. I am 
correctly referred to as General H., or Sir R. 

My brother decided to have a slight operation, and the doctors 
and surgeons considered there was no risk. The operation took 
place in a Nursing Home in London on April the 25th [1910], 
and was considered a success. On the 26th he was found to be 
suffering severely from shock, but this nearly all passed away on 
the 27th. On the 28th he was not so well, and by night time 
the case was very serious. On the morning of the 29th the 
doctors decided that the only hope lay in sleep. Morphia was 
given every 4 hours. Before the first injection, about 7 a.m., 
he was quite collected and calm, and agreed to sleep. His son, R., 
had been with him all the time, and his daughter, B., arrived in the 
early morning, and she exchanged a few words with her father. For 
the rest of the day he was drowsy under morphia. About 6.30 p.m. 
he began to collapse, and breathed his last at 7 p.m., in the presence 
of his son and daughter and the doctors. 

Before the operation he was in excellent health, and very 
strong for his age, 66. 

Miss F. [the dreamer] met my brother once, a year or two ago. 
She had met his daughter some years ago, and she met his son 
on the 13th April last for the first and only time, and she knew 
slightly one of my sons, who received a telegram from his cousin 
at about 8 p.m. on the 29th, announcing the death. I have ascertained 
that not one of these three persons had given a thought to Miss F., 
and it would have been strange if they had. 

At my request the lady referred to by Miss F. has signed as 
correct the statement made to her on April 30th. 

Miss F. is devoted to my wife and myself; she saw us and our 
daughter off from Victoria Station for the Continent on April 
16th; and just in fun I gave her our accident insurance tickets 

328 Journal of Society for Psychical Research. JULY, 1910. 

for the journey, requesting her to hand them over to my son in 
case of a tragedy. Before she had heard of my brother's death, 
she wrote to my wife and said she was anxious to hear news of 
us, as we had promised to send a postcard on arrival, and she 
made some joking reference to the insurance tickets, but no 
mention of the dream she had had. We do not remember having 
promised to send the postcard. Miss F. is middle-aged, absolutely 
reliable, clever, very exact and methodical. 

It will be observed that Miss F. dreamed of my brother's death 
a few hours afterwards, on the night of April 29-30, but she did 
not know of his death till the night of May 7th. 

At about 6 p.m. on April 30th I received at Aix-les-Bains a 
telegram from my son to say my brother had died on the 29th. 

R. C. H. 

Miss F.'s account, dated May 8th, 1910, is as follows, the 
second signature being that of the lady to whom she told her 
dream on the morning after its occurrence : 

An Account of my Dream of the night of April %Sth-30th. 

In my dream I somehow became aware of the fact, "General 
H. is dead." There was a slight hesitation after H., as if an 
instrument at work had gone wrong, and made a hissing sound. 
There did not seem any one about to explain, but I queried in 
my own mind, "If they mean Sir R., why is his title omitted?" 
Again the fact was repeated, and again with the slight hesita- 
tion, and the sound of an "s," as in hissing, and that and the 
omission made me feel (in my dream) that there was something 
inaccurate about it, though I felt convinced it had to do with 
Sir R.'s family, and that it was because I knew him the informa- 
tion was given to me. The next morning (Saturday, April 30th) 
about 11 a.m. I met a friend, to whom I told my dream, and I 
said, "I do wish I could hear from Aix, as I know my dream has 
something to do with Sir R. ; he is mixed up in it somehow, I am 
quite sure." So as I was anxious, I despatched a letter to Lady H. 
But neither asleep nor awake did I once think of the H.-S.'s. 

E. H. F. 
A. H. C. 

On receiving this account Sir R. H. sent a number of questions 
to Miss F., the answers to which she embodied in a second 
version, written on May 19th, 1910. The first part of this 

, 1910. Case. 329 

is an almost verbatim repetition of what she had written before ; 
she then adds : 

About 11 a.m., Saturday, April 30th, I met a friend in the 
Edgware Koad, to whom I told my dream, and stated my 
anxiety in consequence of it, adding " I wish Lady H. had 
sent me a line, as she kindly promised to do when we parted a 
fortnight previously." My friend, Miss C., remarked, "But 
Sir R. did not go abroad ill." "No," I replied, "but a good 
deal can happen in a fortnight; all three of them could be dead 
and buried in that time; however, do not go away with the idea 
that it is Sir R., for I am sure it is not, as there was no title, 
though at the same time I know he is mixed up in it, so I wish 
they would write." 

Being still anxious, I wrote to Lady H., either that night or 
Sunday afternoon, May 1st, but did not mention my dream, 
though I stated I was anxious for news. I began my letter with 
a small joke, though feeling in anything but a joking mood. 

Lady H.'s letter of May 5th reached me on the night of May 
7th. From it I learnt, for the first time, of General H.-S.'s death 
having occurred on April 29th, and the thought flashed through 
my mind, that accounts for all those "S's" in my dream. 

Strange to say, I never once thought of the H.-S.'s until I received 
Lady H.'s letter, and yet I had met General H.-S., his son, and 


E. H. F. 
A. H. C. 

In reply to a further question, Miss F. writes on June 
30th, 1910: 

I write to say positively that I had not heard of General H.-S.'s 
illness or operation previous to my dream. 


MANY of our readers will probably have seen the accounts 
recently published in some of the American newspapers especi- 
ally the New York Times of frauds practised by Eusapia 
Palladino. Newspaper reports, whether favourable or the 
reverse, of matters connected with psychical research, are of 
course always to be received with caution, aud in this case 

330 Journal of Society for Psychical Research. JULY, 1910. 

full authentic details of the sittings in question are still 
lacking, though we hope to be furnished with them before long. 
Meanwhile, we reprint from Science of May 20th, 1910, a 
preliminary statement of the main results obtained in an 
important series of sittings carried out during the early part 
of this year at New York by nine Professors, of Columbia and 
other Universities, who were assisted by conjurers, amateur and 



The undersigned had three sittings with the Italian medium, 
Eusapia Palladino, in the Physical Laboratory at Columbia Univer- 
sity in January last. The object in view was to secure and report 
any evidence of the operation of hitherto unknown forces through 
her or in her presence. 

Though the investigation may fairly be called patient and 
laborious, no convincing evidence whatever of such a phenomenon 
could be obtained. Many indications were obtained, however, that 
trickery was being practised on the sitters. These indications will 
be more fully stated by the individual investigators. 

So far as these sittings afford data for judgment, the conclusion 
of the undersigned is unfavorable to the view that any super- 
normal power in this case exists. 

CHARLES L. DANA, M.D., Professor of Nervous Diseases, 

Cornell University Medical College. 
WILLIAM HALLOCK, Professor of Physics, Columbia. 
DICKINSON S. MILLER, Professor of Philosophy, Columbia. 
FREDERICK PETERSON, M.D., Professor of Psychiatry, 

College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia. 
WALTER B. PITKIN, Lecturer on Philosophy, Columbia. 
AUGUSTUS TROWBRIDGE, Professor of Physics, Princeton. 
EDMUND B. WILSON, Professor of Biology, Columbia. 
ROBERT WILLIAMS WOOD, Professor of Physics, Johns 


It has been said that Eusapia finds trickery more easy than the 
exercise of her supernormal power ; that she consequently resorts 
to the former whenever the control by the sitters permits it; and 
that the only fair test is had when there is such control as makes 
trickery absolutely impossible. During a fourth sitting, at which 
the undersigned were present, something like this control was exer- 

JULY, 1910. Sittings with Euaapia Palladino in America. 331 

cised ; and while this was the case none of the so-called evidential 
phenomena took place. 

C. L. Dana, \V. Hallock, D. S. Miller, F. Peterson, W. B. 
Pitkin, E. B. Wilson. 

* * * 

I have been present at nine sittings with Eusapia and in an 
adjoining room at a tenth. Broadly speaking, her " phenomena," 
as observed in America and as reported before, fall into seven 
classes: (1) levitations of a table, (2) rappings, (3) touches, (4) 
breezes, (5) lights, (6) " materializations," (7) movements in and 
about the cabinet. With the lights I was not favored. Of all 
the other classes, I can say: (1) That conclusive and detailed 
evidence was gained as to the method by which typical specimens 
of them were repeatedly produced, 1 and (2) that when the medium 
was securely held they were not produced at all. 

Statements of observations on essential points will, I trust, be 
published later. These include each of the classes named. 

* * * 

Thanks are due to Messrs. W. S. Davis, J. L. Kellogg and J. W. 
Sargent, who have all had much experience, both of professional 
conjuring and of the investigation of mediums, and who gave their 
time and invaluable services at my last two sittings. Mr. J. F. 
Rinn, a merchant, who is a trained observer and an investigator of 
spiritualism, deserves special acknowledgments for his work as a 

I agree substantially with the committee's report. My sittings 
with Palladino have failed to convince me that she possesses any 
unknown force. In fact, she has been detected in so much trickery 
that there is in my opinion an extremely high probability that all 
of the manifestations which I witnessed were produced by merely 
natural means. But I do not feel that the methods and conditions 
of our experiments were of such a kind as to warrant the rigorously 
scientific and finally conclusive verdict for which we had hoped, or 
even to justify quite the degree of emphasis expressed in the 
majority report. 

It has long been known that Palladino resorted to trickery, and 
the claim has been made and will still be made that she finds it 
easier to perform fraudulently that which she can and sometimes 
does accomplish otherwise. The Cambridge exposure of 1895 proved 

1 Accounts are presented in the article by Professor Jastrow in Collifr's Weekly 
for May 14, 1910. 

332 Journal of Society for Psychical Research. JULY, 1910. 

that she used trickery, but did not put a stop to her scientific 
vogue. I had hoped, perhaps foolishly, that our investigation would 
be rather more than a repetition of something already accomplished. 
And it seemed plain that the policy to pursue was to insist upon 
conditions of control by mechanical means, which, instead of en- 
couraging fraud by their looseness, should be so rigorous as absolutely 
to eliminate her well-known tricks of foot and hand substitution. 

If this plan had had a fair trial, and no "phenomena" had 
resulted, our report might have given a permanent quietus to the 
Palladino cult. W. P. MONTAGUE. 

* * * 

Professor Miller has asked me to add to the statement which I 
signed as a member of the committee, a personal report of the 
impression made on me by the three sittings with Eusapia Palladino 
which I attended in January. 

Judging from the earlier sittings which I attended on the invita- 
tion of Mr. Hereward Carrington, I should say that those held 
with the committee were fairly representative as regards the class 
of phenomena which Palladino has attempted to produce in this 
country, though as regards quantity, rather than quality, they should 
be regarded as poor sittings. 

I was particularly struck by an incident which occurred during the 
third sitting (January 22, 10.32 p.m.), which goes to show how very 
cautious one must be in accepting as evidential motions of objects 
apparently out of reach of the medium. 

From 10.29 p.m. until 10.32 p.m. objects were moved in the 
cabinet behind E. P. while she was under the following conditions 
of control feet tied together by a rope which prevented her from 
separating them by more than eight inches, in addition her ankles 
were held by one of the sitters who had taken up a position on the 
floor, each wrist tied to a wrist of her neighbor, on the right and 
left, by means of a rope which allowed her ten inches free motion 
in case she should elude the tactile control which her neighbors 
were endeavoring to keep. The light in the room at the time was 
that from a frosted electric bulb which I estimated to be giving 
about four candle power, placed about four feet from the medium's 

It would seem that the objects moved in the cabinet were outside 
the range of free motion of her hands and feet, and the motions 
seemed to be taking place under what might be called "test condi- 
tions." However, the shorthand report of this sitting shows that 

JULY, 1'Jio. Sittings with Eusapia Palladino in America. 333 

three of the sitters were convinced that the motions were caused by 
the medium knocking over objects in the cabinet with the back of 
her chair I noted that so soon as her chair was moved openly a few 
moments afterwards more objects fell. 

I mention this particular incident as I think it shows how difficult it 
is to obtain really "test conditions." Incidents of a similar character 
at other sittings I have attended, where at first sight the conditions 
of control seemed excellent, have rendered me extremely reluctant to 
base an opinion as to this remarkable woman on the very interesting 
reports of her numerous European sittings, but, so far as the evidence 
collected at the relatively uninteresting American series of sittings is 
concerned, I think it is decidedly unfavorable to Eusapia Palladino's 


After attending six sittings with Eusapia Palladino, I find myself in 
much the same position as at the start. 

Many things have occurred whicli I find great difficulty in ex- 
plaining by fraud while I have repeatedly seen trickery employed. 
I have succeeded in watching the manifestations within the cabinet 
throughout two entire evenings, the floor being illuminated with a 
feeble light which was thrown by means of a mirror through a crack 
between the bottom of the cabinet and the floor. The cabinet was 
of wood built into a doorway, so that it projected back into the 
adjoining room. My plan was to employ a powerful X-ray apparatus 
and a large fluorescent screen, so that a shadow picture of whatever 
was going on within the cabinet could be obtained in the back room 
at any instant without the knowledge of the medium. 

The interior of the cabinet I viewed through a large hole cut in 
the top, reclining on a mattress placed on the top of an instrument 
case adjoining the doorway. The X-ray tube was placed within the 
instrument case and carefully muffled, the fluorescent screen three feet 
square was placed against the opposite wall of the cabinet, on the 
outside of course. This apparatus was never actually used, owing 
to the sudden termination of the sittings, but it was set up and 
thoroughly tested, and gave excellent satisfaction. I mention it as 
it may be of use to future investigators, for, if properly installed, it 
is proof against any fraud, as it can be used without the medium's 

From my position above the cabinet I saw that whenever anything 
in the cabinet was moved the curtain was pushed back, a black 
object reaching in from Palladino's back groping around and finally 

334 Journal of Society for Psychical Research. JULY, 1910. 

seizing the table. Those who believe in Eusapia's supernormal powers 
will say that this was the third arm. I need not say that an X-ray 
picture of this third arm as seen on the fluorescent screen would be 
an interesting subject of study. It would not be difficult to so 
arrange the apparatus that the shadow of the medium's entire body 
could be obtained. The switch for operating the coil should be 
placed within reach of the observer on the top of the cabinet, so 
that the flood of rays need only be turned on when something is 
going on worth investigating. In this way no possible injury could 

At the first sitting at which the illumination of the floor was 
tried Eusapia complained of this light, which appeared to be quite 
accidental. I accordingly constructed a grill of vertical strips of 
thin wood, painted black. The floor of the cabinet was covered 
with this. From her position in front Eusapia could not have seen 
the light on account of the grill, while the observer above, looking 
down directly between the strips, could see the illuminated floor 
without difficulty. The object of illuminating the floor was of course 
to obtain a luminous background against which moving objects could 
be seen. It proved to be a very effective way of investigating cabinet 

On two occasions the black object which appeared was pointed, 
on the third, when the table was seized, it was blunt and rounded. 
Eusapia had pushed her chair back until her back was against the 
curtain, and I doubt if what I saw was the " third arm " ! On the 
occasion when I held one of Eusapia's hands, nothing was disturbed 
in the cabinet, but some very fine levitations occurred, in a brilliant 
light, and I could not only see between the medium's knees and the 
legs of the table, but passed my other hand between them and her 
skirts. I felt very positive that the legs of the table were free from 
contact with any part of her person. 

The proper system of investigation, in my opinion, is the one 
outlined. Whenever I saw anything going on in the cabinet, I sent 
an electric signal to seance room, so that particular pains could be 
taken by the persons holding her hands, to see whether the contact 
had been broken at the moment. 

If the phenomena are genuine it can be proved by the X-rays, I 
think, and in no other way. Madam Palladino need have no fear of the 
X-ray test, if the thing seen in the cabinet is a supernormal third 
arm. If the sittings had not been suddenly terminated, I feel certain 
that at the next one we should have had a complete explanation 

I'jio. Sittings with Eusapui Palladino in America. 335 

of how the disturbance in the cabinet was created. I am quite 
ready at any time to aid Mudain Palladino in establishing the 
genuineness of her supernormal powers by means of the X-rays. 

R. W. WOOD. 

The following is a reprint, with some omissions, of the article 
by Professor Joseph Jastrow (Professor of Psychology in the 
University of Wisconsin) referred to above, which appeared in 
Collier 's Weekly for May 14th, 1910. It will be noted that 
the detective devices used were only adopted after abundant 
evidence of fraud had been obtained on other occasions: 

The first stance was held at the house of Professor H. G. Lord 
of Columbia University, on April 17, 1910. Those present, besides 
Professor and Mrs. Lord and their guest, Miss E. K. Olmsted of Buffalo, 
were Mrs. Fabian Franklin, Mrs. F. D. Pollock, Miss Carola 
Woerishoffer, all of New York; Professors Dickinson S. Miller, J. B. 
Fletcher, and Mr. A. A. Livingston of Columbia University ; Messrs. 
W. S. Davis, J. L. Kellogg, J. W. Sargent, Joseph L. Rinn, and 
Warner C. Pyne of New York ; Professor Joseph Jastrow of the 
University of Wisconsin and lecturer in Columbia University, and 
those whose names appear in italics, were also present at the seance 
of April 24, held at the same place. In addition, there were present 
at the second stance Dr. W. T. Bush, Professor W. P. Montague, 
and Mr. W. B. Pitkin, all of Columbia University. 

Mr. A. A. Livingston of Columbia University kindly consented to 
act as interpreter. Eusapia arrived and departed under his escort. 
She raised no objection to the arrangements of the sitters, though 
in many seances she selects her right and left control. As the 
seance was about to begin, the director of the seance proposed a 
test of Eusapia's alleged power to influence by her "force" an electro- 
scope an experiment familiar to the medium in her European 
sittings. The apparatus was brought to the room in its paper 
wrappings, was duly disclosed and set on the table ; while the 
company dramatically gathered about with expressions of eager 
interest. Eusapia was absorbed in the experiment. The whole 
device was a decoy, and provided a diversion and a screen of 
"floaters," to conceal the entrance of two black-clothed and black- 
stockinged forms, who wriggled their way along the floor to assigned 
positions under the chairs of each pair of sitters at the sides of the 
table. It was agreed that Eusapia's hands and feet should be 
-"controlled" according to her instructions. The director dictated 

336 Journal of Society for Psychical Research. JULY, 1910. 

to a stenographer the " events " and the state of the " control," the 
stenographer writing a few feet away by the light of a screened 
lamp. The dictation served the double purpose of securing a record 
and of making natural a good deal of talking and comment. To 
the frequent inquiries of Eusapia, who is supposed to understand 
no English, whether all was well or what was said, the answer was 
always reassuring, and it was stated the comment was directed to 
the stenographer. 

The evening proved rich in phenomena. The table rapped, rocked,, 
tilted on two legs and on one, and left the floor completely. Under 
lowered lights (signaled for by five raps of the table) the curtains 
blew apart ; a swelling appeared under the left curtain ; the curtain 
was blown over the table ; a tabouret emerged from the cabinet, was- 
balanced for a moment, repeatedly advanced and retreated, and at 
last was lifted and deposited on the stance table ; later a hand 
appeared against the cabinet over Eusapia's head ; there were more 
bulgings of the curtain, more levitations ; and then the seven raps 
of the table, indicating the close of the seance, followed by a violent 
outburst from Eusapia when the sitters continued to retain their 
positions. Such, with omission of all detail, was the seance. The 
phenomena were those most commonly associated with this 

The witness below the chair on Eusapia's left had the position of 
vantage. This was Mr. J. L. Rinn, a produce merchant of New 
York City, who has long been deeply interested in the methods of 
mediums, and has proved himself a reliable observer. Eusapia 
begins by placing her right foot on the left foot of her right control 
(Kellogg), and her left foot on the right foot of her left control 
(Davis). Her problem consists in freeing her left foot for service 
and making the right foot serve to maintain contact with one foot 
of each sitter. 

The following by Mr. Rinn : "For a few minutes the medium 
kept her feet tapping upon the feet of Messrs. Davis and Kellogg 
without resting completely. Then she placed her right foot obliquely 
with her heel on Kellogg's toe and her toe upon Davis's toe, facing 
toward J. L. Rinn. Only one foot was in sight on the feet of 
Kellogg and Davis. In a few moments, after some ejaculations in 
Italian from the medium, the table began to wobble from side to 
side ; and a foot came from underneath the dress of the medium 
and placed the toe underneath the leg of the table on the left side 
of the medium, and, pressing upward, gave it a little chuck inta 

JULY, 1910. Sittings with Eusapia Palladino in America. 337 

the air. Then the foot withdrew and the leg of the table dropped 
suddenly to the floor. More wobbling of the table occurred. Again 
the foot came from underneath the dress of the medium and placed 
itself underneath the leg of the table, forced the table upward from 
the floor about half a foot, held it there for a moment, suddenly 
withdrew its support from the table, which fell to the floor with a 
bang. Each time after a levitation, the medium would appear to 
rest her left foot upon the top of the right, which remained 
constantly in an oblique position upon the feet of Davis and 
Kellogg. At no time did she have her left foot hampered in any 
way. It was constantly moving in the space about her chair; aixl 
I was lying with my face on the floor within eight inches of the 
left leg of the table; and each time that the table was lifted, 
whether in a partial or a complete levitation, the medium's foot 
was used as a propelling force upward. At one time the table was 
lifted about two feet up from the floor. The starting of the lifting 
was done by the left toe of the medium under the left leg of the 
table ; and she appeared to rise up with it, using some other portion 
of her body to raise it higher; and from my point of observation 
it seemed as if the knee, as well as the foot, was operating when 
the table was lifted the highest. At different times throughout the 
seance the medium caused rappings upon the table by striking the 
left leg of the table with the side of her foot about .three inches 
from the floor." 

And now as to the manifestations from the cabinet : " A short 
time after the lights were lowered she swung her left foot free from 
her dress at the back and kicked the curtain of the cabinet 
quickly, which caused it to bulge out toward the sitters. This was 
done several times so daringly that under the chairs where I lay it 
seemed almost impossible that the people above the table could not 
have observed it. 

"Later the medium placed her left leg back into the cabinet and 
pulled out from behind the curtain a small table with certain 
articles upon it, which was dashed to the floor in front of the 
cabinet on the left-hand side. It remained there in varying positions 
and was kicked by the medium a number of times. At one time 
the medium juggled the table that had been kicked out from behind 
the curtain on the end of her left toe, holding it off the ground and 
balancing it on the edge of her toe in a very clever manner, so that 
it gave the appearance as if the table was floating in the air. 

"The light at all times, even when it was at its dimmest, 

338 Journal of Society for Psychical Research. JULY, TJIO. 

permitted me to see clearly the actions of her foot, as I was so 
close to it that the movement of the foot caused the dress to lift 
and more or less light shine through, so that at no time had I the 
slightest doubt of the motive cause of any movement that occurred." 

Next a brief statement from the other floor observer, Mr. Warner 
C. Pyne, a student of Columbia University and trusted friend of 
Professor Miller. Mr. Pyne moved away from Mr. Kellogg's chair. 
"This put my head about under the center of the table, about five 
inches from the feet of Messrs. Kellogg and Davis. The light was 
very dim. I then saw the position of Eusapia's feet very well. 
The heel of her right foot was resting on the toe and forward part 
of Mr. Kellogg's left foot, and the ball of her right foot was resting 
on the toe and forward part of Mr. Davis's right foot. This left 
Eusapia's left foot free." 

Thus each floor observer corroborates the other. The same holds 
for the cabinet phenomena. Mr. Pyne reports : " I was now enabled 
to get a good view of what was going on, since the illumination 
was much improved. Under the better light conditions, on two 
separate and distinct occasions, I positively saw the medium's left 
foot go back and touch the tabouret, which had previously been 
overturned and was lying on the floor to the medium's left. When 
she touched the tabouret thus with the toe of her left foot it moved. 
The first time she did it, nobody in the company seemed to notice 
the fact that the tabouret was moving, which seemed to give 
occasion for a second kick (a few seconds after the first). The 
second time she kicked it, some one in the company remarked that 
the tabouret was moving. The so-called ' echo ' raps I saw her 
produce on two separate occasions by hitting the lower end of the 
left leg of the table (about two inches from the floor) with the toe 
of her left foot." An additional observation by Mr. Pyne, of a 
levitation under lowered lights, is this : " Somehow she got the left 
leg of the table resting on the toes of her left foot. Her foot was 
raised off the floor about three inches, and with the table leg still 
resting on it, was moved about back and forth in the air with a 
sidewise motion." 

Such are the sights seen by the two men hidden under the 
chairs. Let us turn to the evidence above-board. The critical 
position at Eusapia's left was taken by Mr. W. S. Davis, who, like 
Mr. Rinn, co-operated with Richard Hodgson in his investigations 
of mediums in behalf of the Society for Psychical Research, and is 
an expert of long training. 

nno. Sittings with Eusapia Palladino in America. 339 

That Mr. Davis was well aware that Eusapia at the outset sub- 
stituted her right for the left foot thus appears in his notes: "Then 
when she beat the air with her fist, thereby diverting attention and 
creating a jerky mental impression, she correspondingly slid her left 
foot off my right foot,, until I felt pressure at the toe-end of my foot 
only, whereas there had been pressure on my instep. She then 
rocked the table from side to side, [with] all of our hands upon it, 
until she saw that no apparent notice had been taken of her sliding 

"Thoroughly convinced that Eusapia's left foot was not resting 
upon my right foot at all, and that her other foot was touching me, 
I cautiously raised my left foot, and passing it over my right foot 
in the direction of Eusapia, was unable to touch her left leg from 
the knee down, at the place where it should have been. After further 
rocking from side to side (giving Eusapia ample opportunity to place 
her toe under the table leg), the end of the table nearest to her 
reared up. She held Kellogg's left hand up in the air with her 
right, while her left hand rested upon my right upon the table. 
This rearing up occurred two or three times more; and as there 
were no obstreperous sceptics present to retard manifestations by 
interfering with her methods, she felt sufficiently safe to risk an 
entire levitation, and the table went up into the air several inches. 

"This particular levitation is the prettiest thing that Eusapia 
does ; and it should not be confused with the miscellaneous levitations 
occurring in the second act of her performance, when the lights are 
poor, and when she gets the table up off the floor in any way she 
can, some of her methods being exceedingly bold." 

The cabinet tricks are performed partly by her left hand and 
partly by her versatile left foot. Since the hand substitutions might 
be seen even in the gloom, the left curtain is flung over the table, 
and under cover of the curtain the hand substitutions are made. 
Of this Mr. Davis reports : 

"The evidence that she used her left hand in producing part of 
the phenomena in the poor light is more than ample. Before a 
phenomena I usually felt her hand releasing its pressure, and during 
a phenomenon contact with her appeared to be with the end of my 
fingers only; and after a phenomenon her truant hand returned to 
mine with a firm touch, almost amounting to a grasp. Indeed, I 
could generally tell in advance when something which her hand 
could do would happen, and gave those near me some indications 
of that fact. Also, our hands perspired somewhat, and when her 

340 Journal of Society for Psychical Research. JULY, 1910. 

hand came back to mine, the perspiration was often chilled, pre- 
sumably depending upon the time that it had been away from 

" The curtain bulgings were upon this occasion performed in three 
ways : Sitting sideways and pointing at a place on the left curtain 
just on a line with her head, she said, look, or something which 
meant that, and then blew the curtains so that there was a slight 
ripple. She has a method of controlling her lips so that she can 
blow from the side of her mouth without distorting her face or 
making the effort very apparent. I noticed this with my own eyes 
not more than two feet from her head. 

" The principal bulgings are produced by slapping the curtain from 
the inside with her left hand, as I ascertained by seeing part of her 
arm in motion. It will be remembered that the two curtains were 
fastened at the top only and that they swung loose at the bottom, 
at both sides, and in the center. (During some of the footwork 
Eusapia kept the curtains from parting at the center by catching 
them between her own back and the back of the chair.) The third 
method of 'bulging' consisted of striking the lower end of the 
curtain with her foot, which sent a tremor along the cloth. 

" During general physical manifestations she at times threw both 
of her legs on my lap, but that only proved that she wasn't using 
her feet at that particular moment; and it wasn't necessary that 
she should, for at that very time, when her feet were resting, she 
was using her hand." 

Mr. Kellogg, who acted as the control on Eusapia's right, is a 
manufacturer of trick toys and apparatus. He likewise has been 
deeply interested in the ways of mediums and their exposure. 
The following notes from his report support the observations 
of his companion on the left. Mr. Kellogg discovered Eusapia's 
foot-substitution procedure independently. 

"She placed her right foot on mine and her left on the right foot 
of Davis. This was at the beginning. The pressure was inter- 
mittent, and in a few moments it was plain that her right foot was 
doing duty for both. The heel of her shoe only was on my foot. 
During the entire seance I am positive that I did not lose the position 
of her right foot or her right arm. All the manifestations occurred on 
her left side. She often took my left hand and placed it on her knee, 
evidently to show me that it was quiet. She very carefully prevented 
me from reaching across to the left knee at certain times, and it was at 
these times I was convinced that the left leg was in full action. At 

ji i.v, lino. Sittings with Eusapia Palladino in America :; 1 1 

other times she carefully placed my hand across both her knees, 
evidently to convince me that they were both quiet as they doubtless 
were at such times." 

Of the latter portion of the stance, with lowered lights, when the 
cabinet phenomena appeared, Mr. Kellogg reports : 

"She took my left hand and plurrd it over her right shoulder, far 
enough to let me feel her left shoulder-blade, where I exerted some 
pressure with the finger-tips. With my hand in this position it was 
almost impossible to know whether she was moving her left arm or 
not ; hence I took the liberty of placing the ball of my left wrist where 
the tips of my fingers had been, and this gave me ample opportunity to 
feel, with my fingers thus freed, the movements of the sleeve of her left 
arm without her knowing it. Then it was plain that whenever the 
curtain was sharply ' blown ' forward, it was done by her throwing 
it forward with her left hand with a quick impulsive jerk. It was 
also plain that the hand we saw at the parting of the curtains was 
none other than hers. The exact position is hard to describe; but 
she was half lying on my left arm, and this gave her plenty of 
room for action on her left with both leg and left arm." 

The sitter at the end of the table, who had a good survey of the 
scene as a whole, was Mr. J. W. Sargent, a professional conjurer, 
well-versed in sleight of hand and the tricks of professed mediums, 
and a past president of the Society of American Magicians. Mr. 
Sargent corroborates, so far as his position permitted, the conclusions 
of his colleagues. He testifies that he distinctly saw a number of 
Eusapia's actions, such as the throwing of the curtain out upon the 
table with her left hand ; that the so-called spirit-hand which appeared 
behind her head was distinctly her own left hand, the arm remaining 
invisible because of the lack of contrast of her black sleeve against 
the black curtains. 

In consideration of the notoriety attaching to the performances of 
this medium, it was felt that no step should be omitted which might 
add to the convincing character of the verdict. It was accordingly 
decided to supplement if possible the positive evidence by negative 
evidence. At a second seance the following plan was successfully 
carried out : In the first part of the evening to exercise just the 
same lax control which inexpert sitters would use in response to 
Eusapia's instructions, and to demonstrate that under these circum- 
stances (closely duplicating those of the first seance) the same 
phenomena would occur; and then, upon a given signal, to tighten 
the control and rigidly guard both hands and both feet, and observe 

342 Journal of Society for Psychical Research. JULY, 1910. 

whether, under these circumstances, any "phenomena" would occur. 
An interested and approving attitude was maintained, and in this 
atmosphere, under lax control, levitations, curtain movements, and 
cabinet phenomena duly appeared and continued for forty minutes 
or more. Then, judiciously and expertly, Mr. Davis and Mr. Kellogg 
controlled all suspicious movements of her hand and foot; and the 
phenomena slackened and stopped. They reported persistent and 
increasingly strenuous attempts on the part of the medium to free 
the left foot and to secure conditions favorable to the foot-substitution. 
Eusapia's irritation arose ; she complained of the violence of her 
restraint, which was in reality a most gentle but firm contact. In 
agonised tones she cried out that the director's fingers, lightly touching 
the leather heel of her shoe, aroused in her suddenly-made-sensitive 
nerves the tortures of purgatory. Her protests grew louder, and 
were echoed with passionate fervor by her sister-in-law, who came 
with her to the sitting; and at length she threatened to leave the 
table. The observers remained unaffected, and, wary of any sudden 
movement of Eusapia's hand or foot, continued to report her vain 
efforts to evade the control. An intermission was taken. Eusapia 
grew calmer, was permitted to put her hands on the table, and once 
more attempted to distract attention by exciting cries and movements : 
but all to no avail. The hours slipped by; the same conditions were 
maintained, and all mediumistic phenomena ceased. 

After the appearance of these articles, it was proposed to 
hold a test sitting under certain conditions designed to prevent 
fraud, so as to give Eusapia another chance of showing her 
capacity to produce genuine phenomena. Mr. Carrington, while 
admitting the frauds practised, held to his belief in her posses- 
sion of genuine supernormal powers, and in this he was sup- 
ported by Mr. Howard Thurston, a professional conjuror (former 
assistant and successor to Mr. Harry Kellar), who had witnessed 
levitations of the table which he believed to be genuine. The 
conditions for the test sittings were arranged jointly by Mr. 
Carrington and Mr. Thurston on the one side, and Messrs. 
W. S. Davis, Binn, Kellogg and Sargent on the other, and were 
agreed to by Eusapia. She, however, failed several times to 
keep her promise to attend, and the sitting has consequently, 
we understand, not yet been held. 

Opinions will, no doubt, differ as to the bearing of all these 
observations on Eusapia's phenomena taken as a whole. ,The 

.ii iv, 1'Jio. Sitting* with Eiwapia Palladino in America 

adverse evidence is the accumulation of a large number of 
independent observations made at different times by different 
persons ; the three sittings reported by Mr. Dorr in the April 
Journal were held on December 1 :;th, 16th and 18th, 1909; 
those reported by Mr. Kivl.s in tin- June Journal on December 
17th, 1909, and January 10th, 1910, both before the incident 
of Eusapia's foot being caught in the cabinet had become 
known ; while the sittings referred to in the present article 
took place later and were held by other groups of persons. 
It appears that while some individuals among these latter 
are not satisfied that the tricks discovered will fully account 
for all the phenomena they witnessed in particular, for the 
best cases of table-levitations none of them has expressed 
himself as convinced that any of the phenomena are genuinely 
supernormal ; for there may, of course, be other fraudulent 
methods not yet discovered, and it cannot be denied that the 
more fraud is discovered, the greater becomes the probability 
that all the phenomena are fraudulent. 

The reader who wishes to form an unbiassed judgment of 
the case is recommended to study again the Naples report, 
which is agreed on all hands to furnish the best evidence so 
far obtained in favour of Eusapia. It does not seem possible 
to advance the matter further one way or the other unless 
she will submit to further tests of a more stringent kind than 
have yet been applied to her, and her refusal to attend the test 
sitting arranged in New York permits of little hope that this 
will ever be the case. 



IT is perhaps premature to express an opinion on the sittings 
referred to in the above account, and we defer any detailed con- 
sideration of them until the actual shorthand reports are received, 
and until Mr. Carrington is enabled to supply his comments. For 
the present, it will suffice if we state that on such evidence as is 
before us we are neither of us moved to modify our original opinion 
as expressed in our report on the Naples sittings. The American 
evidence so far does not appear to do more than emphasize what 
everybody knew already, viz. (1) that, if allowed to cheat, Eusapia 

344 Journal of Society for Psychical Research. JULY, 1910. 

will certainly do so, and (2) that on certain occasions nothing of 
any evidential consequence occurs. Had we adopted what appears 
to have been the American system, that is, to permit indefinite 
cheating during most of the seances and then to tighten up the 
control and prevent it, and if a failure to produce phenomena had 
happened to coincide with such prevention, we should certainly 
have arrived at the same conclusions as the Americans. But our 
effort in the Naples sittings was at all times to prevent cheating, 
and the irregularity of the results was in no way to be accounted 
for by any variation in the rigour of our control. Three out of 
our eleven seances (3rd, 4th and 10th) were practically blank so 
far as any evidential phenomena are concerned. If these had 
happened to be seances at which the conditions were specially 
rigorous, the inevitable conclusion would have been that the 
"force" failed in consequence of the severity of the conditions. 
This was, however, not the case. 

When we seek to apply the explanations offered by the American 
professors and conjurors to what we considered evidential pheno- 
mena at Naples, their inadequacy appears to us clear. 

(1) Raps. The American raps seem to resemble those which 
occurred throughout all our sittings up to the eleventh, and all of 
which (with one exception, Naples Report, Proceedings, Vol. XXIIL, 
p. 491, Seance VIII. , 11.19) we dismissed as non-evidential. But 
at the end of the eleventh seance (see Report, p. 554) occurred 
a series to which the explanations suggested above cannot apply. 

(2) Levitations. Whether or not all the American levitations were 
produced by the medium's foot, and on this point the evidence of 
the American observers themselves is decidedly conflicting, there are 
numerous cases in the Naples Report where no such explanation is 
possible. See, e.g., Report, pp. 423, 424 (10.24), 508 (10.14), and 510. 

(3) Bulgings of the curtain. Mr. Davis speaks of these as a 
"ripple" producible by blowing from Eusapia's mouth. Eusapia 
constantly blows with her mouth, and takes no pains to conceal the 
fact. But any resulting tremblings of the curtain were never claimed 
as "phenomena," nor would it have occurred to us to consider them 
as such. The real bulgings are something wholly different from 
what Mr. Davis describes (see Report, p. 333). If Eusapia can 
make a curtain bulge slowly outwards by blowing at it from out- 
side, she must be even more adroit than she is credited to be. 
Nor were these bulges produced by her hands from within the 
curtain, they being almost always both visible outside; nor by her 

JULY, 1910. Sittings with Eusapia Palladino in America. 345 

feet, which can scarcely be supposed to reach above her head, 
especially when they are tied; see, /v/., Report, pp. 366-70. Such 
"explanations" as these are purely futile when applied to the 
Naples sittings. 

(4) Appearances and grasps of hand*. It may be remarked that 
whereas Mr. Podraore is convinced that these and other phenomena 
were produced by Eusapia's right hand, the American observers 
are equally convinced that they are performed with her left. For 
an example which seems to show that neither the one nor the other 
was concerned, see Report, p. 430, 11.10. It will be noticed that 
one hand was held on the left corner of the table and visible, and 
the other held under the curtain. Substitution at all events is not 
possible. See also p. 516, 12.38, when both hands were visible and 
both feet accounted for, one being stationary and the other moving. 
Also p. 518, 12.51, and pp. 552-553, when both the medium's hands 
were held by the same controller. 

(5) Movements of objects at a distance. See Naples Report, p. 514^ 
and F.'s note, p. 520. 

It is needless to labour our case. No amount of arguing will 
affect any one. But it is idle to suggest that a problem which 
has puzzled so many of the best intellects in Europe for the last 
twenty years can be disposed of so easily. We think we have said 
sufficient to justify our impenitence, and for the rest await the 
report of Mr. Carrington. 



To those who are engaged in studying the evidence obscure and 
conflicting as it is for survival after death, such criticisms as 
those brought forward by Mr. Podmore in the last number of 
the Journal are both welcome and valuable, and I wish to take 
this opportunity of withdrawing a statement made in my Second 
Report on Mrs. Holland's script, which he has there shown to be 
unfounded. In referring to the Latin Message, I said that the 
Piper-Myers " pointed out and maintained his point in the face of 
every discouragement that 'Browning Hope and Star' was an 
instance of the kind [of cross-correspondence] required" by the Latin 
Message. This was written, somewhat rashly, from my recollection of 
the experiment as it was going on. After reading Mr. Podmore's 

346 Journal of Society for Psychical Research. JULY, 1910. 

comments, I referred to the original records, which show that 
while it is not certain that Myers P realised the appropriateness of 
"Browning, Hope, and Star" in relation to the Latin Message, his 
tentative efforts after this realisation were in no way discouraged. 
My statement then was much exaggerated. 

The whole incident was an extremely complicated one, and certain 
points in the trance utterances were sufficiently dubious to admit of 
differences of interpretation. Under these circumstances we are clearly 
bound to minimise the evidence for the supernormal, as Mr. Podmore 
has done. I think, however, that he has gone rather too far in 
this direction, and that his summary of the case from its omitting 
to indicate how appropriate many of Myers P 's statements were to 
the corresponding Verrall scripts hardly gives a fair impression of 
its evidential value. I therefore give another summary to supply 
these omissions. 

Dec. 11 th, 1906. Mr. Piddington dictates half of the first sentence 

of the message to Myers p (p. 315). 1 

Dec. 17 'th, 1906. Mrs. Verrall, knowing that the message is 
shortly to be dictated, writes a script, appropriate to it, 
about harmony and music, partly founded on some verses by 
Mr. Myers (p. 309). 

Dec. 19//1, 1906, to Jan. '2nd, 1907, inclusive. Mr. Piddington 
gradually dictates the rest of the message to Myers P (p. 316). 
In the waking stage of Jan. 2nd, Myers P said "United we 
stand, divided we fall." This would be an apposite comment 
on the second sentence of the message, but was not definitely 
stated to be connected with it (p. 317). 

Jan. IQth, 1907. Mr. Piddington impresses on Myers P the im- 
portance of producing cross-corresponding messages, but 
carefully abstains from any hint that what was wanted was 
cross-correspondences of the complex type, i.e. the type 
described in the Latin Message (pp. 318-9). 

Mr. Piddington suggests to Myers P that when he gives 
similar messages, say, to Mrs. Verrall and to Mrs. Holland, 
he should mark each with a triangle within a circle to show 
that there is a corresponding message to be looked for 
(p. 36). 

Jan. 23rd, 1907 (Morning). Myers P for the first time says that 
he believes he can send a message in reply to the Latin 
Message (pp. 319-20). 

x The page references in this summary are to Proceedings, Vol. XXIL 

Ji i.v, lyio. Recent Reports on Automatic *SV, ;/,/>. '>47 

Jan. 23rd, 1907 (Evening). Mrs. Yen-all's script about Star, etc. 

(p. 323). 
Jan. 28th, 1J907. Mrs. Verrall's script about Star, Hope, Wings, 

and Browning's Alt Voyler, marked with a triangle within a 

circle (p. 324). 
Feb. 3rd, 1907. Miss Verrall's script about Star and Bird (pp. <'>~ 

and 325). 
Feb. llth, 1907. Myers P asks if Mrs. Verrall has received the 

word "Evangelical" (afterwards corrected spontaneously to 

"Evelyn Hope," see pp. 322, 337, and 340) and says that 

he also gave her Hope, Star and Browning (pp. 320-1). 
Feb. 12th, 1907. Mr. Piddington tells Myers P that Browning, 

Star, and Hope have appeared in Mrs. Verrall's script 

(p. 322). 
Feb. I2th-I5th, 1907. Mr. Piddington reads Abt Vogler for the 

first time and interprets the line : " That out of three sounds 

he frame, not a fourth sound, but a star," as an illustration 

of a specially appropriate answer to the Latin Message 

(p. 326). 
Feb. llth, 1907. Miss Verrall's script about Star, Harmony and 

Browning (pp. 325-6). 
Feb. 21 'th, 1907. Myers P attempts to translate Latin Message, 

and says, " I believe that since you sent this message to 

me I have sufficiently replied to your various questions to 

convince the ordinary scientific mind that I am .... 

Myers." * 

" (J. G. P. Tell me in what messages your reply is given.) 
In my messages reported here and through Mrs. Verrall. 
(J. G. P. Give some important point from them.) 
One was when I referred to the poems the others 1st to the 

Halceon days and evangelic [afterwards corrected to 'Evelyn 

Hope'], etc., etc., also my reference to the shrub Syringa. 
The one I recall clearly was with reference to the Poems and 

cross corresponding messages. 
(J. G. P. Tell me what poems.) 
B my own Browning Horace chiefly Browning's lines as given 

through Mrs. Verrall. 
(J. G. P. You have, I believe, given an answer worthy of your 

intelligence, but the interpretation must not be mine. You 

this point on, I quote the record in an abbreviated form, see pp. 

348 Journal of Society for Psychical Research. JULY, 1910. 

must explain your answer. You could do it in two 

Hope Star. 
(J. G. P. WelH yes?) 
(J. G. P. Exactly. It couldn't be better.)" 

Of the various topics mentioned here, " Halcyon days " and 
" Syringa " are the only ones that are not connected with the 
cross-correspondence. As to "Poems, my own Browning chiefly 
Browning's lines," Mrs. Verrall's script of Dec. 17th, 1906, owes 
much of its phraseology to some verses by Mr. Myers, and the 
Verrall scripts included in my summary also contain allusions to or 
quotations from poems by Dry den and Blake, while the chief points 
are brought out by quotations from Browning. 

It is true that " Horace " is not directly connected with the 
cross-correspondence, and the statement that it was so was spon- 
taneously corrected by Myers P at the next sitting, on March 4th, 
1907 (see p. 338); but the mention of Horace had considerable 
significance in this connection (see pp. 339 and 398-414). 

Taking all these records together, there is definite positive 
evidence of supernormal knowledge on the part of Myers P as to 
the contents of Mrs. Verrall's scripts; while some of the remarks 
he makes, and the time at which these remarks are made, suggest 
at least a certain degree of comprehension of the relevancy of 
"Browning Hope and Star" to the Latin Message. When this 
had once been mentioned in the trance, and Mr. Piddington had 
signified his approval, no evidential weight is, of course, to be 
attached to repetitions of it ; the important question is whether 
the idea originated with Myers P or with Mr. Piddington. Mr. 
Podmore inclines to the latter hypothesis. He mentions that at 
the sitting of Feb. llth, 1907, immediately after Myers P had said, 
*' Look out for Hope, Star and Browning," Mr. Piddington asked 
him to reply to the Latin Message at the next [really the next 
but one] sitting; which, Mr. Podmore seems to imply, might have 
given Myers P a hint. If so, it was a purely accidental hint, for 
at the time Mr. Piddington had not the least reason for suspecting 
any connection between the two topics (p. 321). 

Another point mentioned by Mr. Piddington in the Journal for 
Jan. 1909 (Vol. XIV., p. 21) may be repeated here. "The fact 
(says he) that cross-correspondences of a complex type began to 
make their appearance only after the second sentence of, the 

JULY, i ui o. Recent Reports on Automatic Scripts. 

message had been dictated to the controls, suggests though it 
certainly cannot be said to do more than suggest that they may 
have comprehended the second sentence, although they made no 
attempt to translate it. The trance-personalities, be it noted, were 
never requested to translate the Latin Message. What they were 
asked to do was to send an intelligent reply to it." 

Mr. Piddington nevertheless, as IK- authorises me to say, agrees 
with me in admitting the force of .Mr. Podmore's general criticism 
of this case. 

In regard to cross-correspondences in general, Mr. Podmore 
suggests a comparison with certain early experiments in telepathy 
conducted by Professor Richet, of which one possible explanation 
was that the thoughts of the agent were transmitted to the per- 
cipient through the subliminal consciousness of a third person (the 
"operator"), whose supraliminal consciousness did not at any stage 
become aware of them. 

From the more detailed account of these experiments given in 
Phantasms of the Living (Vol. I., pp. 72-79), however, it would seem 
doubtful whether there was any telepathic connection between the 
operator and the other persons, or whether the percipient had not 
unconsciously reckoned the point reached by the operator. 1 

I do not of course dispute that an idea may exist in the sub- 
liminal consciousness without ever emerging into the supraliminal; 
but I maintain that the only evidence we can have of its existence 
must be through its expression in some form, e.g. in automatic 
writing. If it is not expressed at all, either explicitly or implicitly, 
we cannot assume as I think Mr. Podmore is sometimes too ready 
to assume that it exists. 

He prefaces his criticism of the " Sevens case '.' 2 with the remark : 
"It is always easier to believe in spirits than in any known cause, 
because, knowing nothing about spirits, we are justified in crediting 
them with omnipotence." Now, if human spirits survive bodily 
death, it would seem that the only method by which they could 
communicate at all, either with each other or with us, would be 
through telepathy, that is, taking telepathy in the sense in which 
it was originally defined in Phantasms of the Living, "the ability 
of one mind to impress or to be impressed by another mind other- 

J The arguments used in Phantasms against this hypothesis seem to me 

-Proceedings, Part LX., pp. 222 el seq. 

350 Journal of Society for Psychical Research. JULY, 1910. 

wise than through the recognised channels of sense." It is probable 
then that, if they survive, they have some telepathic power at least 
in regard to one another; whereas for us evidence of their survival 
must be afforded, if at all, by telepathic communication between us 
and them. Therefore to entertain the hypothesis that spiritistic 
agency may have been one of the factors in the Sevens case, is to 
make but a small assumption in regard to the powers of the 
" spirits." Far from " crediting them with omnipotence," it assumes 
only a certain degree of intelligent mental activity on their part, 
with a certain limited power both of receiving mental impressions 
from the living, and so acquiring knowledge of some of their actions, 
and of transmitting mental impressions to the living, and so exerting 
some influence on their actions, e.g. on their automatic script. 

Mr. Podmore says that Mrs. VerraU's script of July 13th, 1904, 
appears to have been influenced by telepathy from Mr. Piddington, 
and observes that this script, which gave true information about 
the contents of a living mind, gave at the same time false informa- 
tion about the contents of a mind no longer living, and he adds : 
"Miss Johnson suggests that the true information may have come 
from the disembodied intelligence which planned the whole scheme 
from the other side. What then was the source of the false infor- 
mation given in the same piece of writing?" 

If this is a conundrum, I will ask Mr. Podmore another. Mr. 
Podmore suggests that the true information may have come from 
the embodied intelligence of Mr. Piddington. What then was the 
source of the false information given in the same piece of writing 1 ? 

But why should we suppose that the true and the false informa- 
tion came from one and the same source, whatever that source may 
have been 1 May not the false information have come from Mrs. 
VerraU's subliminal imagination, while the true information came to 
her telepathically from some mind external to her own? 

The reason against supposing this mind to be Mr. Piddington's is 
that the script did not, as Mr. Podmore asserts, give "true infor- 
mation about the contents of" his mind. The idea in Mr. Pidding- 
ton's mind was that he would endeavour after death, not before, to 
transmit the number Seven. Mrs. VerraU's script said : " In London 
half the message has come." This sentence was perfectly meaning- 
less if applied to what was happening and what Mr. Piddington 
was thinking of at the time ; it did not in any way represent the 
contents of his mind. It only made sense when applied to what 
happened three years later; it may be regarded in fact as a pre- 

JULY, 1910. Recent Reports on Automatic >''/ /'/>/.<. :,."! 

monition of what did actually happen, though this was not what 
Mr. Piddington wished or expected to happen. 

Mr. Podmore goes on to say : " The idea of Seven, latent probably 
in Mrs. Verrall's mind for years, seems to have taken definite shap.- 
on the occasion of her reading Dante, and to have been thence 
transferred, in close alliance with Dantesque imagery, to the other 
automatists." But the number 7 plays a very subordinate part 
in Mrs. Verrall's script, and is not there associated with Dante at 
all (see Proceedings, Part LX., pp. 225-6). 

Mr. Podmore says later: "Mrs. Piper has some mediaeval Latin 
doggerel read to her and selects from it the words 'angel band* 
because Mrs. Verrall has for some days past been trying to say 
' angel band ' to her." 

The description of the souls descending on Jacob's Ladder 
occurs in Mrs. Verrall's script of May 8th, 1908. This, 
I find, was written between 11.30 a.m. and 12.30 p.m., whereas 
" Angel band " was mentioned by Mrs. Piper on the same day 
and at about the same hour, which allowing for the difference of 
time between England and Boston makes Mrs. Piper's utterance 
about 4J hours later than Mrs. Verrall's. "For some days past'"' 
seems therefore to be a slip of the pen; Mr. Podmore probably 
means "for some hours past." But it appears that, as a matter of 
fact, this was not the first time that Mrs. Piper had mentioned 
"angel band." In the waking stage of April 27th, 1908, she had 
said "Angels' choir seat of God," which is clearly intended as a 
translation of the words "Angelorum chori Deus sit." At the sitting 
of May 4th, when Mr. Dorr read the verses through to her again, 
at the words " Angelorum chori " the hand wrote : " Yes, angel 
chorus;" and again in the waking stage of this day she said: 
"Angels they say God sits on his throne. ... I will go join the 
heavenly choir." 

It is clear then that the idea of Angel choir, chorus or band, 
was prominent in Mrs. Piper's trance consciousness l for some time 
before it emerged in Mrs. Verrall's script. 

This fact, which Mr. Podmore has inadvertently misrepresented 
through not having an opportunity of consulting the original records, 
does not of course affect his main argument, for the case might equally 
well be attributed to telepathy between the automatists, no matter 
which of them was agent and which percipient ; that is, no matter 

1 It seems equally clear that the primary reason of its prominence lay in the 
likeness of sound between the English and the Latin words. 

352 Journal of Society for Psychical Research. JULY, 1910. 

which of them had the idea first. But I think that we have no right 
to maintain the existence of an idea in a sufficiently potent form for 
purposes of telepathy in any one's mind without positive evidence. 
There is little or no evidence for the association of Seven with Dante 
in the mind either of Mrs. Verrall, Mrs. Piper, or Mr. Piddington ; 
consequently telepathic influence from any of them seems to me 
inadequate to account for a cross-correspondence compounded of 
Seven and Dante. 

Mr. Podmore's description of the part played by association of ideas 
in the whole process seems to me illuminating and well founded, 
There are many cases in the scripts bearing out his notion that the 
telepathic influence is often not strong enough to make the ideas 
emerge of themselves, and that then the imported image can only mani- 
fest itself when reinforced by its connection with images momentarily 
passing through the mind. Thus, he says, in Miss Verrall's script, 
" the idea of Seven calls up primarily images from botany and from 
the book of Eevelation. But these are fixed, it may be, because 
they happen to coincide with Dante images." Quite so, but I ask, 
who fixed them, unless it was some one who already had in mind 
that combination 1 Again, Mr. Podmore says that in Mrs. Home's 
and Mrs. Holland's scripts the idea of the posthumous letter only 
seems reproduced, but the time coincidence suggests that "Mr. Pid- 
dington's influence could produce no effect until reinforced by Mrs. 
Verrall's." But in what way can Mrs. Verrall's influence have rein- 
forced Mr. Piddington's ] It may be argued that Mrs. Verrall's 
script affords some evidence of subliminal knowledge that Mr. 
Piddington was trying some experiment (if his "posthumous letter" 
may so be described) ; but there is no evidence of any subliminal 
knowledge on her part of the subject of his experiment, that is, of 
his letter. On the other hand, the scripts of the other automatists, 
while showing some knowledge of the subject of Mr. Piddington's 
letter, seem entirely ignorant of the authorship of the letter. What 
evidence, then, is there that these scripts were influenced by Mrs. 
Verrall 1 

I think with Mr. Podmore that many of the items of this cross- 
correspondence, taken alone, may be accounted for by the various 
causes mentioned in my Report and reiterated by him here ; associa- 
tion of ideas, telepathy between the automatists, and chance coincidence 
(e.g. he suggests that Mr. Piddington's "tic" and Mrs. Piper's "tick" 
is only a chance coincidence, which would of course be the natural 
explanation, if it were the only coincidence in the case). But I 

JULY, lino. Recent Reports on Automatic Scripts. 

think that association of ideas fails altogether to account for the 
coincidences, and that the coincidences are far too numerous and 
detailed to be accounted for by chance. I understand Mr. Podmore 
to agree with me so far. 

I think also and this is whnv \\r part company that the way 
in which a large number of details, some apparently of a completely 
irrelevant kind, are woven together and fitted in to one harmonious 
M-heme, suggests the action of a mind with a more extensive knowledge 
of all the circumstances, and consequently a greater power of guiding 
them than there is any reason to attribute to any of the living 
persons concerned. 


IN The Psychological Bulletin of April 15th, 1910, there is an 
essay on Freud's Psychology by Dr. Ernest Jones. Any writer 
who tries to give an intelligible account of Freud's work in a 
short paper has unusual difficulties to overcome. One difficulty 
is that Freud's views have undergone a continuous evolution 
during the past twenty years, and his present standpoint is not 
easily understood except in the light of its historical develop- 
ment. Another and greater difficulty is that Freud's Psychology 
involves a radical change in our attitude towards the questions 
of the structure and functioning of the mind. Its applications 
are exceedingly diverse, and much of the cogency of Freud's 
arguments is derived from the confirmation and mutual support 
that the application of them receives from widely different fields 
of study, such as psychopathology, dreams, wit, mythology and 
every-day life. 

The conception of the Unconscious (Unbewusstsein) as a sea 
of submerged ideas and emotions interacting with and determining 
the course of events in the consciousness which we know by 
introspection forms the foundation on which Freud's psychological 
superstructure rests. Freud's Unconscious is in truth not very 
different from Myers's Subliminal, but it seems to be more 
acceptable to the scientific world, in so far as it has been invoked 
to account for normal and abnormal phenomena only, and does 
not lay its supporters open to the implication of belief in 
supernormal happenings. 

The following are some of Freud's more general and funda- 
mental principles referred to by Dr. Jones : 

(1) Psychic determinism. Psychical processes are never 

354 Journal of Society for Psychical Research. JULY, 1910. 

isolated or accidental phenomena. They are related to preceding 
ones just as are successive physical events. There is no more 
room for chance in the mental world than in the physical world. 

(2) Quantitative elements in affective processes. "There is 
to be distinguished in psychical functions something (amount of 
affect, sum of excitations) which has all the attributes of a 
quantity although we have as yet no means of measuring it, 
something capable of being increased, diminished, displaced, or 
carried off, and which spreads itself over the memory traces of 
ideas, rather like an electric charge over the surface of the body." 
The property in question may be described either in physiological 
or psychological terms. It is assumed to have a certain autonomy 
so that it can become transferred from one idea to another, the 
latter then becoming in a sense the representative of the former. 

(3) The dynamical nature of mental processes. "Accompany- 
ing every mental process is a varying amount of psychical energy 
which roughly corresponds with what we term affect. Excessive 
accumulation of this energy results in a tension that is experi- 
enced as pain (Unlust), and there is a constant tendency towards 
the discharge of this energy (Abfiihr). The discharge is experi- 
enced as pleasure, as relief or gratification (Befriedigungserlebniss)" 

(4) Psychical repression. The tendencies to seek pleasure and 
to avoid pain are the fundamental regulating mechanisms of 
mental processes, and such striving towards more or less definite 
ends constitutes a wish in the broadest sense of the word. When 
such a wish must not be gratified it is repressed. "The tendency 
of the psychical energy to discharge itself is inhibited, a local 
damming-up takes place, and the mental process in question 
loses its former power of making free associations." 

(5) Intra-psychical conflict. It is the conflict between two 
tendencies or wishes that leads to the repression, and Freud 
maintains that "when a mental process is the seat of a com- 
petition of opposing affects, blocking (Sperrung) of the usual 
associative activities occurs, and the mental process becomes shut 
off or dissociated." Consciousness exerts a censorship which pre- 
vents the emergence of the pain-producing mental process, and 
the psychic energy pertaining to the repressed "wish" must find 
an outlet in some direction other than the direct route into 
consciousness. In abnormal cases of repression it may be con- 
verted into physical innervation or become linked with indifferent 
mental processes, so giving rise to hysterical manifestations or 
phobias and obsessions. 

, 1910. Notes on Current Periodicals. 355 

(6) Infantile mental processes. According to Freud uncon- 
scious mental life is indestructible and the intensity of its wishes 
does not fade. Consequently, he lays great stress on the mental 
processes of early life, and believes that they form the basis of 
character. They persist in the unconscious, and form the springs 
of conduct all through life. The wishes and interests of adult 
existence are chiefly significant in so far as they ally themselves 
with those of childhood. This association is unconscious, for the 
significant wishes of childhood are repressed in the course of 
training and education. 

(7) The importance of psycho-sexual trends. Some miscon- 
ception of Freud's views has perhaps arisen owing to the 
multiplicity of functions and mental processes whose origin he 
derives from the sexual instinct. His conception of the wide 
domain of sex in psychology is, however, only the application in 
an unusual field of a wide generalization made lone ago by 
biologists the dichotomy of life-interests into self-preservative 
and reproductive. 

The main principles of Freud's psychology are thus resumed 
by Dr. Jones: "Freud lays stress on the dynamic aspects of 
mental processes, and sees in the tendency of the affects to seek 
discharge of their tension the motive force determining the flow 
of mental life; he expresses this in terms of wishes. He holds 
that unconscious mental life is rich and complex, and by the 
interaction between it and consciousness explains the apparent 
discontinuity of conscious processes, thus adopting a deterministic 
attitude towards intuitive and apparently spontaneous mental 
events. Much of this interaction depends on the result of con- 
flicts between various psychical trends, some of these undergoing 
repression, so that they can be manifested only along indirect 
channels. He attributes fundamental importance to the repressed 
wishes of early childhood life, and to the psycho-sexual systems 
of activities." 

Freud's views are arousing considerable interest among 
psychologists at the present time, and various articles dealing 
with the different aspects of his work have appeared of late in 
the psychological journals. In the Journal of Abnorjnal 
Psychology, Feb. -Mar., 1910, Dr. Bernard Hart writes on "The 
Conception of the Subconscious," chiefly with reference to 
Freud's views. The American Journal of Psychology, April, 
1910, is almost entirely devoted to Freud's work. Five lectures 
delivered by Freud at Clark University in September, 1909, are 

356 Journal of Society for Psychical Research. JULY, 1010. 

translated. Three lectures by Jung on "The Association 
Method" are also reported. Dr. Ernest Jones writes on Freud's 
theory of dreams, and Dr. Ferenczi, of Budapest, deals with the 
same topic in a lecture on ' ' The Psychological Analysis of 

T. W. M. 

THE Revue Philosophique for April and May 1910 contains a study by 
Professor Pierre Janet on a case of prolonged double consciousness 
which he entitles Une Ftlida artificielle. 1 The patient's history in 
fact presents a close resemblance to that of Dr. Azam's famous 
patient, only that in Dr. Janet's case the state of secondary 
consciousness was produced by suggestion. The patient as a girl of 
19 was practically given over by the doctors: her stomach refused 
to retain any nourishment, she was in the extremity of feebleness 
and inanition, reduced almost to a skeleton, all but blind and deaf, 
and without sensation over the whole surface of the body. By means 
of suggestion she was put into an " alert " state in which she re- 
covered her lost sensibilities and her power of retaining nourishment to 
such an extent that she put on 18 Ibs. in three months. Gradually 
by means of suggestion the alert condition was prolonged until it 
came about that the greater part of her life was spent in that state, 
with great benefit to her health. Always when she "awoke" to 
her original state, the old digestive troubles returned, and her 
condition was rendered the more wretched by the fact that, like 
Felida, she had entirely lost her memory of the time spent in the 
alert state. 

But Marceline's state differs from that of Felida, as portrayed 
for us by Dr. Azam. In this latter case we do not find two sharply 
defined alternating memories. In Marceline's depressed state she 
loses all the memories of the alert state. But she is liable to lose 
other memories as well. Thus on one day in October 1898, in the 
depressed state, she went back to May 1894, and put that date on 
all her bills in the shop where she served. Her distress at the 
mistake caused a still further loss of memory, and on the next day 
she went to resume her duties in a shop which she had left in 
1888, and being unable to find it, presented herself to M. Jules 
Janet, who had ceased to treat her in 1889, when he handed the 
case over to his brother. In short, in carrying his analysis a little 
farther, M. Janet finds that the phrase alternating personality is 
too clear cut to fit the facts, at any rate in the case of Marceline. 
What we find on the physiological side are many different degrees 
of anaesthesia and muscular disturbance : and corresponding to this 
on the psychical side what may be described as fluctuations in the 
level of consciousness. M. Janet suggests that in the classical case 
of Felida it is possible that a closer analysis would have shown 
variations of level in the so-called secondary personalit} 7 . F. P. 

1 For an account of the early history of this case, see Human Personality, 
Vol. L, pp. 331-3. 

No. CCLXXII.-Voi,. XIV. OCTOBER, 1910. 



Society for Psychical Research. 



Obituary : William James and Frank Podmore, 368 

Case, 358 

On the Recent Automatic Scripts : A Further Comment. By Frank Podmore, - 303 

A Sitting with Mr. and Mrs. Tomson. By Sir Oliver Lodge, 866 

Eusapia Palladino and Fraud. By Hereward Cnrrington, 370 

Mr. E. Dawson Rogers, 372 


A Private Meeting of the Society 






On TUESDAY, NOVEMBER m, 1910, at -4 p.m., 









N.B. No Tickets of Admission are issued for this Meeting, ^f embers 
and Associates will be asked to sign their names on entering. 

358 Journal of Society for Psychical Research. OcT.,1910. 



SINCE the last number of the Journal appeared, we have 
suffered heavy loss in the death of two of our most eminent 
members, Professor William James and Mr. Frank Podmore. 

Mr. Podmore's long-continued and zealous services in the 
collection and appraisal of evidence in all departments of our 
work have from the beginning been of the greatest value to the 
Society, while whatever reputation for scientific thoroughness, 
critical acumen and sobriety of judgment it possesses in the 
eyes of the serious outside public is largely due to the brilliant 
series of studies 1 in which he showed what it has and what it 
has not accomplished. 

Professor James, the foremost psychologist of his day, who 
was President of the Society in 1894-95, by the support both 
of his name and of his unfailing and cordial sympathy, lent 
weight to its work, not only in his own country, but through- 
out the civilised world. 

At our next meeting, as announced above, memorial papers 
will be read, which will afterwards appear in the Proceedings. 


P. 281. Impression. 

The following case of a premonition was received from Dr. 
Emil Mattiesen, an Associate of the Society, who collected the 
evidence for it and also kindly furnished translations of the 
witnesses' original statements, which were written in German. 
The full names and addresses of all the persons concerned 
were given to us, but we were requested to print their initials 
only. Miss L. B.'s first account, which was received by 
Dr. Mattiesen on July 27th 1909, was as follows: 

On June 6th, 1908, my father died suddenly from brain- 
apoplexy, without any previous illness, having only mentioned [on 
May 31st] a slight pain in the chest, which caused us to ask him 
to consult a physician, by whom he was pronounced perfectly 

1 His latest work, The Newer Spiritualism (published by Fisher Unwin, price 
8s. 6d. net), which was fortunately completed just before his death, will shortly 
be reviewed in the Proceedings. 

OCT., 1910. Case. 359 

healthy. Now I, his daughter, had experienced the same pain 
since May 26th, which my father took for a cold. On my men- 
tioning [on May 31st] that to this pain there was added in my 
case a peculiar feeling of suffocation, sudden breathlessness, and 
great anguish, my father looked at me with surprise, and he, who 
never complained of any indisposition, confessed that he felt exactly 
the same sensations. With me these sensations grew to an unbear- 
able degree; I took bromides, etc., but without any effect. On 
May 30th I was dining with ray fiancd and a friend in a wine 
restaurant, when for the first time I understood this feeling of 
dread : it meant that I was to lose my father, and I said so to both 
gentlemen, who only made light of it. But I found no rest, until 
I went home and waited in the front garden, and saw my father 
come in, looking healthy and vigorous. 

The day after this I went with the same gentlemen on an 
excursion to a neighbouring village, where I had frequently been 
with my father. There also I was able to stay but a few moments. 
The ever-growing dread gave me no rest. I spoke about it to my 
companions, who now became annoyed about my forebodings, because 
I was spoiling their fun and wanted to go home. At home I 
found my father in the garden occupied with his flowers, but still 
I could find no real peace. 

On June 2nd the above-mentioned consultation took place, but in 
spite of the doctor's cheerful pronouncement, my sensations did not 
leave me. On the [previous] afternoon my father had given me a sum 
of money to take to the bank, a commission I had frequently been 
entrusted with, but which I found impossible to carry out this time. 
I asked my sister to go in my stead, as I was tortured with a sudden 
feeling : your father is providing for you for the last time. On June 
4th my father was free from pain, so that he made no use at all of 
the plaster which the doctor had advised him to put on the aching 
spot on his chest. During the following night I was awakened by 
a sudden bark of our dog who slept in the passage. I as well as 
my sister distinctly heard a low soft voice which sounded as if 
somebody was trying to quiet the animal. Although I assumed it 
to be my brother who occupied a room at the other end of the 
passage, I was seized with an unspeakable horror and shivering, so 
that I ran out, and found the dog sitting bolt upright, but heard 
nothing further. (My brother had heard the bark, but had not 
spoken.) In my anguish I ran into my parents' bedroom and 
roused my father. Only when I heard his voice I calmed down 

360 Journal of Society for Psychical Research. OCT., 1910. 

sufficiently to return to my room, but got no further sleep. For 
one moment I saw with terrible clearness my father dead and laid 
out before me. 

On June 5th in the afternoon we went out on a steamer to 
Z., an excursion place near S., in response to an invitation of 
Herr von L. for the celebration of his birthday. I found it 
impossible to share in the festive feelings of the company, and 
was repeatedly questioned about it, all the more as my paleness 
attracted attention. Then a ramble into the forest was proposed, in 
which my parents took no part. Driven by my inward dread, I 
left the company and ran back only in order to see my father. 
During the afternoon of the 6th I went to the railway station to 
post an urgent letter, when suddenly this dread seized me with a 
perfectly crushing power. Having got home I found my father 
sitting at a window with a book, whereupon he read to me the 
conclusion of a novel we had been reading together. Then we went 
in to supper, after which my mother and sister went to the kitchen 
in the basement, while I remained alone with my father, who was 
reading his paper at the table, sitting behind him on the sofa and 
playing with our dog. Suddenly my father's head sank on to the 
table; I lifted him up, and saw what had happened. From that 
moment I became quiet and calm. L. B. 

After carefully cross-examining Miss B. and her friends, 
Dr. Mattiesen writes : 

October 27to, 1909. 

I have examined all the members of the household separately, 
and . . . they declare unanimously and positively that Mr. B. 
had not complained in any way or to anybody about the oppression 
on his chest before May 31st. He was noted in the town and in 
his own house for never mentioning troubles. Besides, he was a 
robust man and " quite exceptionally healthy," who had " never 
been ill or missed a day's work" until New Year's Eve (Dec. 31st, 
1907), when he had apparently caught a severe cold, and quietly 
left the company before midnight, without a word of explanation, 
went to the funeral of a friend on Jan. 1st, and was delirious with 
influenza till the 12th. He soon recovered, however, and was able 
to look after his office duties in March. During April and May he 
was in his usual health, not feeling any after effects of his illness, 
and in excellent humour, "always jolly." Miss B. had no conscious 
anxiety at all about her father during most of this time. When 

OCT., uno. Case. 361 

she began to experience her objectless "dread" and "restlessness," she 
cannot tell exactly; "it came on gradually." On the 1st of May, 
perhaps, she was for the first time clearly conscious of it, when, 
going to a concert she had been looking forward to with much 
pleasure, she felt like going home before reaching the hall. From 
the 1st of May till the 26th this restless feeling "never left her 
entirely," and she fought it, but without any success, by swallowing 
bromides which she purchased secretly, in order not to trouble her 

Miss B. ... is constitutionally rather strong, " entirely without 
nerves," as she says herself. "I have never known anything like 
this before, healthy and vigorous creature that I am. Anybody 
could testify to that. When my grandmother died some years ago, 
I experienced nothing of the sort. My friends have often expressed 
their envy at my total absence of 'nerves.' I was in perfect health 
at the time." 

Dr. G. S., Miss B.'s fianct, confirms the account as follows : 

August 1st, 1909. 

A fortnight before the death of my father-in-law, my fancte, Miss 
L. B., complained of a singular pain in the chest and [a feeling of] 
strangulation in the throat, coupled with a strong sensation of 
dread ; all remedies employed produced no improvement. On May 
28th, 1908 (Ascension Day), I accompanied my fiancee on a walk 
through the town of S. I wanted to show her some objects in 
a shop window, but she was so restless that I had to take her 
home without having attained my end. On the way home she told 
me that she was much in dread about her father ; she had a pre- 
monitory feeling that he was going to die soon. [Dr. S.'s memory 
seems to be at fault as to the day of this confession. See above.] 
I replied that there appeared to be absolutely no reason for it. 

On May 30th I went with my fiancde and a friend to a wine- 
restaurant for dinner. There my fiancee was again seized by such 
a feeling of dread that though my friend and myself tried to soothe 
her, we had to break up soon again and go home. 

On May 31st, in the afternoon, we rode to a neighbouring village. 
On our way home, about 150 steps from the restaurant we had 
visited, my fiancee said to me : " Do you think we shall ever again 
come here with father?" I became rather angry, and asked her 
why she was always putting such questions to me, since there was 
absolutely no reason for any uneasiness whatever. She replied : " I 

362 Journal of Society for Psychical Research. OCT., mo. 

believe that he will die soon ; that's why I have this horrid dread, 
which does not leave me." 

On June 2nd my father-in-law, yielding to the requests of his 
family, as he complained of a dull pain in the chest, though other- 
wise feeling well and going about his official duties as before, went 
to consult a physician ; he was certified to be in perfect health, 

On June 5th, while we were celebrating the birthday of a friend, 
I was struck by the silent manner of my fiancde, so that I asked 
her several times whether there was anything the matter with her, 
in reply to which I only received the same complaint about the 
feeling of dread already described. 

On June 6th, at 6 p.m., we were riding on bicycles to the S. 
railway station to take a letter, about which there was some hurry, 
to the mail train. On the way out my fiancee again complained of 
a terrible feeling of dread, giving the same reason as before. We 
therefore hurried to get home, where we found my father-in-law 
sitting in his easy-chair and reading. He spoke with great vivacity 
about a novel he had just finished reading, and said the author had 
got over his denouement in a very simple manner. This was about 
7 p.m. He then supped with good appetite, lit a cigar, and read 
the paper. About 8.30 he suddenly dropped, without uttering a 
sound, from his chair; he had died from a stroke of brain-apoplexy. 

G. S. 

Miss E. P., of Graz, Styria, states that she received a letter 
(since destroyed) from Miss L. B., dated June 2nd, 1908, which 
to the best of her recollection was to the following effect : 

An unspeakable dread about my father gives me no rest. 
Though complaining of nothing but an insignificant fatigue, he con- 
sulted a physician, who assured us that my father was in perfect 
health, which could not, however, appease my dread about him. 

Dr. Mattiesen adds : 

A similar, but shorter statement, is contained in a letter from Miss 
B. to Miss G. W., dated June 4th, 1908, which I have been per- 
mitted to see. 

We have also a fully corroborative account written by Miss 
L. B.'s sister, A., but as it is almost identical with Miss L. 
B.'s, we omit it here. 

Dr. Mattiesen also sends us the following translation of all 

OCT., 1910. Case. 

the entries in Miss B.'s diary from May 26th to June 6th, 

May 28. (Ascension Day.) Went out for a walk with Father. 
Such a dreadful restlessness. [Four last words in cipher.] 

May 29. [No entry.] 

May 30. Dinner at Wohler's [the wine-restaurant mentioned above]. 
The dread about father. 

May 31. In L [the village mentioned above]. Always the 

dread about father. 

June 1. In the evening again the horrid dread, so that I could not 
possibly go to the bank. 

June 2. Father to W. [the physician whom Mr. B. consulted]. 

June 3. P [excursion place] with H., A., G. ; always the 
same dread, it becomes more and more unbearable. 

June 4. In the evening with Father and Mother in the Brauhaus 
[-Restaurant]. Before that Schweigerhaus. 

June 5. A.'s birthday. With Father and Mother, G. and H. in 
Z [excursion place on S. Lake]. 

June 6. My father my father dead. 




THERE are two points in Miss Johnson's remarks in the July 
Journal on my comments on the recent automatic scripts on which 
I should wish to say a few more words in explanation. 

(p. 349) "It is always easier to believe in spirits . . . because 
we are justified in crediting them with omnipotence." Miss John- 
son's comments on this remark of mine seem to me sound, and, 
indeed, incontrovertible. But they do not touch my argument 
perhaps because it was not clearly expressed. Let me give a con- 
crete illustration of my meaning. 

Miss Johnson (p. 351) takes exception to my remark "Mrs. 
Verrall has for some days past" on the ground that Mrs. Yen-all's 
script was actually written only a few hours betore Mrs. Piper's. 

My "some days," however, had been intended to refer, not to 
Mrs. Verrall's script, but to the images aroused in her mind by her 
reading of Dante, which had been going on for "the first week 
in May." To which Miss Johnson would probably reply (1) that 

364 Journal of Society for Psychical Research. OCT., 1910. 

Mrs. Piper had actually mentioned "Angels' Choir" on April 27th, 
(2) that I have no right to assume the existence in Mrs. 
Verrall's mind of an idea not yet expressed. (See her remarks in 
last paragraph but one on p. 349.) 

To all which I can only reply that Miss Johnson's remarks are 
eminently just, and point to a real defect in my statement of the 
theory of telepathy from the living. 

Miss Johnson is able to pick holes in the hypothesis of telepathy 
from the living. But it is not open to me, or to any one else, to retort 
by picking holes in the hypothesis of telepathy from the dead. We 
have here no limitation of place or time. We are at liberty to credit 
the spirits with omnipotence, because we cannot know of any limits to 
their power. 

(p. 350) In posing this " conundrum " I must again plead guilty 
to some obscurity of expression. I will try to restate my point 
in plain language. The same passage in Mrs. Verrall's script con- 
tains a fictitious spirit message and a piece of true information about 
Mr. Piddington's contemporary proceedings. Miss Johnson suggests 
that this piece of information possibly (or probably, I am not sure 
which) came from a spirit, because the mode of its presentation 
suggests a spirit rather than the mind of Mr. Piddington. To which 
my reply is that the subconscious mind of Mrs. Verrall, which in this 
very passage has shown itself capable of working up imaginary details 
into a wholly fictitious but nevertheless plausible spirit message, must 
surely be adjudged capable of working up telepathically received 
information into a similar fictitious form. I could expand the argu- 
ment by reference to the analogy of dreams, where a like process is 
of frequent occurrence : and by further insistence on the fact that 
the "spirit message" forms, so to speak, the mould in which the 
subconsciousness of Mrs. Verrall and of most other automatists prefers 
to cast its communications. 

[The above letter was received by me from Mr. Podmore shortly 
after the July Journal, came out. I wrote to him in reply to the 
effect (a) that he seemed to be mixing up the Paradiso and the 
Purgatorio in his comments, since what Mrs. Verrall had been reading 
was the Purgatorio, whereas Mrs. Piper's script, as I interpreted it, 
referred to the Jacob's Ladder of the Paradiso ; and (b) that I fully 
admitted the possibility that the subliminal consciousness might work 
up telepathically received information into a fictitious form, but 
that the information about Mr. Piddington's letter was not worked 
up into; a fictitious form ,by Mrs. Verrall's script. What the script 

<)(i ,1910. On the Recent Automatic Scripts. 365 

said (" In London half the message has come") was a true description 
of the future, though if interpreted at the time it might have 
appeared a fictitious description of the contemporary circumstances. 

The essential part of Mr. Podmore's letter in reply to me, dated 
August 9th, 1910, is printed below. A. J.] 

(a) There is no mistake on my part. I think the reference of 
"Borne far aloft on oarage of their high wings" [in Mrs. Verrall's 
script] to Jacob's ladder very dubious. But clearly the whole poem 
refers to Dante, and the reading of any part of the Divine Comedy 
would be likely to call up visions of angels. That is all that I 
meant to imply. 

(b) "In London half the message has come." I am afraid I missed 
your point, that this sentence seemed to imply preternormal know- 
ledge of the future. But there is a perfectly normal and plausible 
interpretation at hand. The idea of cross-correspondences was already 
in the air, and Mrs. Yen-all's subliminal self might naturally take 
Mr. Piddington's message in London as an attempt at a cross- 
correspondence. I don't admit the prophecy. But I should like to 
hear whether you have any further argument in support of the 



[Sm OLIVER LODGE, having been informed that MR. TOMSON has 
recently claimed his authority as vouching for the inexplicable 
character of certain " cabinet " performances, desires that the 
following contemporary report by him of the only one of these 
performances which he witnessed should now be printed in the 
Journal. ED.] 

January 25th, 1909. 

Mr. Stead kindly invited me to occupy a seat in his drawing- 
room, while a seance was conducted with Mr. and Mrs. Tomson, 
on the evening of January 22nd, 1909, and he strongly urged 
me to attend. 

As I happened to be in London for a Mansion House meet- 
ing on that day, I accepted the invitation, and agreed to abide 
by conditions drafted by himself in consultation with the Hon. 
Everard Feilding, Hon. Secretary of the Society for Psychical 

366 Journal of Society for Psychical Research. OCT., 1910 

Eesearch ; only stipulating that I should not be called upon 
to sign any report at the time, nor agree to any joint report, 
but should make my own report at my own time, though in a 
spirit of fairness to all concerned. 

For no other report than my own am I in any way respon- 
sible, nor do I know that any other report has been made. 

What happened, so far as I was concerned, was this. I 
reached Mr. Stead's house .about 6.45 p.m., found a certain 
mumber of persons assembled to whom I was introduced, those 
I had previously known being Mr. Feilding and Mr. and Mrs. 
Baggally. I found also an impromptu " cabinet " erected in 
-one corner of the sitting-room, built up of ordinary folding 
screens so as to form sides, back, and roof, with a pair of cur- 
tains in front running with rings on a light iron rod. This 
cabinet I was invited to take to pieces and rebuild, which 
accordingly I did, examining the rug below, the corner of the 
room behind, and removing all stray objects from the neigh- 

I am able to certify that the cabinet was absolutely fair, 
.and that no white material nor other objects were accessible 
from its interior when erected ; nor was there anyone behind 
it to pass things in. A single ordinary cane chair was placed 
in the cabinet for the medium to sit upon. 

We then waited a little time for Mr. and Mrs. Tomson, who 
were late; but about 7.30 they arrived at the house, and, 
without entering the room, were conducted to their respective 
dressing-rooms by the gentlemen and ladies respectively who 
had undertaken the office of searchers. I remained in the 
drawing-room all the time, with the cabinet. 

By reason of their experience in these matters I wish to 
say that I have confidence in any careful and leisurely state- 
ment made by either Mr. or Mrs. Baggally. 

After a further interval Mr. Tomson was brought in by 
two gentlemen (Mr. Feilding and Mr. Baggally), one holding 
each hand ; and at his own request they continued to hold 
him thus until after the first manifestation. 

Mrs. Tomson, attired in dark garments, was brought in 
similarly by two ladies (Mrs. Baggally and her lady friend), 
and was conducted straight to the cabinet, where she sat down 
on the chair, and the curtains were drawn. 

OCT., 1910. On a Sitting with Mr. and Mrs. Tomson. 367 

The company sat more or less facing the cabinet. 

From this time Mr. Tomson, seated, and at first still held, 
took control. He asked for the main light to be extinguished, 
leaving only a red lamp, and twice subsequently he asked for 
that to be lowered too. He also asked for the pianola to be 
played. The light was regulated, at Mr. Tomson's request, by 
Miss Stead, or another, who stood near the lamp, which was 
behind the spectators but facing the cabinet. It seemed to be 
a paraffin lamp covered with red paper. The light was quite 
dim, but the position of everybody could be seen ; and the 
cabinet could be seen too. 

Before long a bunch of white drapery was protruded through 
one of the two side chinks of the curtains that on the left of 
the spectators near the floor ; it was moved about a little, and 
then withdrawn. 

It next appeared in the middle chink of the curtains, again 
near the floor, and now it gradually displayed more and more 
of itself, giving an appearance of vertical growth, till it rose to 
the stature of a human figure, the growth being probably really 
due to the curtain chink being gradually opened from below 
upward, while something white was gradually unfolded until it 
filled the space behind the gap. A figure in white could now 
be dimly seen, and after one or two apparent efforts it came 
between the curtains, and hesitatingly advanced a few inches 
beyond them, but ready to retreat instantly. This was repeated 
more than once. 

Mr. Tomson, now released, rose and led me to the figure, himself 
standing on my left and holding my right hand continuously. 

The figure touched my head with its hands. It was certainly 
a person, and had all the appearance of being the medium, but 
swathed now in gauzy white drapery thrown over the head and 
arms, and over its ordinary clothes also apparently. The appear- 
ance was whitish from head to foot. My hand was not 
released, and I did not touch anything. 

After I was re-seated, others were led up to a similar 
appearance, which was repeated from time to time without 
much variation. But occasionally a black skirt like that of 
the medium could, by those seated, be seen on one side of the 
white, and immediately under it, as if the white had been 
accidentally displaced. 

368 Journal of Society for Psychical Research. OCT., 1910, 

The appearance might probably be produced by hanging a 
strip of white, gauzy material down the front of the medium 
while she was standing up in the middle chink of the curtains,, 
with another strip floating over head and arms. 

So far as the face could be seen, in the dim light, it looked 
like that of the medium. 

At a later stage, and after several persons had entered the 
cabinet in threes, holding each other's hands, the curtains were 
drawn partially back, and we, still seated, were called upon to 
recognise the medium and the white figure separate, inside the 
cabinet and at the back ; but nothing was distinct. All that 
could be seen was the dim white face of the medium seated 
in her chair, and a bunch of white stuff, probably intended for 
another form, a little on her right and above. This part of the 
demonstration was valueless, at least on that occasion. 

Finally, first I and then Mr. Baggally were called up to the 
outside of the cabinet and told to hold out our hands for 
something. Thereupon through the chink a double handful of 
soft stuff was placed in my hands, which, when taken to the 
light, proved to be chiefly maiden hair fern with some white 
flowers below. Something dropped from the clump as it was 
being handed to me, which proved to be blue violets when 
they were subsequently picked up from the carpet. Two red 
flowers were also subsequently handed to me by some one in 
the audience as having been part of the parcel. Probably they 
were picked up too. The flowers and ferns I received could 
be compressed into small compass, but they had been opened out 
into the double handful I have described. They were not 
specially damp, nor had they any smell that I could detect. 
They gave me the impression of being slightly warm, i.e., 
warmer than ordinary fresh flowers, and of having been 
crumpled up. 

The lights were now turned up and the sitting ended. 

On withdrawing the curtains the medium was seen to be 
seated asleep in her chair, clothed in black as at the beginning, 
and nothing else was in the cabinet. 

Mr. and Mrs. Tomson were led off as before to their 
respective rooms, and as they went I tried to suggest to 
the lady-searchers to seek for the case in which the flowers 
had presumably come ; while it was obviously desirable to 

OCT., 1910. On a Sitting with Mr. and Mrs. Tomson. 

ascertain what had become of the white drapery which had 
been seen. 

It might, for instance, have been left in the cabinet; which 
was not the case. It might have been handed to Mr. Tomson, 
in which case it would be found by the gentlemen searchers. 
Or it might have been placed in a pocket of some unsuspec 
visitor; but as I had not the slightest reason to suspect con- 
federacy, this was unlikely, since there was not much chance 
of being certainly able to remove it again before detection. Or, 
finally, it might have been retained by the medium, probably in 
less compact and elaborately disposed form than that in which 
it had been originally introduced. So a great deal depended 
on the final search. 

That of Mr. Tomson proceeded without incident, but from 
Mrs. Tomson's room upstairs presently proceeded a loud, 
hysterical voice, " I will not do it," repeated several times. 
Miss Stead came down for Mr. Stead, and shortly afterwards, 
Mrs. Baggally and her friend descended, saying that the con- 
cluding search had not been allowed in what was to them a 
satisfactory manner. So at that point the incident terminated 
as far as I was concerned, and soon afterwards I left the house. 

I wish to thank Mr. Stead for kindly giving me the oppor- 
tunity of witnessing what he no doubt considered, and probably 
still considers, a remarkable demonstration. And I wish 
especially to thank the searchers for endeavouring efficiently to 
discharge their thankless and distasteful task. 

As regards my own opinion on the subject, I regard the 
affair as a performance, in which some flimsy and compressible 
white drapery and some flowers are ingeniously concealed until 
the time comes for producing them. I conjecture that the 
flowers may have been, at some early stage of the sitting, 
extracted and deposited perhaps under the chair to cool, while 
the drapery was employed in ingenious and effective fashion. 
'The flowers were then bestowed on the company, and the 
drapery once more concealed. 

I am not prepared to say exactly how the drapery or the 
flowers were concealed, preparatory to their introduction and 
partial removal, though I have my own ideas on the subject ; 
but to my mind there was no evidence of anything of a super- 
normal character. 

370 Journal of Society for Psychical Research. OCT., 1910. 

I did not, indeed, hear such a claim made by either of the 
entertainers ; I prefer to assume that their desire is to show 
how much can be accomplished by normal means. If the 
exhibition of any supernormal power is claimed, then I strongly 
repudiate the idea. 



IT is becoming daily more certain, I think, that psychical research 
will win its due recognition only by the constant accumulation of 
new facts, and not by the requotation of the old ones. Argument 
as to past experiments yields but contradictory results (as we have 
seen in the discussion of the Naples Report), and finally convinces 
neither the one side nor the other. Sir William Crookes has never 
changed his views regarding Home's mediumship, nor did Sir Oliver 
Lodge and the Continental observers alter theirs re Eusapia as a 
result of the Cambridge exposure. After our Naples sittings, I 
personally felt so far convinced that we had seen genuine phenomena 
that I said to myself at the time : " If Eusapia were caught cheating 
at every seance from now until she dies, I should still believe that 
we had seen genuine phenomena ! " 

Since then, my faith has had ample opportunity to be tested 
to be tried to the full. For during the American seances (at the 
later ones particularly) Eusapia was caught in trickery repeatedly ; 
and trickery of a character which renders it very evident that she 
had practised it long, and had reached such a degree of adroitness 
in it that detection if not impossible to experts was at least 
extremely difficult for any one not watching closely for the kind of 
trickery practised. Prof. Miinsterberg alleged trickery at the seances 
attended by him ; Mr. Dorr's were, to him, evidently not conclusive ; 
Dr. Stanley L. Krebs stated, in his article in the Journal S.P.E., 
that he had witnessed constant fraud ; while it is highly probable 
that practically the whole of the seances attended by Messrs. 
Jastrow, Davis and Rinn were fraudulent from beginning to end. 
How, then, does this affect the past evidence ? And how, I might 
perhaps be asked, does it affect my own point of view and belief 
in Eusapia's powers ? 

Speaking personally, I may say at once that I remain precisely 
where I was before these exposures took place. I admit her 
trickery ; but then I had always admitted it. And, in spite of 
this, I feel more convinced than ever that genuine physical 
phenomena occur through Eusapia's mediumship; that our obser- 
vations in Naples were not mistaken ; but that, on the contrary, 
genuine phenomena were observed by us there too. Just as previous 
experimenters have remained unaffected in their belief by later 
exposures, so I, too, must record my continued conviction in the 
reality of the majority of Eusapia's manifestations. 

And the reason is this : although Eusapia does, unfortunately^ 

OCT., 1910. Euaapia Palladino and Fraiul. 371 

cheat whenever a chance is given her to do so, I have seen 
phenomena which no conceivable form of trickery could explain- 
certainly no form of trickery that has been discovered in the past. 
When I " think back " over the records, and remember certain 
individual incidents that took place, either at Naples or in the 
American series, I cannot help but think how wholly even 
grotesquely inadequate any theory of trickery is, when applied to 
these incidents. I do not base my faith upon dubious phenomena, but 
upon those which, in my estimation, are unquestionable. It is 
highly probable that, had I attended the third, fourth, fifth, seventh, 
eighth and tenth stances in Naples only, I should have gone away 
unconvinced of the reality of the facts. It is only a really good 
seance which finally convinces ; and nothing else will. Knowing 
this, I said in the circular letter I sent to members, before Eusapia's 
arrival in the U.S. : 


"It is important for all sitters to bear in mind the following 
facts when attending seances with Eusapia Palladino : 

"During the series, there will probably be good and bad sit- 
tings. While good sittings are convincing, bad sittings will possibly 
leave on the mind a suspicion that fraud may have been employed, 
and on the whole will probably be unconvincing. It is therefore 
essential to remember that if only one or two sittings are witnessed, 
and these happen to be bad sittings, no fair conclusion can be 
drawn until at least one good seance be witnessed." 

In spite of this warning (based on experience), however, what do 
we find ? All the principal informants against Eusapia in 
America have published their formal accusations of trickery after 
one, or at most two, seances ! J The single exception is Mr. Dorr, 
who had three. 2 In this connection, I may remark that Mr. Dorr's 
attitude strikes me as all the more extraordinary because, at these 
sittings, both controllers (friends of Mr. Dorr) were convinced that 
trickery had not been employed. 

As to the seances attended by the group of scientific men at 
Columbia University, these were so poor that no other result could 
have been expected ; the only wonder is that they had the patience 
to sit through four such sessions. To give an idea of the character of 
these seances, I may mention the fact that hardly a single complete 
levitation occurred in the best light; and at some seances not a 
single levitation, even in semi-darkness ! It is small wonder, then, 
that the conclusion reached was contrary to the claims of Eusapia ; 
it would be expecting too much of human nature to hope for any 
other verdict. 

1 Prof. Miinsterberg, two ; Prof. Jastrow, one ; Dr. Krebs, two ; Messrs. 
Davis, Kinn, Kellogg, and Sargent, two ; etc. 

2 The unfavourable report on Eusapia, published in Science of May 20th, 1910, 
(see Journal for July) which is referred to by Mr. Carrington in the next para- 
graph, states that eight of the authors of the report were present at three 
sittings, and several of them at a larger number ; e.g. Professor Dickinson Miller 
was present at nine sittings. ED. 

372 Journal of Society for Psychical Research. OCT., 1910. 

Those of us who believe in the possession by Eusapia of genuine 
supernormal powers of a remarkable character, base our belief, not 
on dubious phenomena (as I have said before), but on those in 
which there could have been no question of trickery of the ordinary 
kind. For myself, I remain convinced chiefly because of the fact 
that I have repeatedly seen phenomena in light good enough to see 
that Eusapia did not touch or approach the object moved, and that 
no thread or other material attachment existed, connecting her body 
and the table or the instrument played upon. These and these only 
are, to my mind, phenomena of a conclusive character ; and I base 
my belief on none other. But when once convinced that genuine 
phenomena do occur under such conditions, is not one justified in 
believing that other manifestations, similar in appearance, are genuine 
also, but that they happen in darkness too great to allow of the 
same exact observation being made 1 

Taken all in all, I must contend that at the lowest estimate the 
evidence stands just where it was before. Much fraud has been 
discovered, it is true ; but there is some reason for this, and reason 
to think, also, that those who have " exposed " Eusapia were some- 
what too hasty and premature in their judgments. On the other 
hand, an enormous amount of fresh evidence has been collected, 
tending to show that these phenomena are genuine ; and this side 
of the controversy has not yet been presented to the public. When 
this newer evidence is published (as it will be, I hope, very 
shortly), it will be found to present a far stronger case than has 
been imagined for the genuineness of these manifestations, and will 
serve to indicate that, in spite of her petty trickery, Eusapia is 
possessed of a remarkable power, capable of moving physical objects 
without contact, and of producing even more phenomenal occur- 
rences ; and that this power is exhibited only on certain occasions, 
and under certain conditions ; failing which, Eusapia endeavours to 
produce these phenomena, as best she can, by recourse to artful 
and at times skilful trickery. 


MR. DAWSON ROGERS, whose death occurred on September 28th, 
in his eighty-eighth year, was one of the original members of 
the S.P.R. He served on the Council for the first four years 
of its existence, from 1882 to 1885, and was elected an 
Honorary Associate in 1894. The Times obituary describes 
him as one of the most active journalists of a past generation, 
but the main interest of his life was the study of spiritualism. 
He was concerned in the formation of the National Association 
of Spiritualists, and was one of the founders of the London 
Spiritualist Alliance, of which he has been President for the 
last eighteen years. He was also the chief promoter of Light, 
becoming first its manager and afterwards its editor. 




Society for Psychical Research. 



Cases, 874 

Does Eusapia trick unconsciously ? 886 


A Private Meeting of the Society 






On THURSDAY, DECEMBER SfA, 1910, at 4 p.m., 


" Cases of Telepathy between Automatists " 



N.B. No Tickets of Admission are issued for this Meeting. Members 
and Associates will be asked to sign their names on entering. 

374 Journal of Society for Psychical Research. Nov., 1910. 


G. 285. "Haunted" house. 

THE following accounts of apparitions seen independently in 
the same house by several different persons were sent to us 
by an Associate of the Society, the Rev. H. Northcote. The 
real names of the witnesses were sent to us in confidence, 
but the names of persons and places printed here are 

Mr. Northcote himself makes a preliminary statement as 
follows : 

October 29^, 1909. 

I am British chaplain in a small Continental town, having been 
here nearly six years, while the Chelmsford family have been in 
residence for about the same time. They are intimate friends of 
myself and my family. They especially the father, Mr. Walter 
Chelmsford are interested in psychic research. They are honourable 
people, and their lona fides is beyond doubt. 

In the winter of 1904-5 (or it might have been 1905-6) I was 
having a talk with the eldest daughter of the family, Miss Gladys 
Chelmsford, now Mrs. Rupert Chelmsford, having since married her 
cousin. Miss Gladys Chelmsford suddenly asked me if I believed 
in ghosts; and I returned a rather guarded answer, admitting the 
possibility of authentic apparitions. She then told me something 
about having seen repeatedly the figure of a nun, when the family 
were living in another European country some years before. She 
added : " And I see something at nights in our house here (Villa 
Finisterre). It is something black that comes into my room in the 
middle of the night and frightens me." She asked what I thought 
it was. I said : " Perhaps you have had a bad dream, and have 
got into the way of expecting it again : and so your nerves get 
highly strung and sensitive, and you imagine, when you are half 
awake, that you see the thing again." I asked her if she was 
quite wide awake when this occurred (she spoke of it as occurring 
frequently) ; and she maintained that that was so. I said something 
in the direction of discouraging her from thinking about the matter ; 
and the subject dropped, and she did not refer to it again. 

I had almost forgotten the matter when, in the summer of 1908, 
my wife came in one day from visiting the Chelmsfords. The 
family had a guest at that time, a young lady whom I call Miss 

Nov., 1910. Cases. 375 

Denton, and who is now married to the eldest son, Mr. Herbert 
Chelmsford. My wife said : " Such a strange thing has happened 
at Villa Finisterre. Miss Denton declares she has seen an appari- 
tion. She saw it for several nights in succession, but wouldn't 
speak of it, fearing that her own nerves were in disorder; and 
that this was the cause. One night Mrs. Chelmsford, who was 
staying up late, heard Miss Denton cry out in a frightened voice : 
'Go away'; and then the affair came out." 

My wife told me this ; and there came into my mind what Miss 
Gladys Chelmsford had said to me three or four years before. I 
went up to Villa Finisterre that day or the next, and asked the 
Chelmsfords about the occurrence. They gave the same account; 
and then I saw Miss Denton and the room where she had had 
her experience. She said it happened in the small hours. She 
had been asleep (I am not sure whether she had been asleep 
every night or not), and then woke up and saw the apparition. 
She seems to have distinguished it more clearly than Miss G. 
Chelmsford had done. She said it was the figure of a tall man. 
It used to come towards the bed ; then she would get frightened, 
and the figure would disappear in the direction of a cupboard in 
the wall. 

I examined the room. The walls were boarded, and there is a 
good space between the planking and the stone walls. The house 
is old. In company with two of Mr. Chelmsford's sons I examined 
the cupboard where the figure was said to disappear ; and by forcing 
two boards asunder we managed to look into the empty space 
between the lining and the wall. Nothing was visible ; and as this 
was mere guesswork on our part, we did not examine further. 
Our idea was that if the room was haunted, there might be 
papers or something hidden away which would explain the 

The Chelmsfords gave Miss Denton the adjoining room; and I 
think she had a light in her room the next night. In those 
circumstances she saw nothing; nor was the figure ever seen when 
there was a light in the room. The following night, however, 
sleeping without a light, she did see the figure again. This time 
she was not alarmed. There is, in the room she now occupied, a 
door communicating with the haunted room; and the figure seemed 
to disappear through this door. 

Soon afterwards Miss Denton left, and I think the above- 
mentioned occasion was the last on which she saw the figure. I 

376 Journal of Society for Psychical Research. Nov. , 1910. 

asked her particularly whether any one had told her beforehand 
about anything strange having been seen in the room. She says 
not ; and all the Chelmsford family say the same. 

No explanation of the affair is as yet forthcoming. Mrs. Herbert 
Chelmsford is now living in this place ; but has never slept at Villa 
Finisterre since her strange experience. I have not heard that the 
figure has been seen by any one during the whole of this year. I 
have delayed writing about it, partly because I thought fresh evidence 
might turn up. 

After writing this account, Mr. Northcote obtained first- 
hand statements from the various witnesses, as printed below : 

From Mrs. Rupert Chelmsford (nee Miss Gladys Chelmsford). 

I am asked to relate the strange experiences I had in an old 
house my parents rented abroad. 

It happened my bedroom was situated at the end of a long 
passage and was the end room of the house. It was small and very 
quaint, two of its walls were entirely panelled, and the other two 
only half way, the unpanelled portion being covered with a yellow 
material. The fireplace had been converted into a small cupboard, 
and in one corner of the room there was a large deep cupboard 
on the outside wall, in the panelling. The room possessed two 
doors, one leading into a small dressing-room, and then on to the 
passage ; the other was opposite the cupboard, and led into my 
father's study. There was also a big window, between the cupboard 
and door, which I always kept open. 

It was in the spring of 1905 that we took possession of the 
house, and the first night, being very tired, I went to bed early, 
and fell asleep at once ; the next thing I remember was suddenly 
sitting up in bed, with a sense of horror and fear upon me almost 
beyond my control. I looked wildly round the room, which was 
dark, and to my terror saw, what I naturally took to be a burglar, 
quietly entering the room, by the door leading from the passage. 
I sat still for a minute, being quite unable to move ; the figure 
came round to my bedside, after standing at the foot, then it 
seemed to fall on to its knees; I wildly thought to hide under the 
bed ; so I took a jump as far as possible out into the room, so as 
to miss him, and get help. On reaching the door, I looked back, 
and could see nothing, so I stood and watched awhile, as I 
ashamed to go and rouse the house for nothing, perhaps. 

Damp fear on my face began to cool, as I stood there, and 

Nov., 1910. Cases. 377 

growing bold, as nothing happened, I crept over the bottom of my 
bed, to get at the candle, to light it. This I did, and all being 
quite silent I took a good look round. There was nothing to be 
seen, but the curious feeling of a strong presence with me in the 
room. I felt I was being watched, and that the light was the only 
safeguard between me and something horrible. I looked at my 
watch ; it was a quarter to 2. I got into bed, and sat there all 
strained, listening and watching, painfully wide awake. The next 
room clock struck 2, and suddenly I began to feel sleepy ; the 
strain seemed to have snapped as it struck. I fell asleep, to wake 
next morning with my candle burnt out beside me. Of course, I 
tried to put it all down to nightmare, and said nothing about it. 

But the next night the same thing happened, and this time I 
woke. I quite lost my head in the great terror the thing inspired; 
I ran down the passage to my parents' room. Of course nothing 
was to be found, and it was put down, as is usual, to imagination or 
nightmare. However, every night at the same time I went through 
the same thing, and saw this tall dark figure, unless I had a light, 
and even then strongly felt its presence until the hour of 2, when 
a great peace seemed to fall over the night, and I got into the 
habit of blowing my light out, and sleeping. 

Mrs. Herbert Chelmsford (ne Miss Denton). 

In September, 1908, I went to stay with Mr. and Mrs. Chelms- 
ford at Villa Finisterre. I was in good health and excellent spirits 
at the time, and had heard no mention of a ghost having been 
seen in the house. On the evening of the day of my arrival I 
went to bed rather late and slept very badly, continually waking 
up with a most uncomfortable feeling, so much so that at last I 
could endure the darkness no longer and lighted a candle, which I 
left burning until daylight. I did not attach any importance to my 
disturbed night, merely putting it down to being overtired and sleep- 
ing in an unaccustomed bed. But the second night I slept no 
better, and towards 2 o'clock I was very startled by seeing an 
opaque mass of light at the foot of my bed. At first I thought it 
must be light thrown from the window, but gradually I saw this 
mass of light taking form that of an extremely tall man (I should 
say, about 6 ft. 2 in. in height), who, after standing quite still for 
what seemed a very long time to me though it was probably only 
a few seconds moved across the room and seemed to disappear 
through a cupboard built into the wall. The third night the same 

378 Journal of Society for Psycliical Research. Nov., 1910. 

thing happened. By this time I was very alarmed, and the next 
day asked if a dog might sleep in my room, as I had heard 
noises of mice in the room. My request was readily granted, and 
I went to my bedroom feeling rather happier. 

The dog was tucked up in a rug in a comfortable chair, and was 
soon asleep; but about 2 o'clock he sat up, and turned round and 
round and whined. At the same time I saw my nocturnal visitor 
again at the foot of my bed. I was so frightened that I called 
out, "Go away." Mrs. Chelmsford, who was writing late in the next 
room to my bedroom, heard me, and went to her husband and told 
him she was afraid I was sleeping very badly, and suggested coming 
into my room, but decided not to, as it might disturb me. I did 
not say anything about this to any one in the house at the time, as 
I was afraid it might only be my imagination playing me tricks, and 
I intended to endure it as long as I could ; but one night, about 
eighteen days after I had been there, the figure that came to my 
bedside was completely illuminated, resembling more than anything 
else I can think of those representations of people in fireworks, in 
which all the features of the face and the principal lines of the 
body are outlined in light. After this I felt too alarmed to sleep 
in that room any longer, and the next day at breakfast I asked if 
a gho-st had ever been seen there. I described what I had seen, 
and my description tallied with that of an apparition seen by both 
of Mr. and Mrs. Chelmsford's daughters. Needless to say I did 
not sleep in that room again. Mrs. Chelmsford most kindly turned 
a sitting-room into a bedroom for me, as she said nothing had 
been seen in it; and I used this room, always keeping a light 
burning at night, and never seeing anything there until one night 
when (having received a letter by the last post with news which 
completely absorbed all my thoughts) I put out my light absent- 
mindedly and went to sleep, waking up suddenly to see the 
brilliantly lighted figure of the man at my bedside. After that I 
always kept a light burning at night, and never saw the vision 

From Mrs. Clyde (ide, Miss Dorothy Chelmsford). 

I slept alone in the big bedroom at the top of the house. The 
first night I slept there I had a dream that the room was haunted. 
Later on, I awoke one night with a great sense of fear. I sat up 
and looked all round me, and in the tar corner to the right of the 
window I saw a dark figure crouching, and, as I gazed at it, it 
got up slowly and came towaids me. 1 was so terrified that I hid 

Nov., 1910. Cases. 379 

my face in the pillow. I felt it standing by my side, just as if it 
were leaning over me and touching me on the shoulder. I lay like 
that for some time, and then I lit my candle, and kept it alight 
for the rest of the night. I couldn't clearly define the figure. It 
seemed to me a tall dark object. It might have been a very tall 
woman or a man. The fact is, I was really too terrified to have 
a good look at it. Well, after that night, for about a year I used 
to wake up nearly every night at a certain hour with a feeling 
that there was something in my room, until it got so on my nerves 
that I was made to sleep with a lighted lamp in my room all 
night. Even then, sometimes, I would wake up with a feeling of 
fear, expecting something to happen, and in the far corner I would 
hear a low tap, tap, tap, for a few seconds, and then it would 
stop. So clear was it that the first time I heard it I thought it 
was my mother tapping for me, as her room was under mine, 
and I ran down at once to see if she wanted me. She was 

About two years later my sister came up to sleep in the same 
room with me. I slept in the same bed I always had, which had 
always been in the room, and she had another bed that was brought 
up. Her bed was one side of the room, and mine the other. One 
night I awoke, and I saw a dark tall object coming towards me. I 
thought it was my sister walking in her sleep, as she did so some- 
times, and I gave a shriek and hid my face in the bedclothes. Then 
I heard my sister's voice from her bed, asking me what was the 
matter. I told her I thought she was walking towards me in her 
sleep ; but she had never moved from her bed, so it must have 
been the same apparition that I saw the first time, and it came 
from the same corner of the room. 

As far as I can remember, there was no moonlight either of the 
times I saw the apparition ; there was only the light of a clear 
night. I cannot remember the dates when I saw the apparition. 
Each time I woke suddenly from deep sleep with a great sense of 
fear, as if something was going to happen. I only saw the appari- 
tion twice, as I was married shortly after I saw it the second time 
And left home ; but all the time I slept in that room, I felt at night 
as if there was something or some one there, which I could not 
see. The tapping sound I heard more often. Sometimes I wouldn't 
hear it for two or three months, and then one night I would wake 
up feeling I was going to hear it again, and in the far corner I 
would hear it tap, tap, tap, like some one tapping softly. 

380 Journal of Society for Psychical Research. Nov., 1910. 

From Mr. Herbert Chelmsford. 

During the month of August, 1908, whilst I was on a visit to 
my parents at Villa Finisterre, I saw what I believe to have been 
an apparition. Owing to the house being full, I shared a large 
bedroom with one of my brothers, which was in the top storey. 

One night I awoke suddenly, and, looking across the room, I 
saw the cloaked figure of a man bending over my brother's bed. I 
thought at first this might be a dream, and kept opening and 
shutting my eyes to make sure. My brother's bed was situated 
between the cross lights of two windows, and this enabled me to 
make out the outline of a figure fairly clearly. The time was 
between 2 and 3 a.m. I tried to call out to my brother, but was 
quite unable to do so. I did not feel in any way nervous, but merely 
curiously excited. My brother suddenly awoke, and said " Who's, 
that ? " I tried to answer, but could not do so for at least ten, 
seconds, and then I asked him what was the matter. Before my 
brother spoke the figure had quite disappeared. On discussing it 
with him, he said he thought he had been hit by some one on his 
side. We searched all round the room and found no sign of any 
one or anything. My brother did not see the figure. 

This is the only experience of the sort I have had at Villa 
Finisterre or elsewhere. 

L. 1181. Apparition. 

THE following case of an apparition coinciding with a 
dream was sent to us by an Associate of the Society, Mr. 
J. H. Clapham, of King's College, Cambridge, who wrote 
concerning it : 

Sept. 1, 1910. 

Its main interest is that my appearance had no significance. I 
was comfortably asleep in a Swiss inn. Fortunately my diary has 
a note of the excellent night that I spent, and one of my com- 
panions can also witness to what I said about it at breakfast. We 
can also get the note in Mrs. Nicholson's diary mentioned in the 
letter. . . . 

Alison is our little girl aged 2. . . . 


P.S. I do sometimes garden before breakfast. 

Mr. Clapham sent us the original letter from his wife,, 
describing what had happened, as follows : 

Nov., 1910. Cases. 381 

CAMr.i:ii".i:. Wednesday, Aug. 3, 1910. 

What were you doing this morning between 5 a.m. and f>. 1 " 
Such a strange thing happened. To the best of my belief I was 
awake, for I had just been putting some lotion on the restless [Alison} 
and heard 5 o'clock strike. I turned round to face the window, 
to try and get off to sleep, and there were you standing by the 
bed looking down on me. I said "John, what are you doing here]"" 
but you said nothing, and walking round the bed you bent over 
Alison's cot and looked at her, and she stirred restlessly in her 
sleep and said "Daddy, Daddy, I can't 'member." Then you came 
round arid looked at me again, and by that time I was terrified, for 
I thought something must have happened to you. I said "What 
have you come for?" and tried to touch you, but you retreated 
towards the window and disappeared. At that moment Alison woke 
and popped her head over her cot. I gave her her biscuit and 
looked at the clock ; it was 5.15. I comforted myself by reflecting 
that you could hardly have begun to climb yet, but I haven't felt 
comfortable all day. When Alison came into my bed, she said 
"Daddy was mowing the grass when I waked up." I told her 
you were away in Switzerland and not mowing the grass, but she 
said " I know he was mowing the grass, 'cause I seed him." And 
again at breakfast, in the middle of demanding sugar, she suddenly 
said "I know Daddy was mowing, I seed him doing it when I 
waked up." So if I was dreaming, she must also have been dreaming 
of you at the same time. I went up to Mrs. Nicholson after 
breakfast and told her, and she is going to write it down in her 
diary. . . . 

On this letter Mr. Clapham had noted : 

Received Brieg Tues., Aug. 9, 1910. J. H. 0. 

Mr. Clapham sent us the diary that he was keeping in 
Switzerland at the time to show his contemporary doings. From 
this we extract the relevant entries as follows : 

Something after 6.0 [p.m. on Tuesday, Aug. 2] we came to- 
Goschenen and put up ... at the White Little Horse. . . . 

Wed. Aug. 8. There was a furious rain overnight, but the 
morning came fine, though not clear. . . . After an excellent night 
all were fresh and keen. . . . 

Tues. Aug. 9. . . . Here [at Brieg] came news of my phantasmal 

382 Journal of Society for Psychical Research. Nov., 1910. 

Mrs. Nicholson, the lady whom Mrs. Clapham had told 
of her experience at the time, sent her the following state- 
ment about it, which she forwarded to us : 

12 HARVEY ROAD, CAMBRIDGE, Oct. 25, 1910. 


With reference to your experience, I find this in ray diary 
for Wednesday, August 3 : 

" Mrs. C. called ; she had ' seen ' her husband this morning, when she 
waked, about 5. He came to the side of the bed, she tried to touch 
him, and was about to say, * Oh, you're coming to bed;' he then went 
to the side of Alison's cot, and bent over her. She tossed in her sleep 
and said, I don't bemember, Daddy.' He returned again to the side 
of the bed ; Mrs. C. (I think) again tried to touch him. Then he went 
to the window, away. She found it was \ past 5. Alison woke then, 
for good ; and said later : ' When 1 waked this morning Daddy was 
mowing the lawn.' Mrs. C. said: 'No; Daddy's in Switzerland.' 
Mr. C. was to arrive at his destination in Switzerland last night; he 
went there on Monday. She said : 'I've come to tell you, as ... if I 
find that anything happened then, you'll bear witness.' "... 


Mrs. Clapham, in sending us this letter, writes : 

... I notice [Mrs. Nicholson] says I was about to say " Oh, you're 
Doming to bed " to my husband, which is incorrect, for, knowing him to 
be away, it never occurred to me that he was coming to bed, only that 
his party had broken up for some reason, and that he had come home 
unexpectedly. I believe I said : " What has brought you back ? " or 
something similar, but the exact words are in the letter I wrote to my 
husband, which I believe you have. ... I have never seen any 
apparition of my husband before. I was rather anxious about him this 
year, as the weather conditions were unusually bad for climbing, and I 
knew, too, that his party were going guideless across country. . . . 


L. 1182. Impression. 

IN the following case all the names and addresses of the persons 
concerned were given to us in confidence, with the request 
not to print them. The account was sent by Mr. M, L., 

NOV., 1910. Caafts. 383 

with whom the Secretary has had several opportunities of 
talking it over. 

27/A Sept., 1910. 

I want to lay before your Society a set of strange circumstances, 
which may interest you. . . . My original letter, which I am copying, 
was written on the 13th inst. . . . 

As a hoy I went to see my grandfather at P. very frequently ; 
he died in '88, and amongst my recollections was an oblong 
whitewood box with six grooved compartments on each side, 
in which I used to put various articles, and coloured sands, 
and to play with it generally. Many years later, I asked my 
sister what became of it. She told me it had never existed : it had 
been a dream. But it was the greatest reality I had. 

In November of last year my old friend, Q., and I were using 
the planchette, at which he is remarkably adept. We asked what 
the box signified. There was another man present previous to our 
enquiring these last details. The planchette then evolved a pretty 
tale of two Cornish friends, who were drowned and were animating 
the instrument, and wou'd not work except through me. I enclose 
the original records, as well as a copy of the answers ; it stated 
twelve periods of my life, as the meaning of the box. The 
twelfth it would not reveal. It was to come in May of this 
year (* May ' was a conscious act of my will). It said I should go 
to St. Valery, there meet my greatest friend, Count Louis de 
Mericourt, engage with him in conversation on philosophy and other 
things, and disappear and be swallowed up in the quicksands. And 
throughout it ii sisted on 'on the sands.' 

This queer dream-cerebration I dismissed. It was the usual kind 
of thing, only better. 

This year I had not intended to go anywhere, as I had no one 
to go with, and no inclination. A friend, H. T., suddenly offered 
to go to Brussels. We had settled on even thing, when the British 
Section was burnt down. Then we decided to go somewhere I 
did not care where; he suggested Dieppe, I agieed. We went to 
Dieppe on Aug. 23. We got tired of Dieppe, and wanted to move 
on to something smaller. He suggested St. Val^ry-en-Caux, I urged 
feeble arguments, he insisted. We settled on Tues., Aug. 30th, to 
leave. All this while, I, of course, ^aid nothing of the queer trend 
of events. That night a cyclist, going on to Boulogne, dined at 
the hotel. He told me of the flying at Havre and altered my 

384 Journal of Society for Psychical Research. Nov., 1910. 

In my room, I told T. I wanted to go to Havre, and then of 
the strange forecasts connected with St. Valery. To my surprise 
he was not sceptical, and, with some reluctance, told me that on 
the sands he had had a waking vision, in which he had seen 
me and a bearded Frenchman (whom he described exactly) have 
a struggle on the sands and disappear. He tried to intervene 
with robust common sense, rushed after us ; but we bad vanished. 
The whole scene of the Planchette had been telepathed to him. He 
woke up expecting to see me. I had hardly informed any one of 
the forecast, and least of all him. He also said he was set, 
piqued, on going to St. Valery, and nothing but the flying, and my 
wish for it, would have deterred him. 

Next day we parted and did not meet again until the 13th Sept. 
in London. 

On the 13th he called on me. He tells me he went to Fecamp, 
Etretat, and St. Valery. Despite the conformation of the coast, 
there are quicksands at St. Valery, and nowhere else apparently 
on that coast. 

I knew nothing of the place, had never been there or heard of 
it; having maps of Normandy, I may have seen the name. 

M. L. 

Mr. L. sent us the original Planchette writings, with the 
following abstract by himself of the chief points in the 
particular incident referred to : 

Death on the sands. The Quicksands. He [L. de Mericourt] 
to die similarly. 

The most important event of your life will take place at 
St. Valery. 

French Count will meet you. 

Louis de Mericourt. He is at Finisterre. 

Meeting next May. 

He (L. de M.) interested in philosophy and [will] talk [about] 
other things, e.g. friendship. He and you will be swallowed up. 

He will have most effect on your life. 

Mr. L. sent us also the following letters addressed to him- 
self from his two friends, Q. and H. T., in corroboration of 
his account : 

Sept. 27th, 1910. 

I remember very well the occasion to which you refer. As far 
as I recollect the events took place, as you say, early in 

Nov., 1910. Cxe8. 

November (or late in October) last year. We were operating with 
the " planchette " together. During the earlier part of the evening 
a friend of yours (whose name 1 forget) was present, but I think 
he had left before the answers referring to St. Valery and to 
your future friendship with "Louis de Mericourt" occurred. The 
abstract of these answers which you send me corresponds exactly 
with my own recollection. 

I may add, as far as I am concerned, that I had stayed myself 
at St. Valery-en-Caux some time before the evening in question, but 
had no idea that there were any quicksands there. The name 
of "Louis de Mericourt" I am pretty confident I had never heard 
before. Q. 

14/A Sep., 1910. 

Having been privileged to read your letter which sets out this 
extraordinary conjunction of anticipations and after-events connected 
with our recent trip to Normandy I am able to confirm the relation 
of incidents, so far as I was a party to them. 

Pressure of business prevents me giving, as I had intended, my 
own version of events ; but I feel this is now, in any case, un- 
necessary, in view of your detailed narrative. 

H. T. 

In reply to further questions from us, Mr. H. T. stated 
definitely that he had heard nothing of the planchette state- 
ments before his experience and that he did not know Mr. Q. 
personally ; and sent us later the following account of his 
recollections of the whole matter : 

25th Oct., 1910. 

I am glad to be of any assistance I can in a matter in which my 
friend Mr. L. takes an interest, but incidents of the character 
described in his letter to you make so little impression on me 
that if it were not for his recalling them to my mind, I am afraid 
I should by now have forgotten all about them. You will readily 
gather from this fact of temperament with what hesitation I attempt 
any statement of the details of the incident in which I was con- 

On, I think it was, the 30th August last, when sitting on the 
sands at Dieppe, I closed my eyes for a few minutes in the 
endeavour to get more complete rest by shutting out at the same 
time visual impressions and mental perceptions of facts of any kind. 
After being a few minutes in this condition, I fancied I saw my 

386 Journal of Society for Psychical Research. Nov., 1910. 

friend Mr. L., whom I had shortly before left at the hotel, engaged 
in a tussle, whether friendly or not I could not distinguish, on the 
sands with a stranger whom I did not recognise. I roused myself 
to go towards them, and both disappeared as if through the sand. 

I thought no more of the illusion until late the same night when 
something led to Mr. L. telling me the story of the planchette 
of which I had not heard before. Upon this, I said that friend 
of his might have been the person I saw him struggling with as 
I sat half asleep on the sand. Fresh as the thing then was in 
my mind, I replied to his queries in so far as I felt able to dis- 
tinguish between fact and illusion, and I have sufficient confidence 
in his powers of accurate retention and reproduction of facts to 
warrant me in saying that his version of the matter is reliable. 

H. T. 


THE Journal of the American Society for Psychical Research for 
August, 1910, contains a detailed and instructive report by 
Mr. W. S. Davis of two sittings with Eusapia, held on 
April 17th and 24th, 1910, at the house of Professor Lord, 
of Columbia University. Professor Jastrow's brief account of 
these sittings was quoted in our Journal for July (pp. 335-342), 
and we would recommend those of our readers who are interested 
in the details of the case to study Mr. Davis's article. 

Another of the sitters concerned in the exposure, Mr. James 
L. Kellogg, writes to us to supplement Mr. Davis's report as 
follows : 

NEW YORK, July 1 5th, 1910. 

He discusses the question from the viewpoint of conscious 
imposture, whereas a number of students consider Eusapia a hysteric 
and an irresponsible person. We all consider her a conscious 
trickster, for the following reasons : When she entered Professor 
Lord's house from the street, she greeted us cordially, shook hands 
with us, talked with us in a most sensible and businesslike way, 
thiough an interpreter, Mr. Livingston, and was in a perfectly 
normal condition. I called her attention to a table we had which 
was of approximately the same dimensions as her own, but which 
had a top of one inch boards instead of one-half inch, as had the 

Nov., 1910. Doen Eunapia Trick Unconsciously ? 

table she brought with her in the automobile. She took my hand 
and led me to her table, rapped it on the top and it resounded 
something like a drum. She then led me back to the table we had 
offered and rapped on this, showing that it had a much deader 
sound. This, and all the other things which she did, indicated 
that she was exceedingly conscious and knew exactly what she was 
doing. While in full possession of her mental faculties she took 
her seat at the stance table, and when we also were seated she 
deliberately proceeded to secure certain reprehensible advantages 
which were to facilitate all the trickery which was to follow. She 
laid her plans to deceive us within a very few minute* after she 
entered the house and before there were any pretensions of hysteria 
or trance. "Jockeying" for the foot substitution was one of the 
first things Eusapia did, and she certainly knew what she was doing 
it for. The "phenomena" which occurred later, when she was in 
the so-called hysterical condition, were all dependent upon traps 
which she set shortly after she entered the house. Her preliminary 
manoeuvring while in her normal condition not only required skill, 
but she was cautious in making up her mind whether it would be 
safe to proceed with the "phenomena," as was shown by the way 
she questioned us in order to discover whether we were likely to 
seriously interfere with her methods. 

The production of "phenomena" ran on smoothly on the two 
occasions mentioned for over an hour without any indication of an 
abnormal condition, and not until after the lights were lowered did 
she feign hysteria. 

Her table is built exclusively for trick purposes. The weight, 
length, breadth, depth, etc., must be in accordance with her specifi- 
cations, and the whole thing is devised for the very tricks which 
she performs. In fact, it would be rather ruinous to her perform- 
ance to use a table of any other make, and this table is demanded 
by Eusapia when she is engaged and when she knows what she is 
doing and when she is full of business shrewdness. Likewise the 
curtains are demanded at the same time, and she certainly knows 
what she proposes to do with them. 

Again, trance and hysteria usually constitute a part of the stock 
in trade of all physical mediums, and I see no reason why we 
should assume genuineness in the case of Eusapia and only pre- 
tence in others. 

I purposely managed to feel Eusapia's wrist several times through- 
out the evening, and often could distinctly feel the pulse beat. I 

388 Journal of Society for Psychical Research. NOV., 1910. 

could not detect the slightest acceleration or nervousness on her 
part, and I doubt if there was a person in the room who had 
cooler nerves or was more self-possessed than the performer who 
was entertaining us. 

Another point is this : Those here who accept Eusapia, insist 
that we should not have permitted her to perpetrate fraud, for we 
could have obtained genuine phenomena had we demanded them. 
The fact that we had another seance a week later, when we did 
not allow her to perpetrate fraud, makes no impression upon their 
minds. Moreover, Prof. Miller states that at seances previously 
attended by him he noticed that the volume of phenomena appeared 
to depend upon the amount of liberty which Eusapia was able to 
secure, and that when she was held in check, manifestations pro- 
portionately lessened. 1 

I also want to make it clear that we did not deliberately invite 
fraud at the seance of April 17. We simply obeyed Eusapia and 
accepted the conditions imposed upon us. It should also be noted 
that at the second seance we were exceedingly gentle with the 
medium, and made it a special point not to give her any excuse 
for claiming that we were severe. All of the ladies and gentlemen 
in our party will testify that we merely replaced Eusapia's hand 
and foot whenever she undertook to secretly slip either away. 

Our seances were preceded by eight others, which were attended 
by Prof. Miller, and no evidence of anything supernormal was 
obtained, though a very great amount of evidence of imposture was 
secured. In addition to these evidences of actual fraud, it was also 
clearly shown that as to her "hysteria," she had a perfect know- 
ledge of all that transpired while under its influence, and she seldom 
loses an opportunity to make every point count in her favor. . . . 
She also makes careful preparation, as outlined above, for her 
trickery when she is in her normal mental condition, even though 
the phenomena may not be presented until her professed hysteria. 

In view of all the facts, I think that Prof. Jastrow's rather 
severe article on Palladino in the American Review of Reviews for 
July, 1910, was entirely logical, and hence justifiable. . . . 


!Cf. the Naples Report, Proceedings, Vol. XXIII., pp. 323 and 327, where 
the investigators explicitly state that this did not occur in their experi- 
ence. ED. 

No. CCLXXIV.-VoL. XIV. II.KK, 1910. 



Society for Psychical Research 



New Members and Associates, 890 

Meeting of the Council, - Wl 

Private Meeting for Members and Associate^ 802 

Experiments in Thought-Transference, '- 

A Discussion of Cross-Correspondences, by J. G. IMddington, 400 

Review, 402 

Supplementary Library Catalogue, 408 


A Private Meeting of the Society 






On THURSDAY, DECEMBER m, 1910, at 4 p.m., 


" Cases of Telepathy between Automatists " 



N.B. No Tickets of Admission are issued for this Meeting. Members 
and Associates will be asked to sign their names on entering. 

390 Journal of Society for Psychical Research. DEC., mo. 


Names of Members are printed in Black Type. 
Names of Associates are printed in SMALL CAPITALS. 

Berens, Mrs. Richard, Mailings Hall, Chislehurst, Kent. 
Coggin, Rev. Frederick Ernest, White Lodge, Meads, Eastbourne. 
Hunt, Mrs. Warwick, 12 Lansdowne Eoad, Holland Park, 

London, W. 

Williams, Mrs. Glynne, 7 Berkeley House, Hay Hill, London, W. 
ARMITSTEAD, GEORGE HENRY, Queen Anne Mansions, 87 Wimpole 

Street, London, W. 

BEECHING, Miss NELLY, The Priory, Tonbridge, Kent. 
BEVAN, EEV. WILLIAM OLPHERT, Eichmond Hill, Galle, Ceylon. 
BLACKMAN, J. F., E.N., 47 Grafton Eoad, Acton, London, W. 
BULLER, PROFESSOR A. H. EEGINALD, The University of Manitoba, 

Winnipeg, Canada. 

CAMPBELL, MRS., Arduaine, Lochgilphead, N.B. 
COLTHURST, GEORGE 0., The Castle, Blarney, Co. Cork, Ireland. 
COTTERELL, Miss ALICE, IG Montagu Mansions, Portman Square, 

London, W. 

COURTAULD, GEORGE, Junr., The Waver, Wethersfield, Essex. 
COWELL, Miss MARION ALICE, 2 Westbourne Square, London, W. 
GAFF, T. T., 1520 20th Street, Washington, D.C., U.S.A. 
GIBSON, Miss WINIFRED, 108 Alexandra Eoad, St. John's Wood, 

London, N.W. 

HEATON, GUY, St. David's, 51 West Cliff Eoad, Bournemouth. 
HOCKLIFFE, MRS. ERNEST, Springdaie, Uppingham. 
HOERNLE, PROFESSOR E. F. ALFRED, South African College, Cape 

JOSLING, LiEUT.-CoLONEL C. L., Junior United Service Club, London, 

LIBRARIAN, Vancouver Medical Association Library, 633 Hastings 

Street West, Vancouver, B.C., Canada. 

DEC., 1910. New Members and Associates. 391 

MACFARLANE, MRS., 74 Finnart Street, Greenock, N.B. 

MACKLIN, Miss HELEN E., 141 Inverness Terrace, London, W. 

MANTELL, COLONEL A. M., Villa Trollope, Piazza dell' Indipendenza, 
Florence, Italy. 

MARSHALL, MRS. FRED., 36 Drayton Court, London, S.W. 

MAXIM, SIR HIRAM S., Ryecotes, Dulwich Common, London, S.E. 

NEILD, Miss MARIA, 83 Victoria Street, Westminster, London, S.W. 

OLDHAM, G. F., M.R.C.S., L.R.C.P., Rostrevor, Langton Green, 
Tunbridge Wells. 

ONSLOW, LADY, Chevin Bank, Duffield, Derbyshire. 

PARKIN, MRS., The Mount, Sheffield. 

PASK, A. F., 50 Bensham Manor Road, Thornton Heath, Surrey. 

POWELL, C. BERKELEY, J.P., 283 Metcalfe Street, Ottawa, Canada. 

RAIKES, E. B., Malabar Hill, Bombay, India. 

RITTER, Miss JANETH, 7 Park Place, St. James's, London, S.W. 

STEWART, Miss MARIAN A., Artillery Mansions, 75 Victoria Street, 
London, S.W. 

WARNER, Miss E., 42 Albany Villas, Hove, Sussex. 

YSSEL -DE SCHEPPER, MR. JUSTICE P., Dierqaardelaan 49A, Rotter- 
dam, Holland. 


THE 105th Meeting of the Council was held at 20 Hanover 
Square, London, W., on Tuesday, November 8th, 1910, at 
6 p.m., the President, Mr. H. Arthur Smith, in the chair. 
There were also present : Mr. W. W. Baggally, Professor W. F. 
Barrett, the Hon. Everard Feilding, Sir Lawrence J. Jones, 
Mr. W. M'Dougall, Dr. T. W. Mitchell, Mr. J. G. Piddington, 
Mr. St. G. L. Fox-Pitt, Mr. Sydney C. Scott, Mr. A. F. 
Shand, Mrs. Henry Sidgwick, Lieut.-Colonel G. L. Le M. Taylor, 
Dr. C. Lloyd Tuckey, and Mrs. Verrall ; also Miss Alice 
Johnson, Research Officer, and Miss Isabel Newton, Secretary. 

The Minutes of the last Meeting of the Council were read 
and signed as correct. 

Four new Members and thirty-three new Associates were 
elected. Their names and addresses are given above. 

The monthly accounts for June, July-September, and October 
were presented and taken as read. 

392 Journal of Society for Psychical Research. DEC., 1910. 


THE 33rd Private Meeting of the Society for Members and 
Associates only was held at Morley Hall, George Street, 
Hanover Square, London, W., on Tuesday, November 8th, 1910, 
at 4 p.m. ; the President, MR. H. ARTHUR SMITH, in the chair. 

The PRESIDENT delivered a short Commemorative Address 
and papers were read by MRS. HENRY SIDGWICK and MR. W. 
will be published later in full in the Proceedings. 


IN this series of experiments the telepathic agent was Miss 
Hermione Ramsden, an Associate of the Society, who has on 
several previous occasions taken part in similar experiments 
(see Proc. S.P.R. Vol. XXI. p. 60 and Jour. Vol. XIII. p. 243); 
the percipient was Miss Tamara Statkowski, who is also an 
Associate. Both agent and percipient were in England during 
the whole course of the experiments, which extended from 
September 8, 1908, to December 12, 1908. The method 
followed was the same as in the experiments made by Miss 
Miles and Miss Ramsden. 1 The day was fixed but not the 
exact time. The percipient agreed to receive impressions at 
7 p.m., or later, should she be interrupted ; but the agent writes 
that she was to " send the message at any hour preferably in 
the late afternoon when I happened to see something of 
sufficiently striking interest to impress me. This we have always 
found to be an important point." Both agent and percipient 
recorded their impressions on post-cards, which each sent to the 
other on the day of the experiment, and which are now in 
our possession. The date of these impressions is thus attested 
by the post-mark. On several occasions Miss Ramsden used 
a picture post-card, and tried to convey the scene on it to Miss 
Statkowski, also recording on it any special points that struck 
her. Eleven experiments were made, in six of which some 
success was obtained. 

The agent's original post-cards are marked throughout (a), 
the percipient's (b) ; subsequent comments by the agent are 
marked (c). All editorial comments are in large type. 

1 For references see above. 

DEC., 1910. Experiments in Thought-Transference. 

(a) Sept. 8th. 

Morton's House, Curfe Castle, Dorset. 

This is the landscape which I am trying to make you 
see to-day. 1 R R. 

(b) 8th Sept. 1908. 7 o'c. p.m. 

. . . [several vague impressions] two towers between them 
the high curve of a bridge with a landscape inside framed 
in between the two towers and the curve, a large tree and 
water . . . mediaeval looking. TAMARA STATKOWSKL 

Miss Statkowski knew that Miss Ramsden was at Corfe 
Castle and this perhaps suggested the towers. In her subsequent 
note on this experiment Miss Ramsden says : " It [Corfe Castle] 
was once a square tower which has been rent in two; from 
where I sat it looked like two towers." 5 In the neighbourhood 
of the castle there are trees and water, and from one aspect the 
gateway resembles " the high curve of a bridge," but there is no 
landscape " framed in between the two towers and the curve." 


Sept. 10. 


(a) Sat. Sept. 12, 7 p.m. Posted 13th. 

Rushmore, Salisbury. 

After tea I sat for a long time thinking of you as I looked 
at this temple. 3 There was a statue of Japanese stone on an 
island in the pond. There were many impressions, several 
temples, one with a statue of Buddha over doorway, but this 
was the prettiest of all seen through a vista in the trees. 

H. R. 
(b) Saturday 12th. 

Westerham, Kent. 

Nothing at all for a long time. Then very clearly a big 
bird with outspread wings sitting on a stone, 4 like an eagle. 

1 Miss Ramsden's post-card had on it a view of Corfe Castle. ED. 

2 This is apparent in the post-card. ED. 

3 In the picture on the post-card, which represents part of the grounds of the 
house where Miss Ramsden was staying, there is a temple in the background, a 
pond in front and trees on either hand. ED. 

4 Miss Ramsden's subsequent note states that " the island on which the 
storks are is built of stones." 

394 Journal of Society for Psychical Research. DEC. , 1910. 

Big pink clouds. A wild landscape of high mountains. Fir- 
tree in front. 1 Rush of waters, cascade or the fall of a river, 
rocks and the eagle again. A girl in white muslin frock 
with dark hair down her back. TAMARA STATKOWSKI. 

It will be seen that there is a general resemblance between 
the two impressions here recorded, although many of the details 
are discrepant. The landscape seen by Miss Eamsden was 
not " wild " ; there was water, but no " rush of waters " or 
41 cascade," and no " high mountains." The point of most 
interest is the allusion by Miss Statkowski to " a big bird with 
outspread wings, sitting on a stone, like an eagle," a conspicuous 
object in the view seen by Miss Ramsden being two storks 
on a stone island. On the other hand the wings of the storks 
are not " outspread," and there is no resemblance between a 
stork and an eagle beyond the fact that each is " a big bird." 

(a) Sunday, Sept. 13th, 1908. Posted 14th. 

Rushmore, Salisbury. 

A distant view from a high common, low blue hills in the 
distance. Remains of an old Roman village, only mounds of 
earth to be seen and deep holes fenced in. 

Some horses in a field came up to be patted and talked to. 
There were pink clouds at sunset. jj -^ 

(b) Sunday 13th. 

Westerham, Kent. 
Very unsatisfactory. 

Something very pale, whitish blue like a streak of moonlight. 
Changed into a silvery, pale blue, silk dress. Clouds or rather 
very thick smoke, clustering white and grey. A barn with 
trees on some high ground behind. Nothing more. 


Forgot carriage and pair, coachman and groom in black, 
horses grey. 

1 There is a fir-tree in the picture to the left of the temple (not in front). 
Miss Ramsden's subsequent note states that it is now "a very tall tree; it 
has grown since this photo was taken." ED. 

DEO., 1910. Experiments in Thought-Transference. 395 

<c) [Note by Miss Ramsden.] On Sunday, Sept. 13th, I wore a 
pale blue silk dress with silver trimming, it was hanging 
over a chair at 7 p.m. when I sent this message. 1 

There was a barn and some cottages and trees on the 
common. Carriage wrong. 

The only clear and correct impression received by Miss 
Statkowski on this occasion was one not intentionally trans- 
mitted by Miss Ramsden. As to the other impressions there 
is again a general resemblance, " clouds or rather very thick 
smoke," and " a barn with trees on some high ground," on one 
side and on the other "low blue hills in the distance," "pink 
clouds," and " a barn, some cottages and trees." 


(a) Monday, Sept. 14. Posted Sept. 15th. 


I spent the afternoon at the Museum, looking at skeletons 
and the skulls of ancient Romans, dug up near here. 
Also some carved figures and a great deal of pottery. 
I am trying to make you see a skull H R 

(b) Monday, Sept. Hth. 

Westerham, Kent. 

A white flower, like a white narcissus or an anemone. A 
glass house a green house with rows of flower pots, without 
flowers. Beds of cyclamen and violets the leaves only. A 
lot of empty flower pots. The sea very blue, dark blue. 
A desolate, dry, hilly, shore. Negroes or some sort of savages 
moving about the shore, very black, half dressed. One of 
them has a big ring in his ear and he is eating something 
with "gusto." TAMARA STATKOWSKI. 

(c) [Note by Miss Ramsden.] 

There were some flower beds in front of the Museum. 
Room 8 has glass windows the whole way along the side, 
which give it the appearance of a green house ; at first I 
thought it was one. In one of the rooms there is a statue 

J In reply to a question as to whether Miss Statkowski knew anything of 
this dress, Miss Ramsden writes: "I do not think that Miss Statkowski and 
I had ever seen each other in evening dresses before Sept. 26, 1908. ... I 
did not possess that particular dress the year I met her in Rome (1905). ..." 

396 Journal of Society for Psychical Research. DEC., 1910. 

of an Egyptian, also a mummy. There are relics from all 
parts of the world, the object being to compare the primitive 
races of all countries with the ancient Britons and Romans. 

Here we have on one side a museum containing " pottery " 
and relics connected with " the primitive races of all countries,"" 
and on the other " a glass house," " empty flower pots," and 
" some sort of savages." Of the particular object of which 
Miss Eamsden wished to transmit an impression, i.e. a skull,, 
there is no trace. 

At this time a change was made in the method of con- 
ducting the experiments, which Miss Ramsden describes as 
follows : " When Miss Statkowski returned to London, she 
wrote to tell me that the morning was the only time when 
she could be sure of not being disturbed, and to this I replied 
that I would try sending ideas from pictures and books, and 
would try to keep exactly to the hour fixed on. This proved 
very successful (vide Tyrol and the Buffalo) so long as I 
had the object before my eyes, but when I tried reading over 
a favourite poem it was a complete failure, although I fancied 
I had a clear picture of it in my mind." 


September 15. 


September 17. 


September 18. 
Failure ; possibly a slight connexion. 

(a) Monday, Sept. 21st. 11.30 a.m. 


Picture of a wild buffalo which has just been shot with 
an arrow by a red Indian, riding a white horse. The Buffalo 
is the chief thing. H. R. 

(6) Monday. [Postmark, Sept. 21.] 

Queen's Square, London. 

A bull in "a field. A frightful one. Horns of deers and 
other animals. Wall covered with all sorts of horns, like 
in some sporting hunting place. T. S. 

DEC., 1910. Experiments in Thought-Transference. 397 

In the picture referred to by Miss Ramsden there are a 
large number of buffaloes and also some deer. On the ground 
near the front of the picture are skulls and horns of buffaloes 
looking like hunting trophies. There is no wall in the 
picture ; otherwise Miss Statkowski's impression is very accurate. 
The first thing she mentions is "a bull in a field a frightful 
one," and Miss Ramsden says, " The Buffalo is the chief 


(a) Wednesday, Dec. 9th, 1908. 12 o'clock. 

Bulstrode, Gerrard's Cross, Bucks. 

"June in Tyrol" by MacWhirter. A coloured print of 
the picture in the Tate Gallery. Pointed blue mountains 
with patches of white snow. A white church with a spire. 
The entire foreground is a mass of blue and white flowers : 
bluebells and daisies. A woman in a blue apron and white 
blouse is gathering flowers. 

(6) Wednesday, 9 Dec., 1908. 12 o'c. 

First a black umbrella and pair of goloshes. 
Then a wooden cross like this near a road. 
A white building at the back like a chapel 
with a white bell tower. Like one sees in 
Tyrol. Changed into a large white building 
with one beautifully carved Gothic window. 

(c) [Note by Miss Ramsden.] 

I did not know that Miss Statkowski had ever been in* 
Tyrol, but the wooden cross or wayside shrine which she 
describes is closely connected with the Tyrol in my mind, 
as there are many of them at Berchtesgaden where I have 

The only part of MacWhirter's picture of which Mis* 
Statkowski got any impression was the church, which is chiefly 
noticeable for its high white campanile (cf. " white bell tower "). 
With this exception it seems to have been the idea of the- 
Tyrol that Miss Statkowski received. Of the actual picture- 
as a whole she got no impression. 

398 Journal of Society for Psychical Research. DEC., 1910. 

A failure. 


(a) December 12. 

After this the experiments were interrupted for a considerable 
time. They were resumed for a few weeks in August, 1909, 
but with little success. In the course of the eleven experi- 
ments described above, one incident occurred which is worth 

On September 11, 1908, Miss Eamsden sent no message, 
but Miss Statkowski " sat " for impressions. 

(6) llth Sept. 

Westerham, Kent. 

An arch with a statue in it. 

The arch changed into an arched sort of cloister, Italian, 
viewed en perspective, with little columns to the right, where 
there was a walled-in square garden with grass. A niche 
with a statue in it, statue of Roman Emperor, full figure, in 
armour, with wreath of laurels on his head, right arm stretched 
out holding a spear. Very clear and persistent the Emperor. 
A little girl in an apron with a white kerchief over her head 
and a broom in her hand. A sweet face rosy and white, a 
girl's with a plait of hair put all round her head. Somebody 
on a bed turned into a square mediaeval tomb, with lying 
statue on it. Low arch above and frescoes above the arch. A 
very low stumpy palm-tree changed into a bush in the same 
square walled-in garden seen at first. 

A man's head with big white curly wig something like 
Louis XIV. ... on his portraits. A woman's neck with thin 
black velvet round it, with a bow at the back, Watteau 


(c) [Note by Miss Eamsden.] 

I arrived at Rushmore 6 p.m. [on Sept. llth] and drove 
close to this temple, 1 when the thought crossed my mind 

1 The temple, as shown in a print sent to us by Miss Ramsden, is round 
with a domed roof supported on pillars and steps below. Between each of 
the pillars is a "low stumpy palm" in a pot. In front of the temple is a 
statue of the Emperor Augustus ; he is standing and holds a rod in his left 
hand ; his right hand is outstretched. His head is bare and he is wearing 
a breast-plate. ED. 

DEO., 1910. Experiments in Thought-Transference. 399 

"that would be a good subject for telepathy. I will try it 
to-morrow ! " T I saw the statue of the Roman Emperor in 
the distance, from behind, but did not notice it and did not 
discover the likeness to this [i.e. Miss Statkowski's] descrip- 
tion until the 13th. The garden here is square with a hedge 
round it, but I had spent the whole morning in a "walled-in 
square garden with grass" at Morton's House, Corfe Castle: 
there was a little girl aged six but she had no white kerchief 
or broom. At Rushmore there was a girl as described. The 
rest is wrong. 

In this case it appears that in identifying the statue as a 
Roman Emperor, Miss Statkowski went beyond what was con- 
sciously known to Miss Ramsden at the time. The points 
upon which the description of the statue is correct are 

(1) The figure represents a Roman Emperor. 

(2) It is "a full figure in armour," i.e. wearing a breast 

(3) The right arm is outstretched. 

The description is incorrect in the following particulars : 

(1) The statue is in the open, not in a niche or arch. 

(2) The Emperor holds a staff not a spear, in his left not 
his right hand. 

(3) He has no wreath. 

Several of the other points noted by Miss Statkowski suggest 
confused impressions of the two places visited by Miss Ramsden 
on September llth. The "arched sort of cloister" may have 
been suggested by the pillars of the temple. 

It will be noticed that sometimes in these experiments, as 
in those of Miss Miles and Miss Ramsden, the impression 
received by the percipient, although in some way connected 
with the agent, is not that which she endeavoured to transmit 
(vide, e.g. Experiment IV.). The series is not sufficiently long 
for it to be possible to draw any conclusions as to the kind 
of impressions most easily transmitted. In some cases it seems 
to have been a visual image that was transferred and in some 
an idea. 

a Miss Ramsden did not carry out this intention, but tried next day to 
transfer a different impression. (See Expt. III.). ED. 

400 Journal of Society for Psychical Research. DEC., 1910.. 

[To THE EDITOR OF THE Spectator.] 

SIR, In a review of Mr. Podmore's book, The Newer Spiritualism,. 
which, under the title " The Progress of Psychical Research,"' 
appeared in your issue of October 15th, the writer speaks of "the 
almost universal assumption that cross-correspondences are among 
the best evidence in support of" the hypothesis that "the spirit of 
Frederic Myers is communicating with us through various auto- 

Since he seems to regard only their form, I am not surprised that 
your reviewer does not share this "almost universal assumption."' 
The theory in regard to cross-correspondences to which he seems to 
be alluding was first put forward in June, 1908 (S.P.R. Proceedings, 
Part LV.), by Miss Alice Johnson. She neither then nor subse- 
quently suggested that the form of cross-correspondences can supply 
evidence for identity ; nor has any other responsible member of 
the Society for Psychical Research made the suggestion. Your 
reviewer later on remarks : 

" Even if such things [i.e. cross-correspondences of a complex type] 
were common, might it not be argued that they would only prove 
that some conscious being was producing them ; that they would 
scarcely prove that the conscious being was 'in the spirit'; that 
they would certainly not prove that he was the particular dead 
person that he claimed to be ? A cross-correspondence is a possible 
proof of organisation, not of identity." 

Now, if the form only of cross-correspondences is taken into- 
account, I for one should be ready to answer your reviewers three 
questions in the affirmative, and to subscribe to his statement, though 
rather awkwardly expressed, that a cross-correspondence is not a 
proof of identity. The utmost that the form of a cross-correspondence 
of the complex type can do is to furnish evidence of design. It 
cannot reveal whose the design is. Nevertheless, the fact that the 
form of cross-correspondences can reveal design may have a bearing 
on the evidence for survival. It has been urged against all the 
evidence for survival obtained before cross-correspondences began that 
it consists merely of facts once known to the individual of whose 
identity proof is being sought, and that this kind of evidence, while 
it may prove the survival of a nucleus of memories, cannot prove 

1 Re-printed from the Spectator of Nov. 5th, 1910, by the kind permission 
of the Editor. 

DBC., 1910. A Diacuaaion of Cross-Correspondences. 401 

the survival of personality, in the sense, that is, of a still active, 
living intelligence. But if which remains of course to be proved 
the complex cross-correspondences are the work of spirits, then 
this objection is met; for the design exemplified in them cannot 
proceed from a mere surviving nucleus of memories. 

The strongest evidence of the older kind is to be found in the 
"G.P." communications in Mrs. Piper's trance. "G.P." confined 
himself a few trifling exceptions apart to reciting past facts known 
to the real "G.P." The "spirits" who call themselves Frederic 
Myers, Richard Hodgson, and so on, have not only communicated 
past facts known to the real men, but have improved on "G.P.'s" 
method by initiating and repeatedly effecting complex cross-corre- 
spondences, the form of which suggests design, and accordingly active 
intelligence in the present. But though the form of the cross- 
correspondences may be evidence of an active intelligence, it affords 
no evidence, positive or negative, of the identity of that intelligence. 
This kind of evidence may, however, be afforded by the content of 
cross-correspondences, an element of them which your reviewer has 
either ignored or failed to observe. Negatively, the content, if it 
cannot prove, may render it highly probable that the mind which 
originated and gave it expression is not the mind of any one of the 
automatists concerned in its production. I mean that if, for instance, 
the subject-matter of the cross-correspondence, or the idea under- 
lying it, is unknown to all the automatists, it follows that not they, 
but some other mind external to them must have originated it. 
Positively, the content of a series of cross-correspondences might 
afford evidence (I do not say "proof") of the identity of this 
external mind. How it might do so it would be impossible to explain 
without the limits of a letter. I can only cite as an illustrative hint 
the way in which "internal evidence" has served to reveal the 
identity of an anonymous or pseudonymous author, to confirm or 
confute the claims of a reputed author, or to expose the pretensions 
of a forger. A series of complex cross-correspondences might, then, 
I maintain, by their foi'm suggest design and present activity, and 
by their content identify their author. I cannot, therefore, agree 
with your reviewer when he says that " a cross-correspondence is a 
possible proof of organisation, not of identity"; nor when he says 
that "all the experiments in cross-correspondence would seem to 
have been irrelevant." 

I am not claiming that any of the cross-correspondences have 
furnished proof of identity. (For one thing, I do not know, and 

402 Journal of Society for Psychical Research. DEC., 1910. 

no one does, what would constitute proof of identity. Your re- 
viewer's suggestion that before experimenting we ought first to- 
have decided this baffling problem strikes me as rather naive.) I 
am only claiming that they might afford fairly strong presumptive 
evidence of identity and of surviving active intelligence. As a 
matter of fact, I do not believe that reasonable certainty will ever 
be reached by trusting to any one line of experiment or observa- 
tion. Many different lines will have to be pursued, and satisfactory 
proof of survival will follow only if they all, or most of them, are 
found to converge and lead to the same conclusion. I am, Sir, etc. 


[Our reviewer writes : " I cannot think that my ' rather naive r 
suggestion was entirely wasted, since it has extracted from Mr, 
Piddington this most interesting letter. I asked for a discussion 
as to what kind of evidence was valid in helping to establish any 
hypothesis that was put forward. Mr. Piddington's letter is an 
example of just such a discussion. He points out one kind of evidence 
that is valid in helping to establish the hypothesis that the spirit 
of Frederic Myers is communicating with us. But these arguments 
are capable of immense extension and elaboration ; and my point 
was that they are likely to be of very great help to us in judging 
the experiments that have already been made and in arranging those 
that are to be made in the future." ED. Spectator.] 


Psychotherapy. By HUGO MUNSTERBERG, Professor of Psychology in 
Harvard University. T. Fisher Unwin, London, 1909. 401 pp. 
8s. 6d. net. 

THIS is one of the rapid stream of volumes now pouring from the 
pen of Dr. Munsterberg in which he seeks to popularise and to 
apply the principles and results of modern psychology. It contains 
much sound and serviceable doctrine, but from the point of view of 
" Psychical Research " it is of little interest, for the author's attitude 
towards all its problems is one of dogmatic negation. The events with 
which "Psychical Research" is concerned cannot happen, because they 
are incompatible with "modern scientific psychology"; and they are 
incompatible with it because "modern scientific psychology" is strictly 
mechanistic, and explains all mental process in terms of the mechanics 
of the brain. 

DEC., 1910. Review. 4o:> 

All this dogmatism about " modern scientific psychology " is laid 
down as universally accepted doctrine, whereas it depends on philo- 
sophical doctrines which are peculiar to Dr. Miinsterberg; and we 
think that in a popular work this should have been made clear. How 
unsatisfactory the author's conception of " scientific psychology " is, be 
has himself abundantly demonstrated ; for, after showing in two Urge 
volumes that, according to his conception of it, it can have no bearing 
whatever upon the realities of human life, he has published a stream 
of books showing its bearings upon education, medicine, and the 
various great departments of human activity. It may therefore be 
hoped that Professor Miinsterberg will display the same inconsistency 
as regards "Psychical Research," and that at some future date the 
S.P.K. will be able to claim him as one of its brightest ornaments, a 
hope which is further justified by the fact that he has already, with 
an amiable weakness, taken part in sittings with Eusapia Palladino. 
While that happy consummation still lies in the future, we may at 
least congratulate Professor Miinsterberg on the fact that his 
psychological activity refuses to be confined within the narrow and 
sterile limits prescribed for "modern scientific psychology" by his 
epistemological reflections. 


Books added to the Library since the last list, JOURNAL for January, 1910. 

**Cauzons (Th. de), La Magie et la Sorcellerie en France, Vol. II. 

Paris [u.d.] 

*Dallas (H. A.), Mors Janua Vitae. London, 1910. 

Dubois (Prof. Dr.), Les Psychonevroses. Paris, 1909. 

- The Influence of the Mind on the Body. Translated 

from the Fifth French edition. London, 1910. 

Freud (Dr. Sigmund), Selected Papers on Hysteria and other 1' 

neuroses. Translated from the German. New York, 1909. 

t Jeanne d'Arc. Edited by T. Douglas Murray. London, 1907. 

Joire (Dr. Paul), Les Phenom^nes Psychiques et Supernormaux. 

Paris, 1909. 
**Lemaitre (Aug.), La Vie Mentale de 1' Adolescent et sea Anomalies. 

Sainte-BlaUe, 1910. 

Lodge (Sir Oliver, F.R.S.), Reason and Belief. Loiidou, 1910. 

*Mellone (Rev. Sydney H.), The Immortal Hope. Present Aspects of the 

Problem of Immortality. Edinburgh aud Loudon, 1910. 

* Presented by the Author. t Presented by the Editor. 

** Presented by the Publishers. 

404 Journal of Society for Psychical Research. DEC. , 1910. 

**Miinsterberg (Prof. Hugo) and Others. Subconscious Phenomena. 

London, 1910. 
Myers (Prof. C. S.), Text Book of Experimental Psychology. 

London, 1909. 

tPhilosophisches Lesebuch. Edited by Prof. Max Dessoir and Prof. 

Paul Menzer. Stuttgart, 1910. 

Podmore (Frank), The Newer Spiritualism. London, 1910. 

Prince (Morton, M.D.), and Others. Psychotherapeutics. A Symposium. 

London and Leipsic, 1910. 
Savage (Rev. Minot J.), Can Telepathy Explain ? 

New York and London, 1906. 

.Spiritualist, The, Vol. XVI. London, 1880. 

Stevenson (R. L.), Across the Plains. Containing a chapter on DREAMS. 

London, 1909. 

Tanner (Amy E., Ph.D.), Studies in Spiritism. With an Introductionby 
Dr. G. Stanley Hall. New York and London, 1910. 

Viollet (Dr. Marcel), Le Spiritisme dans ses Eapports avec la Folie. 

Paris, 1908. 
Wingfield (H. E., M.D.), An Introduction to the Study of Hypnotism. 

London, 1910. 


A Member of the Society, Mr. Ernest Westlake, who is 
compiling a Bibliography of the literature of the Divining or 
Dowsing Eod, would be grateful to any of our readers who 
would kindly inform him of, or, preferably, lend him for a few 
days, any literature they may have relating to the subject. 
All communications should be addressed to E. Westlake, Esq., 
Fordingbridge, Salisbury. 

This number of the Journal completes Volume XIV. ; the 
index and title-page of which will be circulated with the Journal 
for January, 1911. Covers for binding Vol. XIV. will then be 
ready, and may be obtained on application to the Secretary. 

t Presented by the Editors. ** Presented by the Publishers. 



Society for Psychical Research 



Abt Vogler. See Broivning, Hope and Star. 

Accounts of Income and Expenditure of the Society - - 38, 39, 25<' 

See also Endowment Fund and Edmund Gurney Library. 
Adare, Lord (Earl Dunraven), Sittings with D. D. Home, Reference t> 
Aitken, Miss Adeline, Case contributed by- 72 

Aitken, Miss Alice M., Case confirmed by - 
Alrutz, Dr. S., Experiments to Test alleged alterations in Weight 

produced by Mediums, Reference to 160 

Ambroisine, Mere M., Statement concerning Case u G." 283 - - 170 
American Journal of Psychology, Notices of Articles in - - 110,355 
American Series of Sittings with Eusapia Palladino 

265, 297, 329, 370, 386, 403 
American Society for Psychical Research 

Journal of, Notice of Articles in - - - 386 

Proceedings, Vol. II., Notice of Articles in - 104 

Anastasie, Mere M., Statement concerning Case "U" 283 - 169, 171 

Animals apparently affected by Psychical Phenomena 

65 (footnote), 69, 70, 71, 72, 378 
Annual General Meetings of the Society 

(1909) - 34 

(1910) - 

ii Index to Vol. XIV. 

Anonymously Contributed Case 273 

Archives de Psychologie, Notices of 108, 145 

Arriola. See Pepito. 

Automatism, Involuntary Whispering 147 

Automatism, Possible, of Young Children, Sir Oliver Lodge on - - 60 
Automatic Messages (Writing, etc.), Instances of 64, 104, 105, 107, 383-385 
Writings. See Cross-Correspondences and the Scripts of 
"Mrs. Forbes," Mrs. Home, "Mrs. Holland," Mrs. 
Piper and Mrs. and Miss Verrall. 


B., Miss L., Case contributed by ... 353 

Baggally, W. W., Some Sittings with Carancini - - 193, 239, 240, 252, 289 
Evidence of Fraud - 199, 201-209, 240, 252, 289 

and the Hon. EverardFeildingand H. Carrington 

The Naples Sittings with Eusapia Palladino, 
Eeport on, 37, 115-129, 131, 252 

Discussion of 172, 176, 213, 228, 231, 277 

., Reply to F. Podmore - - 213 

Note on the American Sittings with Eusapia 

Palladino (with the Hon. E. Feilding) - 343 

Barrett, Professor W. F. 

A Recent Case of a Veridical Phantasm of the Dead, Additional 

Information - - - 166 

On Cross-Correspondences - 64 

On the Detection of Hidden Objects by Dowsers - 183 

Indications of Clairvoyance or Telaesthesia - 184-186, 188-193 

Thoughts of a Modern Mystic, A Selection from the Writings of 

C. C. Massey, Edited by, Review of 94 

Balfour, The Rt. Hon. G. W., On Cross-Correspondences (Hibbert 

Journal) - - ....... 32 

On Professor Pigou's Criticism of - 326 

On Psychical Research and Current 

Doctrines of Mind and Body 
(Hibbert Journal) - - - 276 
Bay field, The Rev. M. A., Review of The Religious Attitude and Life 

in Islam, by D. B. MacDonald - - 162 

Bell-Ringing, Sir Oliver Lodge on Occasional Unexplained Ringing of 

House Bells 160 

Benedikt, Professor, Experiments in the Alleged Therapeutic Action 

of Magnets, Reference to - 80 

Bennett, E. T., Death of, Reference to 40 

Benson, Miss Margaret, Reference to Dowsing Experiments given by 58 

Berillon, Dr., Hypnotic Researches of - 147 

on the Psychology of Olfaction ----- 109 

Index to Vol. XIV. iii 

Bickford-Smitli, K. A. II.. l^ign.-ition an Secreta.- litor - J, 40 

Bompwd, Gftbrielle, Prof Mor L ,-n.. i. 31 

Brown, W. J., Evidence of, on Downing ...... 185 

Browning, Hope an<l -/ ,-. ( Yogs-Correspondence, Ducumion of 

11,1 i5-348 

Bruce, Mr., Evidence of, on Downing - . 185 

Bullough, Edward, Mental Types : a Suggeati., n i M..-uU,by 84 

Si i Oliver Lod-'- on - - - - 111 


CARANCINI, FRANCESCO, Physical I'h.-iioni,.nu of, import of 
Sittings with, by W. W. Baggally 

Evidence of Krai id !!>!>. L'H.JOJ>, :!!". Ill, 140, L'/>2, 289 
Scott, Sydnry ( '.. ,.n - 

Carey, Major-General W. D., Case collected l>y - -: :,. J:T 

Carrington, Here ward 

Eusapia Palladino and Fraud, by - 370 

Share taken in the American Kx|>-riin 

266, 269, 271-3, 302, 314, 332, 342, 371 

and the Hon. Everard Feilding and W. W. Baggally 

Naples Sittings with Eusapia Palladino, l;-|.,it 
on - 37, 11! J.370 

Discussion on - -172,176,213,228,231. 

M'Clure's Magazine, Report in - . 337 


"G." - - 41, 65, 70, 166 (additional : Case "G." 283), 374 

" L." - 65 (footnote), 69, 72, 75, 99, 143, 155, 295, 327, 380, 382 

"P." 358 

Charlton, Miss F. M., Additional Information about Case "G." 283 

166, 168, 171. 17:! 

Chelmsford, Mr. and Mrs. Herbert, Case contributed by - 374, 377, 380 
Mrs. Rupert, Case contributed by - - 374, 376 

Child Percipients 381 

Children, The possible Automatism of Young, Sir Oliver Lodge on - 60 
Clairvoyance, Indications of, Discovery of Hidden Objects by Dowsers 

184-186, 188- 193 

Zahoris, among the - 190 

Claphain, J. H. and Mrs., Case contributed by 380, 382 

Clyde, Mrs., Case contributed by 

Coincidence, Scope of, in Cross-Correspondences - 10, 11, 318, 352-353 

Collings, Jesse, M.P., Case contributed by - 
Committees, Elections on (1909) - 

(1910)- Mfl 

Comyn, Mrs. J. S., Case contributed by 
Constable, F. C., Cases collected by - -151. 

iv Index to Vol. XIV. 

Constable, F. C., On Mr. Piddington's Series of Cross-Correspondence 

Experiments with Mrs. Piper - 15 

The Piper and Verrall- Myers - 17-20 

Reply to some points in, by J. G. Piddington - 23-25 

Contemporary Review, Article on Psychical Research in - - - 32 
Coriat, Isador H., M.D. (and Drs. M'Comb and Worcester), Religion 
and Medicine: the Moral Control of Nervous Disorders, by, 
Eeview of 100 

Correspondence - - 77, 111, 161 

Council and Officers, Elections on 35, 248 

Meetings 3, 35, 83, 98, 113, 151, 183, 247, 263, 295, 326, 391 

Eeports for the years 1908, 1909 36, 249 

Cox, Miss C., Case contributed by - - 295 

Crookes, Sir W., Experiments of, Reference to - - 160, 255 

Cross-Correspondences, Phenomena of 

3-30, 64, 88, 99, 134, 161, 162, 317, 345, 363, 399 

Discussion on - - 3, 10, 15, 20, 317, 345, 363 

Identity, Points bearing on the question of 

7-10, 13-15, 17-21, 23-26, 87, 88, 276, 319-21, 345, 
346, 348-49, 350, 352-53, 364, 365, 401-402 

,, Johnson, Miss Alice, on - - 345, 364 

Pigou, Professor A. C., Criticism, of 134, 161, 326 

Balfour, Rt. Hon. G. W., on 326 

Lodge, Sir Oliver, on - 134, 161 

Piddington, J. G., on 20, 399 

Podmore, Frank, on - 3, 317, 363, 365 

See also the Automatic Scripts of "Mrs. Forbes," "Mrs. Holland," 

Mrs. Home, Mrs. and Miss Verrall, and the Trance-Phenomena of 

Mrs. Piper. 

Crystal Visions, Collective, Reference to - 65 (footnote) 

Eastern belief in 163 

Reminiscent - -153-155,321-324 

Curnock, George C., Note on Experiments in the Detection of Hidden 

Objects by Dowsers - 190 


D'ALBE, E. E. FOURNIER, Experiments in Automatic Writing, by - 64 
New Light on Immortality, by, Review of - 78 

Dana, C. L., M.D., Report on the Phenomena of Eusapia Palladino - 330 

Darton, Mrs. E. L., Case contributed by - 70, 71 

Davis, W. S., Report of Sittings with Eusapia Palladino 

331, 338-340, 370, 371 (footnote), 386 

Dead, Phantasms of the 

Dreams 106 

Hallucinations 136-140, 142, 143, 166-172 

See also Haunts and Telepathy. 

Index to Vol. XIV. \ 

d'Hotel, Dr. Georj. >, i:\periments in Suggestibility in the \V;ikin<_' 

State ... 147 

Delrio, Martin, On th- .\ll.--'-l Sii|,,-i n.-mi.-il Powers of the Zahoria - 190 
Demonohy, Dr., Hypnotic BMArchi - 109 

Dickinson, G. I,' 

On Cross-Con s|... n. It-nce Experiments with Mrs. Piper (J. 

Piddington's Series) 10 

Reply to points tai-rd, l>y .!.<;. 1'iddin. - 22-23 

I* Inimurto/it*/ Desirable? hy, Notices of 112, i:^ 

" Direct " Writing, Alleged 193, 1 <.)4 

Divining Rod. See Dowsing Rod K.\|-i ini''iit ~. 
Documentary Evidence, Contemporary Extant - 363, 381- - 

horr, G. B., Sittings with Ensapia Palbdim. in America 267, 343, 370, 371 
Sittings with Mrs. Piper- - - 249 

l>o\vney, Professor June, on Muscle Reading - 146, 147 

Dowsers Experiments with (names of Amateurs in italics) 

Allman, 55 ; Bleton, 189 ; Berry, R., 58 ; Chennels, 191 ; 
Ede, A., 187, 189, 191, 192, 193; Farndell, 187; 
Howson, R., 51 ; Jervois, 53-55 ; Jones, J. //., 50, 51 ; 
Kircher, Fr., 59 ; Miles, Miss C., 56, 185 ; Mullins, 
185, 186 ; Skyrne, 59 ; Stone, W., 189 ; Walker, 52 ; 
Wishon, 58 ; Young, J. F. - 188-191 

Detection of Hidden Objects by, Professor W. F. Barrett on 183 
Dowsing Rod, Professor W. F. Barrett on - 50, 183 

Discovery by Experiments in 

Coins and Metals - 185-193 

Minerals and Ores - - 51, 59 

Petroleum 58, 185 

Radium - 187, 188, 192, 193 

Water - - 50-60, 185, 186, 192 

in Pipes and Drains ... 54, 55 } 59^ 192 
Localities California, 57, 58 ; Drogheda Memorial 

Hospital, 56 ; Dunganstown, 51 ; Glasncvin, 51 ; 
Kilkenny Co., 50 ; Monreith, 51 ; Newbury, 186 ; 
Newcastle (Co. Wicklow), 51 ; Rossory Glebe, 53 ; 
Sanderstead, 187, 192 ; Worcestershire 59 

Materials used in - 53-57 

Motor Automatism and - 187, 188 

Violent Movements of the Rod 53-55, 59, 187, 188 

Westlake, E., Request for Information as to the 

Literature of - 404 

Dream-personalities, St. G. Lane Fox Pitt on 27 

Dreams, A Record of, by Marie Shipley, 105, 106 

Experiments in Timing Hypnotic - - 323, 324 

See also Premonitions, Telepathy. 
Drugs, Experiments in the Action of, on Consciousness 107, 108, 110 

vi Index to Vol. XIV. 

Dublin Section of the Society for Psychical Eesearch, Formation of - 40 

Report of Meeting of - - . - - - 63 

Dunbar, Ernest, Experiments in the Action of Drugs on Consciousness, 

Reference to 107 


E., REV. H., Experiments in Crystal Vision and Hypnotism - 151, 321 
Education, The, of an Observer, Sir Oliver Lodge on - 253 

,, Miss Alice Johnson, Note on ----- 259 

Emmanuel Movement, The, in America, Review of Drs. Worcester, 

M'Comb and Coriat's Religion and Medicine, by Dr. T. W. Mitchell 100 
Endowment Fund for Psychical Research, Accounts of - 39, 251 

Donations to - 96, 292, 324 

Errata in Proceedings, Part LX. - - 292 

Eshelby, Dr., Case contributed by - - - - 59 


F., Miss E. H., Case contributed by - - 328, 329 

Faith and Mind Healing, Instances of ... 100, 110 

See also The Emmanuel Movement. 

Faraday, Prof., As a Trained Observer, Reference to - - - 256, 259 
Farez, Dr. Paul- 
Case recorded by --. ---110 
On the Mexican "Jumping Beans" ----- 80 
Feilding, The Hon Everard, Sittings with Carancini - 194-205 
and W. W. Baggally, Note on the 
American Sittings with Eusapia Palla- 
dino - - 343 

and W. W. Baggally and H. Carrington 

The Naples Sittings with Eusapia 
Palladino, Report on - 37, 115-129, 252 
Discussion on 

172, 176, 213, 228, 231, 277, 315 

Flournoy, Prof. Th., Case recorded by 80 

"Forbes, Mrs.," Cross-Correspondences (with Mrs. Verrall) 4 

Fox, Miss Kate, Alleged Mediumship of - - - - - 78 

Franks, Sir John, K.C.B., Case contributed by - - 50, 51 

Freud, Professor, Method of Psycho- Analysis - 80, 353 

Dr. Ernest Jones on ...... 353 


G., Miss, Case contributed by - - - - 155 

Geneva, Vlth International Congress of Psychology at - - 89, 159 

Index to Vol. XIV. 


Giant and Dwarf, Cross-Correspondence, Discussion of 7 

Gower, Dr. .1. II., ( 'ase collected l.y 41 

Graham, J. W., Characteristics of the 4l Myers Control " (Hibbert Journal) 32 
Review of Thoughts of a Modern Mystic (C. C. 

Massey), Edited by Pi. : W I I;-,. 94 

Greer, Captain J. H., Case contributed by - 56 

Grieve, Miss B. H., Cases contributed by - <;.">. w 

Gurney, Klinun<l, Memorial Library Fund, Account* for 1908 and 

1909 - 39, 251 

H., GENERAL SIR R., Case contributed by - 327 

Hallock, Professor W., Report <>n tin- IMuMioiumaof Eusapia Palladino 330 
Hallucination, A Case of, by J. (i. Piddington 136 

as a possible Explanation of Physical Phenomena 

175, 213, 259, 260 

Hallucinations, Collective - 68 

Non-coincidental of the Living - - 381 

Revivals of Memory in the Form of 108, 109 

Subjective - - 108, 109, 136, 138 (footnote), 140-142 

See also Haunts and Telepathy. 

Hannah, Robert, Legacy to the Society - - 252 

Hannegan, Mr., Alleged Mediumship of - 104, 105 

Hart, Dr. Bernard, On Professor Freud's Conception of the Sub- 
conscious - ... 355 

Apparitions - 41-47, 66, 68, 72, 292, 374-80 

Collective - 68 

Sounds 44, 71, 292, 378, 379 

Touches - 41-46,380 

Heath, T., Note on the Messina Earthquake 74 

Henderson, Mrs., Case confirmed by - 99 

Hibbert Journal, Articles on Psychical Research in - 32, 37, 276, 326 

Hodgson-Control, The (Mrs. Piper's) - 5, 36, 249, 401 

" Holland, Mrs.," Automatic Script of, Second Report on, by 

Miss Alice Johnson - -84, 345, 364 

Cross-Correspondences with Mrs. Piper and Mrs. 

and Miss Verrall 

4, 5, 11, 14, 21, 28, 29, 37, 317-321, 345-353, 363-365 
See also the Sevens Cross-Correspondence. 

Holley, Carl H., Case contributed by - 57 

Home, Mrs., The Sevens Cross-Correspondence - - 318, 352 

Hypnotism and Crime, Professor J. Liegeois on - - 31, 32 

Hypnotism, Phenomena of (Miscellaneous)- 109, 110, 147, 148 
Alternations of Personality 264, 356 

viii Index to Vol. XIV. 

Hypnotism, Crystal Vision and - 151, 321 

Dreams, Timing of Hypnotic - 323, 324 

Memory, Revivals of 147, 148, 153-55, 321-324, 356 

Personality in the Light of Hypnotic Suggestion 264, 265, 356 

Will, Power of the Subject's 264-65 

Hyslop, Professor J. H., On the Phenomena through Mrs. Lambert 

and Mr. Hannegan - 1 05 

Hysteria, A Study in, and Double Personality, by Dr. T. W. Mitchell 263 


IDENTITY, A Suggested Line of Experiment by Mental Types, 

E. Bullough on - 84 

Difficulty of establishing - 84, 111, 401, 402 

Sir Oliver Lodge on 111 

See also The Phenomena of Cross-Correspondence and the 
Hodgson, Myers and Pelham Controls. 

Impressions. See Premonitions and Telepathy. 

Income and Expenditure of the Society. See Accounts. 

International Congress of Psychology, Vlth, 89, 159 

Islam, Religious Attitude and Life in, by D. B. MacDonald, Review of 162 


JAMES, PROFESSOR WILLIAM, Obituary Notices of - 358, 392 

,, Preliminary Report of Mrs. Piper's Hodgson- 

Control 36, 249 

Janet, Dr. Pierre, Les Ne'vroses, Reference to 110 

Une Fttida Artificielle, by - 356 

Jastrow, Professor Joseph, Report on the Phenomena of Eusapia 

Palladino - 331 (footnote), 335, 370, 371 (footnote), 386, 388 

Johnson, Miss Alice 

Appointment as Editor and Research Officer - - - - 2, 40 

Cross-Correspondence, on - 4, 5, 8, 13, 17, 84, 345, 364, 400 

Second Report on " Mrs. Holland's " Script - - 84, 345, 364 

Reply to F. Podmore 345, 364 

The Education of an Observer, Note on Sir Oliver Lodge's 

Paper on - 259 

Telepathic Experiments with Mrs. Sidgwick, Reference to - - 291 

Johnston, C. H., On Sensations and Feelings under Ether - - 110 

Joire, Dr. Paul, Hypnotic Experiments of - - - 147, 148 

Jones, Elmer E., Ph.D., Experiments in Stages of Consciousness 

under Anaesthetics .... ... 107 

Jones, Dr. Ernest, On the Psychology of Professor Freud - - 353 

Journal of A bnormal Psychology, Notices of ... -80,110,355 

to Vol. XIV. 


KELLOGG, J. L., Report of a Sitting witli Ku>;i|>i,-i 1'alhulino 

:i. 840, 341 

,, Does Eusapia Ti irk I 'n<-<.iiscioiisly ' - 386 

Kelly, W.,tfcae contributed l.y - 
King, George, Case contributed by, Reference \ 
Kiroher, Fr. A., S.J., Dowsing lv\j>-i init-jits of - 
Krebs, The Rev. Stanley L, Tin- Trick Met.lm.i ' .lladino 

197, 371 (footnote) 


L., M., Case contributed by 382 

L., Mrs., Case confirmed by - !"*; 

Lambert, Mrs., Trance and Automatic Phenomena of- - MM. ]<>:> 

Lancellotti, Dr., On the alleged Mediumship of PYancesco Carancini 194, 208 
Lang, Andrew, Cases collected by - - 51, 65, 69, 7 

"Spirit Hands," Suggestion anil I>oi:>. l.y - 

Latin Message (Mr. Piddington's), Discussion of 

8, 9, 14, 21, 28, 29, 30, 319 321, 345-48 

Lauritzen, Severin, Case contributed by - 143 

Leitrim, Countess of, Case contributed by - 99 

Levitations (Carancini) - - 193, 194 

(Eusapia Palladino) - 12-V126, 128, 173, 174, 215, 216, 235-36, 

267, 270, 272, 281, 282, 303-305, 331, 334, 336, 337, 339, 344 

Library Catalogue, Supplementary - 47,211,403 

Liegeois, Professor Jules, Obituary Notice of - - 31 

,, On Hypnotism and Crime - - - - 31, 32 

Light in the West, Cross-Correspondence, Discussion of - - 11, 21, 25 

Local Sections. See Society for Psychical Eesearch. 

Lodge, Sir Oliver 

A Sitting with Mr. and Mrs. Tomson ... 365 

Automatism, Possible, of young children - 60 

Cases collected by ..... 50, 51 

The Education of an Observer - - - 253, 260 

., Note by Miss Alice Johnson, on - 259 

,, Identifying Characteristics of Living People - - 111 

Occasional Unexplained Ringing of House Bells - 160 

On the Phenomena of Eusapia Palladino - 114, 115 

Reply to Professor Pigou's Criticism of Cross- 

Correspondences - 134, 161 

Note on, by Professor Pigou 161 

Survival of Man, The, by, Review of - - 178 

Lombroso, Professor Cesare, Obituary Notice of- - - 158 

Luminous Appearances connected 1 with Psychical Phenomena 

(with Carancini) - 193, 199, 203, 207, 210 

(with Eusapia Palladino) - - - 129, 239, 240, 288, 289, 331 

Index to Vol. XIV. 


M., T. W., Psychical Research in Current Periodicals, Notices of 

80, 109, 110, 147-48, 354-56 

MacDonald, D. B., The Religious Attitude and Life in Islam, by, Eeview of 162 

Mai-observation, Possibility of, in Psychical Research. See The Edu- 
cation of an Observer. 

Marceline, A Case of Secondary Consciousness - - - - - 356 

Massey, C. C., Thoughts of a Modern Mystic, Selections from the Writings 

of, by Prof. W. F. Barrett, Review of - 94 

Materialisations seen in the presence of Eusapia Palladino 

127, 129, 132, 173, 175, 232, 236, 268 331, 336, 341, 345 

Mattiesen, Dr. Emil, Case collected by 358, 360 

M'Comb, Samuel, M.A., D.D.,and Drs. Worcester and Coriat, Religion 
and Medicine : the Moral Control of Nervous Disorders, by, Review 
of ... 100 

M'D., W., Notice of the VI th Congress of Experimental Psychology, by 159 
Review of Psychotherapy, by Professor Hugo Miinsterberg 402 

M'Dougall, W., 

Commemorative Address on William James, by - - - 392 

Meetings of the Society 

Annual General - 34, 246 

General 3, 36, 97, 114, 133, 150, 165, 181, 248, 253, 261, 295 

Private for Members and Associates only, 3, 49, 84, 99, 151, 

183, 246, 253, 263, 293, 326, 373, 389, 391 

Members and Associates, Honorary, Corresponding and Ordinary, 

Lists of 2, 33, 82, 98, 113, 150, 182, 246, 262, 294, 325, 390 

Memory, Revivals of, in the form of Visual Hallucinations 108-109 

See also Crystal Vision and Hypnotism. 

Mental Types, A Suggestion for Experiments, E. Bullough on - - 84 

Miles, Miss Clarisse, Dowsing Experiments 56, 185, 186 

Experiments in Thought-Transference at a dis- 

tance, Reference to 17, 26, 37, 161, 185, 291 

Miller, Professor D. S., Report on the Phenomena of Eusapia Palladino 

330, 331, 371 (footnote), 388 

Mitchell, T. W., M.D. 

Review of Religion and Medicine : the Moral Control of Nervous 

Disorders, by Drs. Worcester, M'Comb and Coriat - 100 

A Study in Hysteria and Double Personality - - 263 

Montague, W. P., Sittings with Eusapia Palladino - - 331 

Miinsterberg, Professor Hugo 

Report of American Sittings with Eusapia Palladino 

265-267, 274, 370, 371 (footnote), 403 
Psychotherapy, by, Review of 402 

Muscle-Reading, Experiments in, Reference to - 80, 146 

Musical Prodigies, A discussion of------- 60-63 

Index to Vol. XIV. xi 

Myers-Control, The, Communications through Mrs. Piper 

8-10, 14, 17-20, 22-25, 32, 11 1, 1 : -'), 321, 345-48, 400, 401 

TlM-,<:iniimini.-utions through Mrs. Verrall 8,9,17-20.32,320 


N., Mrs. H., Case confirmed by - 158 

N:iville, Ernest, Record of Visual Hallucination-, 108, 109 

New Quarterly, Article on l\\< -hical Research in - 32, 37 
Newspaper Statements Concerning the S..-i, i \ . < 'ontra<li< -tion of 148,164, 180 

Newton, Miss Isabel, Appointment as Secretary and Sub-K<litor 2, 40 

Nicolson, Mrs., Case confirmed by - - 382 

N order, Mr. and Mrs. W., Case contributed by - - 44-46 
Northcote, The Rev. H., Case collected by - 


James, Professor William 358, 392 

Liegeois, Prof. Jules - 31 

Lombroso, Professor Cesare - 158 

Podmore, Frank - 358, 392 

Rogers, E. Dawson - 372 

Ovenden, Dean C. T., Case contributed by - 53 

Owen, Major-General C., Case contributed by - - 7;">, 76 


P., AMELIA G., Case of, Dr. T. W. Mitchell on 263 

P., F., Psychical Research in current Periodicals, Notices of, by 

107-109, 145-147 
Palladino, Eusapia, The Physical Phenomena of 

Earlier Experiments with 77, 114, 115, 117-121, 177 (footnote), 331 

Fraud, Question of 117-121, 173-177, 213-228, 230-244, 265- 

275, 277-292, 297-317, 330-343, 370-372, 386-388 
Report of the Naples Experiments by the Hon. E. Feilding, 

W. W. Baggally and H. Carrington 37, 115, 131, 252, 343, 370 

Discussion on - 172, 176, 213, 228, 231, -77 

Sittings with, in America - - 265, 297, 329, 370, 386, 403 

Exposures of - 265-75, 297-317, 330-343, 370 

Trance State, Alleged - 313, 387, 388 

" Passage of Matter through Matter," Alleged 193, 194 

Paule, Mere M., Statement concerning Case "G." 283- - 169 

Pelham, George (" G. P." Control of Mrs. Piper) 400 

Pepito Arriola, A Musical Prodigy, Sir Oliver Lodge on - - 60 

Perovsky-Petrovo-Solovovo, Count 

Discussion of the Naples Report on Sittings with Eusapia 

Palladino 228-231 

Personality, Alternations of. See Hypnotism, Problems of 

15-17, 20, 27, 80, 107, 108, 110, 263, 353 

xii Index to Vol. XIV. 

Peterson, Professor F., M.D., Report on the Phenomena of Eusapia 

Palladino 330 

Philadelphia, Formation of a Local Section of the Society for 

Psychical Eesearch at - 83 

Physical Phenomena. See Carancini, Franceso, and Palladino, Eusapia. 

Miscellaneous - 104, 105, 107, 365 

See also "Direct" Writing, Levitations, Luminous Appearances, 

Materialisations and " Passage of Matter through Matter." 
Piddington, J. G. 

A Case of Hallucination 136 

Cross-Correspondence Experiments with Mrs. Piper, Report on, 

by- - 5, 319-321, 345-349 

Discussion on - - 5-20 

Eeply by - - 20-25 

Sevens Cross-Correspondence and "Posthumous letter" of 

317-319, 351-53, 364, 365 

Spectator, Letter to, by 399 

Pigou, Professor A. (J., Criticism of Cross- Correspondences- - 134, 161 

Balfour, The Rt. Hon. G. W., on 326 

Reply to, by Sir Oliver Lodge 134, 161 

Piper, Mrs., Trance-Phenomena of 1, 36, 179, 249, 400, 401 

,, Cross-Correspondences with " Mrs. Holland," Mrs. and 

Miss Verrall and others 5-30, 37, 135, 179, 317, 345, 363, 400 
,, The Sevens Cross-Correspondence 318, 319, 349-353, 363, 364 
Pitkin, W. B., Report on the Phenomena of Eusapia Palladino - - 330 
Pitt, St. G. Lane Fox, Observations on the Cross-Correspondence 

Experiments - 26 

Dream-personalities - - 27 

Pod more, Frank 

On Cross-Correspondences. 
Discussion of the Second Report on " Mrs. Holland's " Script 


,, Reply to, by Miss Alice Johnson - - - 347, 364 

,, of Mr. Pidditigton's Series with Mrs. Piper - - 5-10 

., Reply by J. G. Piddington - - 20, 21 

Sevens Cross-Correspondence 317-319,351-53,363-65 

The Naples Report on Eusapia Palladino,Discussion of 172,277,289,290 
Reply to, by W. W. Baggally * 213 

Obituary Notices of - - 358, 392 

Reviews and Notices of Books and Articles by 

Mesmerism and Christian Science - - 148 

The Newer Spiritualism 358 (footnote), 399 

Pedigree of Christian Science - 32 

Telepathic Hallucinations 290 

Seeing without Eyes, On - 248 

Prediction, A, through Automatic Writing - 383-6 

Index to Vol. XIV. xiii 



Hallucination.-, 68, 106 

Collective 68 

Impressions - 358 
Presidency of the Society, Re-election of Mrs. Henry Sic !/ wick - 

Election of H. Arthur Smith 248 
Prince, Dr. Morton, Case recorded by 

Monograph on The Unconscious, Notice of - 80, 1 10 
liical Research in current Periodicals 

32, 37, 80, 104, 107, 145, 146, 276, 353 

r.* : n'hological Bulletin, Notice of - - 353 

Psychological Revieic, Notices of ----- - 107, 146 

P>\ i hology, Vlth International Congress of, Programme of 

Psychotherapy, by Hugo Miinsterberg, Review of - - 402 

Recent Experiments in 100-104 

Pyne, W. C., Report of a Sitting with Ensapia Palladino - 338 


Q., Case confirmed by- - 384 


R., MRS., A Case of Hallucination, Report of, by J. G. Piddington - 136 
Ramsden, Miss Hermione, Experiments in Thought-Transference 

at a distance, Reference to (with Miss C. Miles) - 17, 26, 37, 161, 291 
(with Miss Tamara Statkowski) - 392-399 

Rayleigh, Lady, Case contributed by - - 99-100 

Religion and Medicine : the Moral Control of Nervous Disorders, by 

Drs. Worcester, M'Comb and Coriat, Review of - - 100 

Remiremont, Alleged Miraculous Hailstones at, enquiry